The article presents the analysis of monitoring research of soil algoflora of forest and mead-ow ecosystems in the vicinity of the plant “Maradykovskiy” for the period before the start of its functioning and till after stopping its functioning. Specious diversity of forest phytocoenoses al-goflora before the start of its functioning accounted for 71 species. After the plant stopped functioning there were found out just 60 species. In meadow phytocoenoses the number is 123 and 95 species accordingly. The number of microphototrophs varies in forest ecosystems from 59.3 to 280.5 thousand cells per 1 g. of air-dry soil. Green algae prevail in number (from 41.3 to 263.3 thousand cells per 1 g. of soil). At the monitoring sites of meadow phytocoenoses the index of algoflora varies from 71.6 to 447.1 thousand cells per 1 g., green algae prevailing. The structure of algoflora of the monitoring sites is presented by the soil algae groups Chlorophyta, Bacillariophyta, Ochrophyta, as for species diversity, green algae prevail. Cyanobacteria are represented in coniferous forest ecosystems by a small number of species, they are rare there, in meadow ecosystems they account for 29% species. Specious diversity of yellow-green algae and CB also decreased during the period of the plant’s functioning, still it is likely to increase after the plant stopped functioning.
algoflora, soil algae, cyanobacteria, soil algae life forms, number of cells, biomonitoring.
Pectic polysaccharides of callus tissue of the stem of Sosnowskyi’s hogweed Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden
The uncontrolled growth of Sosnowskyi’s hogweed in the central regions of the Russian Federation is a pressing problem, because areas occupied by Sosnowskyi’s hogweed each year increases several times.
The methods used for the destruction of Sosnowskyi’s hogweed (mowing, the use of herbicides, the use of geotextile, etc.) are not effective enough, because the Hogweed seeds remain viable for a long time, and its roots penetrate deep into the soil. These methods do not involve the use of Sosnowskyi’s hogweed biomass, which can serve as a source of physiologically active substances, including pectin polysaccharides, whose content in the plant is 10-17%. In addition, the structure and properties of water-soluble glycans of the Sosnowskyi’s hogweed are not fully understood.
Cultures of plant cells and tissues are a model object for the synthesis of phytopolysaccharides, therefore we used the callus tissue of the stem of the Sosnowskyi’s hogweed stem to obtain water-soluble polysaccharides. We used partial acid and enzymatic hydrolysis, ultrafiltration, ion-exchange chromatography, and methylation, in order to study the composition and structure of water-soluble polysaccharides of the Sosnowskyi’s hogweed callus tissue.
We have found that water-soluble glycans from Sosnowskyi’s hogweed callus are reserve polysaccharides - arabinans, galactans and / or arabinogalactans content of uronic acids with up to 24%, and pectic polysaccharides - linear gomogalakturonan (ramnogalakturonan) and ramnogalakturonan-I, with a galacturonic acid content of 70.5 - 73.9%.
We obtained the results of methylation, which suggest that the carbohydrate chains of the reserve polysaccharides are formed by 1,5-linked L-arabinofuranose residues 1,6-and 1,3,6-linked D-galactopyranose residues, 1,4- and 1,4,6-linked residues of D-glucopyranose and 1,3,6-linked residues of D-mannopyranose, and terminal residues of D-xylopyranose and D-glucopyranose are located at the non-reducing ends of their carbohydrate chains. The carbohydrate side chains of pectin polysaccharides include 1,5-linked L-arabinofuranose residues, 1,6-and 1,3,6-linked D-galactopyranose residues, 1,4-linked D-glucopyranose residues, 1,4- linked D-xylopyranose residues, 1,3,6-linked D-mannopyranose residues, as well as 1-linked D-glucopyranose and D-xylopyranose residues.
Prokaryotic test models for environmental ecotoxicological research: prospects and classification
Theoretical problems of ecology
N.V. Dudchik, S. I. Sychik, V. V. Shevlyakov
Biological modeling in system ecology is an effective technology for assessing the biological effects of environmental
factors. We provided the conceptual justification for the development of prokaryotic laboratory-analytical models, assessed
the advantages and limitations of their experimental use. The classification of prokaryotic test models according
to the level of the structural and ecological organization, the properties of the test object (cells, communities, populations,
microbiocenosis) and a set of test reactions (bioindicators and biomarkers) is proposed. The definitions of the test
model as a unified system including a test organism, a biomarker / bioindicator system, a test procedure in accordance
with guidelines of good laboratory practice (GLP), a criteria apparatus for qualitative / quantitative assessment of environmental
factors are given. The concepts of subpopulation and suprapopulation test models based on the properties of
microbial communities as integral biological units regulating vital activity parameters depending on external factors are
substantiated. Have been shown that microorganisms are relevant test objects for the development of innovative methods
for assessing the impact of the physical, chemical and biological environmental factors on organism, which is based on the structural and ecological organization and the variety of metabolic, dynamic, morphological, molecular-genetic
and other properties of microorganisms, integrity microbial culture as a system, cyclical development of populations of
microorganisms in environment as well as their complex interaction with environmental factors.
microbiotests, prokaryotic test-models, classification, biomarkers, bioindicators, associations of microorganisms
Impact of forest fire on soil properties (review)
Theoretical problems of ecology
A. A. Dymov, E. V. Abakumov, I. N. Bezkorovaynaya, A. S. Prokushkin, Ya. V. Kuzyakov, E. Yu. Milanovsky
We examined changes in the morphological, physicochemical properties and features of the organic matter of forest
soils impacted by wildfires on the territory of Russia. Morphological signs of pyrogenesis (pyrogenic horizon formation,
partial charring of litter and illuviation of organic compounds) are most evident detected in the first decade after a fire.
Ground fires in lichen pine forests, formed on Albic Podzols lead to complete burning of litter. Low intensity ground fires
in sphagnum pine forests, developing on Histic Podzols, contribute to partial burning of litter (charring). Fires change
the hydrothermal regime of soils, which is most clearly demonstrated for soils formed on permafrost soils / cryosols. Fires
lead to hydrophobization of the upper mineral horizons, estimated from the contact angle of wetting. Resistant products
of pyrogenesis (charcoals, soot) are retained in soils for several centuries. The most common changes in the physical
and chemical properties of soils after fires are a decrease in acidity by 1–2 units of pH, an increase of saturation with
base saturation. Fires increase aromaticity of soil organic matter. After fires, the content of polyaromatic hydrocarbons
in soils increases, and the concentrations of water-soluble organic compounds decrease. Restoration of soil properties to
the prefire state takes a decade to several centuries. The introduction of a universal subtype “pyrogenic” is proposed in
describing the morphological characteristics of forest soils.
fires, forest soils, soil organic matter, secondary successions, black carbon
Soil formation on technogenic lake sediments
Monitoring of anthropogenically disturbed areas
E. V. Dabakh
The article is devoted to soils of the technogenic landscape (Technosols according to WRB) formed on contaminated
man-caused lake sediments that have come on the daylight area after a change in the hydrological regime and the
stopping of contaminated sewage into the lake. The investigated territory is located in the Vyatka Valley in the tailing
pits of chemical enterprises in Kirovo-Chepetsk (Kirov Region, Russia). The thickness of the soil profile is limited by a
dense gypsum crust lying at a depth of 30 cm and contributing to waterlogging of soils. Unlike the surrounding acidic
alluvial soils, they are characterized by an alkaline reaction, contrast of the upper and lower parts of the young soil. The
participation of the alluvial process and moisture-loving vegetation in the formation of the profile leads to a change
in the composition and properties of the soil, especially the upper horizons. In comparison with the bottom sediments
and the lower layers of soils in the upper horizons, the share of the aluminosilicate component in the mineralogical and
chemical compositions is higher, the alkalinity is lower, and the pollution level sharply decreases. According to biological
indices, the decayed litter and humus horizon are close to the humus horizons of surrounding alluvial soils. The soil
and vegetation cover formed on technogenic lake sediments in the floodplain prevents active erosion of the underlying
undeveloped contaminated sediments during the flood time and the dissolution of gypsum crusts, which inhibit the
mobility of contaminated technogenic deposits.
soil formation, technogenic sediments, gypsum crust, chemical soil contamination
Influence of heavy metals content in water of small rivers used for irrigation of maize of Armenian population
Monitoring of anthropogenically disturbed areas
А. R. Sukiasyan
Ecological safety of small rivers for the population of the region, their role in the formation of biota is largely determined
by the chemical composition of water. The intensity of climatic and anthropogenic factors changes, the chemical
composition and, as a consequence, the quality of water can be vary significantly. In this regard, the conduct of monitoring
studies of the water composition of these sources is very relevant. The features of migration of a number of heavy metals
(HM) in the water-soil-plant triad were studied using the example of an annual herbaceous cultural plant – sugar corn
(Zea mays L.) growing on the coastal areas of the Shnogh River. As a control plant corn inbred line B73 was used. With
a specially equipped air-conditioning system the drought was modeled in climatic room by changing the optimum soil
water content in the experimental vases. In the control vases, the optimum soil water content was 54%, in the case of a
mild drought – 43%, wherein the wilting of leaves of the plant was not visually observed. During the modeling of severe
drought, the optimum soil water content was 34%, and leaf wilting was observed during the day. The content of HM in
samples of river water, coastal soil and plant grains were carried out using a portable analyzer “Thermo Scientific™
Niton™ XRF Portable Analyzerˮ. An analysis of the kinetic data of plant growth under simulated drought conditions was
carried out. Kinetic parameters of plant growth in three conditions of simulated drought were determined. A correlation
was established between the growth rate of biological samples and the drought. The kinetic parameters of plant growth
under simulated drought conditions were established. A correlation was found between the water potential and osmotic pressure in the three-day shoots of the fifth maize sheet under conditions of drought. The physiological response of plant
growth according to the degree of drought and indicators of water potential and osmotic pressure were considered. A
certain spatial dynamics of distribution of some HM in the water-soil-plant triad is revealed. The obtained experimental
material will makes it possible to carry out a complex of measures to monitor the degree of contamination of river water
which used for irrigation purposes taking into account soil and climatic conditions of growth.
plant, drought, growth kinetics, water potential, osmotic pressure, heavy metals
Assessment of the state of soils in specially protected natural reservations of the Kirov region
Monitoring of anthropogenically disturbed areas
T. A. Adamovich, E. V. Tovstik, E. S. Soloveva, T. Ya. Ashikhmina, G. I. Berezin, A. M. Prokashev, V. P. Savinykh
Проведена оценка состояния особо охраняемых природных территорий (ООПТ) регионального – заказник
«Пижемский» и федерального значения – заповедник «Нургуш», распложенных в Кировской области.
Преобладающим типом почв исследуемых ООПТ является аллювиальные дерновые почвы, с сильно- и слабокислой
реакцией среды. Содержание органического вещества в почвах территории заказника «Пижемский» варьирует от 3,1
до 4,7% для луговых и от 1,2 до 7,3% для лесных фитоценозов. Для территории заповедника «Нургуш» содержание
органического вещества в почвах лесных фитоценозов изменяется в интервале от 2,0 до 6,7%. Содержание нитратного
азота в почвах исследуемых ООПТ соответствует среднему уровню обеспеченности почв азотом. Для исследуемых
территорий отмечено снижение содержания аммонийного азота вниз по почвенному профилю. Содержание в почвах
тяжёлых металлов (Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu, Pb, Cd) находится на стабильном уровне в пределах экологической нормы. Во всех
изучаемых почвенных образцах основное содержание из металлов составили марганец и железо, как для подвижной,
так и для валовой формы. Максимальное содержание подвижных форм марганца и железа установлено в образцах
почв верхних горизонтов. Незначительные количества меди, свинца и кадмия свидетельствуют об отсутствии
техногенного загрязнения почвы на этих участках. Среди валовых форм тяжёлых металлов отмечено преобладание
железа в пробах почвы из верхнего и нижнего горизонтов. Максимальное содержание валовой формы железа было
отмечено в образцах с территории заповедника «Нургуш».
agrochemical properties, the “Pizhemsky” zakaznik, the “Nurgush” nature reserve, the Kirov Region, soils, phytocenosis, heavy metals
Phytoabsorption of radium-226 from technogenically contaminated soils by the example of Chamaenerion angustifolium, Lathirus pratensis and L. vernus
Monitoring of anthropogenically disturbed areas
L. M. Shaposhnikova
The absorption of radium-226 by Chamaenerion angustifolium, Lathirus pratensis and L. vernus from podzolic
soil contaminated with solid radioactive dumps (site 1) and alluvial sod soil contaminated with radioactive water
(site 2) has been studied. The concentration of radium was 0.18-63.4 Bq/g of ashed weight (AW) in soil of site 1 and
0.05–21.4 Bq/g of AW in soil of site 2. The univariate analysis of variance did not reveal interspecific differences in
the accumulation of the radionuclide by plants. However, the content of radium in plants selected from the area with
dumps was higher than in the area contaminated with radioactive waters. Thus, the concentration of radium was
1.08–11.67 and 0.64–8.86 Bq/g of AW for C. angustifolium and L. vernus growing in the site 1 and 0.04–3.35 and
0.04–3.78 Bq/g of AW for C. angustifolium and L. pratensis sampled at site 2. The content of mobile (watersoluble
and exchangeable) forms of radium in the soils of both sites was significantly indistinguishable. The obtained results
showed that the concentration of radium in the studied plant species depends most on its total content in the soil and,
to a lesser extent, on the content of its mobile forms. Multiple regression analysis showed that the total content of
radium in contaminated soils depends to the greatest extent on the content of organic matter and phosphorus in them.
The content of radium mobile forms is associated with the content of organic matter, as well as exchangeable cations
of calcium and magnesium. The correlation between radium content in the plants and these alkali-earth elements
was not confirmed. Among the most significant factors which affected radium adsorption by plants was the content of
organic matter, phosphorus, potassium, the ratio of physical sand and physical clay.
The use of glauconite for stabilization and improvement of ammonium nitrate agrochemical properties
Ecologization of industry
Yu. N. Terentyev, N. V. Syrchina, N. N. Bogatyryova, T. Ya. Ashihmina, A. V. Sazanov, M. L. Sazanova, V. A. Kozvonin, A. A. Burkov, V. P. Savinykh
The development of new forms of nitrogen-containing mineral fertilizers comporting with world safety standards is
currently quite a relevant problem. Existing forms of combined fertilizers including ammonium nitrate and carbonates
have a number of disadvantages (hygroscopicity, caking, partial ammonium nitrogen decline). Therefore active search of
new components with certain advantages is conducted. At the same time, their inclusion into the fertilizers’ composition
should ensure a high level of plants’ nitrogen assimilation, exclude environmental pollution and comport with Green
Chemistry principles; low cost and the possibility of large-tonnage output in Russian Federation is also of great importance.
The quartz-glauconitic sandstone from Beloozero deposit (Lysogorsky district, Saratov region) is considered as
such a component. Its chemical composition is determined by the mass-spectroscopy with inductively coupled plasma
and atomic emission spectroscopy with inductively coupled plasma. The technique of glauconite introduction into the
combined mineral fertilizer with ammonium nitrate was tested. The ammonium nitrate and glauconite ratios are selected
to ensure the fertilizer thermostability and meet the European Union (EU) standards. The evaluation was carried out by
thermogravimetry and differential-thermal analysis. The properties of the obtained fertilizer were tested by bioassay. It
was definitely proved that the obtained fertilizer has a favorable effect on the seeds germination and seedlings development.
Thus, granulated composition containing 80% of AN and 20% of glauconite allows to decrease the nitrogen content
in the fertilizer finished form to 27–28%, which provides the fire-safety and explosion-safety required level, eliminates the
risk of pellets caking during storage, promotes an increase in fertilizer’s agrochemical efficiency and allows to decrease
the fertilizer’s application rates and, consequently, to reduce the environmental burden.
Biodegradation of polymeric composite materials by microscopic fungi
Ecologization of industry
E. Kh. Sakaeva, Yu. V. Kulikova, L. V. Rudakova
The objects of research were polymer composite materials (PCM) based on various reinforced materials and binders:
fiberglass, organoplastics and carbon plastics. The program of experimental studies included three stages. At the first
stage, studies were conducted to identify groups of microorganisms involved in the biodegradation of PCM. The second
stage of the research is devoted to determining the generic and species belonging to microorganisms obtained in the first
stage. At the third stage, the efficiency of the process of biological destruction of PCM by isolated groups of microorganisms
was evaluated. Determination of groups of microorganisms involved in biodestruction was carried out by seeding
on liquid nutrient substrates. Fungi resistance was determined in accordance with GOST 9.049-91.
The main groups of microorganisms developing on the surface of composites are representatives of the genus Peni�
cillium (P. chrysogenum, P. funiculosum, P. cyclopium) and the genus Aspergillus (A. niger, A. terreus, A. oryzae). The
evaluation of the fungi resistance showed that the PCM are non-resistance, so the growth of the fungi is estimated at
4‒ to 5 points. The epoxy matrix is the least fungi resistant, whereas the phenol-formaldehyde matrix more resistant to
fungal destructors. The results of the study shows the advisability of biodegradation technology with microscopic fungi
using for the utilization of polymeric composite materials based on epoxy and phenol-formaldehyde resins reinforced
with glass, carbon or organic fibers.
Study of migration and transformation of greasing and cooling fluids in the soil of urbanized area
Ecologization of industry
L. M. Shuklina, G. M. Batrakova, T. N. Nurislamova
Relevance of the work is determined by the requirements of ecological safety in the industrial and civil construction
in areas with identified technogenic soils’ pollution. The paper considers the use of chromatography-mass spectrometry
in a study of polluted soil in order to identify transformation products under natural conditions of multicomponent formulas
of lubricating fluids. The identification and search by mass spectra of the component composition of the industrial
oil transformation products was carried out, a marker compound is proposed. The possibility of structure and element
composition identification on the basis of registration of mass spectra of chemical compounds is shown. The search for
characteristic ions of organic compounds was carried out using a bank of the mass-spectral data library. The characteristic ions (basic and sustaining) describing the structure of chemical compounds and the chromatographic retention time
are determined. To assess the migration of the marker compound, a quantitative determination of the marker compound
was made by capillary gas chromatography in air and polluted soils samples. Soil samples at the bottom of the vessel,
samples of oil-retaining tissue and filtrate from the pallet were examined.
The results of the research are aimed at justifying the method for assessing the contamination of industrial sites
with lubricating fluids, taking into account the transformation of the organic pollutant and recommendations for the
recultivation of polluted technozems.
Production of environmentally friendly building materials with use of pulp and paper sludge
Ecologization of industry
E. S. Shirinkina
The paper presents the research in the field of using pulp and paper sludge as a resource in the production of environmentally-
friendly building materials. During the analysis of scientific and technical information, it was found out
that pulp and paper sludge, containing cellulose fiber and secondary sludge, can be used as an additive in the production
of composite materials, insulation boards, light aggregates for concretes and combustible additives for production of
ceramic bricks. In the laboratory, the possibility of obtaining a ceramic brick with addition of pulp and paper sludge in
an amount of 4 and 8% by weight was researched. It was found that when pulp and paper sludge is introduced into the
ceramic mass, the density of the bricks samples decreases, linear air shrinkage decreases to 2.7% (for samples with pulp
and paper sludge addition in quantity of 4% mass), and 9.1% (for samples with pulp and paper sludge addition in quantity
of 8% mass) in comparison with control samples without pulp and paper sludge addition, fire shrinkage decreases from
5.1% to 3.65% and 2.06% for samples with pulp and paper sludge content 4% and 8% mass respectively. Compressive
strength of researched samples with pulp and paper sludge content significantly increases (to 90.2%) in comparison
with the control samples, which is due to the release of additional thermal energy during the combustion of the pulp and
paper sludge in the ceramic mass while the brick firing process. It has also been established that the bending strength
of researched samples is reduced in comparison with the control samples, but with an increase of firing temperature to
1070 оC, an increase in bending strength has also been achieved. A comparative analysis of the obtained data on the
strength of ceramic brick samples with the requirements of National State Standard showed that when the pulp and
paper sludge is introduced into the ceramic mass in an amount of 4–8% by weight, as a combustible additive, it is
possible to obtain solid ceramic brick suitable for building.
pulp and paper sludge, secondary sludge, primary sludge, cellulose fiber, combustible additive
Biomonitoring capabilities of microorganisms when assessing the degree of toxicity of synthetic surfactants
L. V. Kondakova, L. I. Domracheva, V. S. Simakova
High sensitivity of the two species of cyanobacteria (Nostoc paludosum and Fischerella muscicola) as test-organisms
by means of stating their hydrogenase activity with the tetrazolium-topographical method was proved; presence of
formazan in cyanobacteria living cells served as a marker. It was stated that decrease in specious composition of algae
and cyanobacteria can serve as a bioindication sign of synthetic surface-active substances in the environment. Formazan accumulation decreased considerably under the influence of car wash of three trade-marks. When cyanobacteria cultures
are incubated in solutions of car shampoos with a recommended dose concentration, the number of viable cells drops
sharply. Bioassay with the help of bacilli was carried out by means of bacterial suspension inoculation on nutrient agar
with preliminary added sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). The toxicity criterion consisted in decreasing number of the grown
bacilli colonies in experimental variants. It is shown that the degree of toxicity of SLS can be tested using bacteria of
the genus Bacillus, judging from decrease of the percent of soil-balls encrusting with bacteria of the genus Azotobacter.
The representatives of Xanthophyta and Eustigmatophyta were the most sensitive to soil pollution with SLS. The
number of algae species was the most in the control variant and in the variant with 0.5 recommended dose of SLS. The
results showing negative influence of the tested synthetic surface-active substances on microorganisms with different systematic
characteristics proved the fact that it is necessary to carefully use car wash and to avoid car wash getting into soil.
Applying songbird population dynamics models to conservation biology needs
A. L. Podolsky
Proper understanding of the reproductive biology traits and population dynamics patterns of declining songbird
species is crucial for ensuring their effective protection and recovery. Metapopulation dynamics may cause the extinction
of local populations in some landscape patches regardless of the habitat quality and undertaken conservation measures.
At the same time, the source-sink type of the population dynamics could saturate lower quality habitat patches with dispersing
individuals from the population sources. Hence, poorer quality habitats presumed to yield population sinks could
eventually maintain population sources. Consequently, an effective recovery strategy for declining species should include
high quality suitable habitats along with some poorer quality patches in the regional network of protected natural areas.
I developed the mathematical model for songbird reproductive strategy based on the case study of my three-year
field research conducted on the Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla L.) in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (U.S.A.).
Breeding Bird Survey detected multiannual negative population trends in this species in pristine landscapes of the Southern
Appalachians, whereas its growing populations were found in some of the adjacent areas strongly affected by human
activities. I modified basic Pulliam’s (1988) model of population growth rates for this species by including assumptions
about annual female survival and annual fecundity. I also applied productivity data from 110 active nests to determine an
average successful brood size and nesting success. Finally, I added probabilistic variables accounting for renesting rates
after unsuccessful breeding attempt and double-brooding rates to the model while assuming equal sex ratio among the
breeding individuals. Computer simulations based on actual data and assumed range of values of the model variables yielded
population growth rates well below 1, thus confirming the declining status of the national park populations. Therefore, the
best pristine habitats in the study area were not ecologically significant sources, and in fact they were ecological traps for
this species. Such unpredictable population dynamics in high quality habitats vs. low quality patches could be caused by the
“paradox of predation”: high quality landscapes of the national park attracted, in addition to birds, a variety of mammalian
and reptilian nest predators. Most of these predators were absent or scarce in low quality
About the promotion of natural restoration of Pinus sylvestris L.
N. P. Savinykh, E. V. Lelekova, M. N. Shakleina
The research was carried out in the pine forest of the specially protected natural areas “Medvedsky Bor” in the
Nolinsky District of the Kirov Region. One can meet there both typical boron and boreal plant species and some representatives
of broad-leaved forests and steppes. We researched the composition of vegetation and flora, as well as the
state of Pinus sylvestris L. of the overgrown strip that had been formed after the gradual next-but-one belt logging, with
contribution to renewal (mineralization) and care (clarification-logging with removal of non-target species). Green-moss
and reed vegetation associations prevail there, as it was stated. Vascular plants are analyzed in relation both to humidity
and the spectrum of ecologo-coenotic groups. Predominance of mesophilic and xeromesophilic groups was stated, which
indicates moisture degree sufficient for seed germination of the xeromesophilic P. sylvestris species. Boreal, boron, as
well as non-moral and steppe species prevail, which confirms conservation of biodiversity in these forests. The pine undergrowth
was analyzed as for its number, vitality; vegetation influence on these indicators was stated. It was found out,
per hectare there are 21 thousand young pine plants aged from 4 to16 years. This 84 times exceeds the required number
of trees in the mature community (250 trees per hectare). The vitality of the pine undergrowth is estimated according to
the original method, taking into account the age of the plants, their height, the length of last annual increment and the
mean annual increment, deviation of lateral shoots from the major axis, presence of re-crowning and yellowed leaves. It
is established that there are 17 600 young plants with a high degree of vitality per hectare. It 4.4 times exceeds the plants
number required for artificial restoration of pine forests (4000 trees per hectare). These are the trees which can form pine
forests with a high appraisal index in the future.
reforestation, logging, mineralization, undergrowth, real vitality, forest care, biodiversity
The change in soil actinobiote under the influence of Heracleum sosnowskyi invasion
E. V. Tovstik, I. G. Shirokikh, E. S. Solovеva, A. A. Shirokikh, T. Ya. Ashikhmina, V. P. Savinykh
Certain plant species, as well as phytocenosis, can significantly influence the structure and diversity of soil microbiocenosis.
Actinomycetes are an integral component of a soil microbiocenosis that carries out important environmental
functions, inter alia, with the transformation of organic matter. This study was carried out to reveal differences
in the structure of soil actinomycetes complexes between sites overgrown with the Heracleum Sosnowskyi Manden and
non-invasive (control) plots. An increase in genus and species diversity of actinomycetes in invaded soils was noted,
compared with control, in particular, the representatives of the genus Streptosporangium were found exclusively on
hogweed-occupied plots. The appearance of Streptosporangium in the structure of soils actinomycete complexes under
hogweed may indicate that hogweed root exudates contain compounds attractive for this mycelial prokaryotes genus. On
the same plots, an increase in the proportion of colored streptomycetes representing the section and series of Cinereus
Chromogenes was noted, whereas in the control soils streptomycetin complex, the non-producing pigments were dominated
by representatives of the section and series of Cinereus Achromogenes. In the areas of mass growth of Heracleum
Sosnowskyi, in comparison with the control plots, a lower carbon content in the soil was noted, which, in addition to the
changes in the structure of actinomycete complexes, confirms the fact of intensive organic matter mineralization in soils
under the hogweed. Despite the considerable above-ground biomass, at the end of vegetation the removal of nutrients is
not replenished by the hogweed plant litter.
Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden., soil, invasion, actinomycetes, total number, species diversity, structure of the complex
Preliminary data about algae and cyanobacteria of volcanic soils on Kuril islands
K. V. Ilchibaeva, D. F. Kunsbaeva, R. Z. Allaguvatova, A. I. Fazlutdinova, O. V. Polokhin, L. A. Sibirina, A. A. Gontcharov, P. Singh, L. A. Gaysina
Fifty-five species from five phyla (Cyanobacteria – 8, Chlorophyta – 29 (Chlorophyceae – 14, Trebouxiophyaceae
– 11), Bacillariophyta – 19, Streptophyta – 1, Ochrophyta – 2 (Xanthophyceae – 1, Eustigmatophyceae – 1)) were revealed
during the study on biodiversity of cyanobacteria and algae from terrestrial habitats of Urup, Paramushir, Iturup,
and Simushir (Kuril Islands). Algal flora of Iturup Islands was the most divers with 25 species, 23 species were found
on Urup, 17 on Simushir, and 14 on Paramushir Islands. Number of species per sample decreased from Urup (3.6) to
Simushir (2.1), Paramushir (2.0) and Iturup (1.9). Five species, cf. Mychonastes homosphaera, Chlorella vulgaris, Dic�
tyococcus varians, Bracteacoccus minor, and Desmodesmus abundans were encountered on each of the island. In the same
time species composition of cyanobacteria and algae on each island was specific and reflected ecological peculiarities of
the habitats. The most notable feature of algal and cyanobacterial flora of studied islands was prevalence of cosmopolitan
species tolerant to toxic volcanic substrates. Besides, this territory was characterized by high diversity of amphibian
diatom algae. For understanding biodiversity of terrestrial algae and cyanobacteria of Kuril islands further moleculargenetic
research are necessary.
The partial replacement of antibiotics with biologically active substances at treatment of cows’ mastitis
M. A. Aziamov
The World Health Organization (WHO) is informing about the antibiotic resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus
increasing problem. These bacteria are changing their genomic composition under the influence of antibiotics and are rapidly
spreading in the environment, threatening human health and food security in a number of countries. WHO requires reducing
the use of antibiotics in cows’ mastitis by 50%. Staphylococcus aureus is the prevailing kind of cows’ mastitis pathogen in
Western Europe and Russia. The staphylococcal mastitis caused by multiresistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus is registered
in almost 90% of large farms and complexes where antibiotics are used.
The possibility of partial replacement of antibiotics with biologically active substances at treatment of clinical mastitis in
cows was evaluated. It is established that Interferon bovine recombinant, Polysaccharide of Hericium erinaceus fungus (PS of
H. еrinaceus) and Dialderon after 10 days of treatment of clinical mastitis in cows increased the amount of cured individuals,
respectively, by 30, 20 and 20% in comparison with antibiotic therapy. Biologically active substances normalized the number of
somatic cells in milk to physiological level. The studied substances reduced the levels of interleukin-2 (Il-2) and interleukin-8
(Il-8), prostaglandins E2, normalized erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and phagocytic activity in the blood of experimental
animals. The somatic cells number in the milk of experimental groups cows are decreased to physiological norm after
10 days of treatment. Milk after treatment of cows was fit for food consumption 72 hours earlier than with antibiotic therapy.
Assessment of titanium dioxide nanoparticle effects on living organisms
Theoretical problems of ecology
V. I. Polonskiy, A. A. Asanova
Nanoparticles causing an unprecedented type of industrial pollution directly affect on all objects of the environment and
therefore on all types of living organisms. So, these risks have to be evaluated. This review analyzes the world literature about
effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on living organisms of various habitats. Currently, ecotoxicity issues of engineered
nanoparticles are studied using bioassays with cell cultures and test organisms. The most commonly used test objects for
toxicity assessment of nanoparticles are unicellular algae, water crustaceans, plants, mammalian and human cells. It has been
established that the most sensitive organisms to titanium dioxide nanoparticles are unicellular algae and water crustaceans,
values were observed at a concentration of 1 mg/L. This suggests that aquatic ecosystem is one of the most vulnerable
objects of the environment to nanoparticles. The high sensitivity of these organisms places them on a par with very promising
biotest assays for quality monitoring of the environment which is contaminated with silver nanoparticles. Titanium dioxide
nanoparticles have both positive and negative or neutral effects upon plants and these effects depend on concentration. The assays
with mammalian and human cells show a negative effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles at concentration above 100 mg/L
or have no effect at all. The size-depended toxicity analyses revealed that the less nanoparticles size was the greater toxic effect
was. In the final analysis, the responses of living organisms of various habitats to the presence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles
in the environment are insufficiently investigated. There is insufficient data in world literature about size-dependent toxicity
of these nanoparticles to various organisms. These issues require further study.
Comparative analysis of the effectiveness of the use of sorbents of different nature with respect to copper(II) ions
Research methods. Models and projects
S. G. Skugoreva, G. Ya. Kantor, L. I. Domracheva, T. I. Kutyavina
A comparative analysis of the efficiency of sorbents of various types (activated carbon, zeolite, peat, fungi
L.) with respect to copper(II) ions was car
ried out. Potentiometric method for measuring the potential of an ion-selective electrode sensitive to concentration of
copper(II) ions in the solution was used. The sorption curves were recorded in real time with the help of specially devel
oped original software for the ionomer. To describe the kinetics of sorption, mathematical models (pseudo-first order and
pseudo-second order models, second-order modified model, and Elovich’s model) were used to identify the contribution
of the chemical stage to the sorption process.
It was found that the sorption process of most sorbents is well described by a pseudo-second order model or a modi
fied pseudo-second order, according to which the sorbate and the sorbent functional group interact with each other at
a 1:1 ratio. The parameters of the equation of the pseudo-second-order model are calculated: the kinetic coefficient (
determining the sorption rate, and the equilibrium (limiting) specific mass of the sorbate (
), which corresponds to the
sorption capacity of the sorbent. Series of sorbents have been ranked by decreasing the rate of sorption and sorption capacity.
The comparison of the kinetic curves shows that sorbents of inorganic nature, zeolite and activated carbon have
the least sorption effectiveness. The sorption potential of microorganisms and peat can be characterized as average. The
most effective sorbents of heavy metal ions were samples of barley plants, which possessed the highest sorption rate and
high sorption capacity.
The use of microbial-plant associations as sorbents of heavy metals may be promising. It is necessary to select
microorganisms and plants to create various associations for study the kinetics of sorption with the aim of optimizing
Modern trends in the development of bioassay methodology of aquatic environments
Research methods. Models and projects
A. S. Olkova
Bioassay is now an integral part of the “Effect-directed analysis” (EDA). We analyzed current research in the field of
biodiagnostics and environmental monitoring programs, which used bioassay methods. The modern bioassay methodol
ogy is developing in the following areas: the development and implementation of new bioassay methods, the development
of special bioassay devices, the detection of new informative test-functions based on the accounting of sublethal effects in
laboratory organisms, the evaluation and interpretation of the results of toxicological analysis of environmental components.
We propose three directions for evaluation and optimizing bioassay approaches and methods. First, we propose an algorithm
for selecting protocols of bioassay. This algorithm is based on the ranking of sensitivity of bioassay methods to the most
important pollutants in the territory of research. This approach will allow using only the most informative and sensitive
bioassay protocols in the further researches. The second direction in optimization of bioassay methods is strict standardiza
tion of maintenance conditions of test-organisms. We recommend verification of the influence of abiotic and biotic factors
on the test culture during the entire life cycle of individuals of a biological species. Life expectancy and ability of individuals
to reproduce are universal criteria of health for many animals. The third part of our work is the development of a system of
test-functions for laboratory animals consistently evaluated during a toxicological experiment. This approach allows tak
ing into account the different effects (lethal, sublethal, chronic and delayed) in the process of testing various substances
or aquatic environments. We tested this system of bioassay using
. The system of test-functions includes
14 response effects, which we took into account in three generations of crustaceans. The earliest responses of
estimated from changes in motor activity and trophic activity of crustaceans. Delayed effects are diagnosed by changes in
fertility in the F
generations, as well as the emergence of abortive eggs. Implementation of the proposed directions
of bioassay optimization will allow taking into account the multiplicity of obtaining objective results of ecotoxicological
analyses. Researchers can consistently use three parts of evaluation and optimizing of bioassay approaches at the planning
stage of enviro
bioassay, bioassay methodology, methods of bioassay, test-function, laboratory test-organism
Reducing the environmental threat of motor vehicles by converting engines for operating on natural gas
Research methods. Models and projects
V. Romanyuk, V. A. Likhanov, O. P. Lopatin
The article explains the necessity of using natural gas (NG) for motor vehicle diesel engines, which makes it possible
to reduce their environmental threat and to save motor oil fuel. The composition of the NG used and its physic-chemical
properties are presented in the article. In order to determine and to optimize the amount of the NG supplied for motor
diesel engines, the authors of the article have tested them on the electro-brake testing bench SAK-N670, which has a
balanced pendulum and the weighing machine “Rapido”. At the same time, the toxicity level of the exhaust gases (EG)
was determined using an automatic gas analysis system “ASGA-T”, and the smoke intensity of the exhaust gas was
estimated using an optical-electric reflectometer “Bosch EFAW-68A”. It has been experimentally established that for
the NG using in the tested motor vehicles diesel engines, it is necessary to maintain the following ratio of components:
gas should be 80%, diesel fuel filling should be 20%. When converting diesel engine 4F 11.0/2.5 installed on trucks
and tractors of urban public utilities to NG, and while the simultaneous use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in it at a
rate of 20% (EGR is applied to eliminate the increased nitrogen oxides as a result of using NG), the content of nitrogen
) in EG is reduced by 30.0–30.1%, carbon soot is reduced by 82.0–88.7%; carbon dioxide (CO
) is decreased
by 31.6–35.6%. When converting a diesel engine 4FC 11.0/12.5 installed on city passenger buses to NG, in the EG a
decrease in NO
content by 5.5–35.1% occurs; carbon soot decreases by 88.2–92.0%; carbon monoxide (CO) decreases
by up to 21.6%. The conversion of these motor diesel engines to work on NG, in addition to improving the environmental
performance of their EG indicators, also helps to save oil motor fuel in the amount of 80%.
natural gas, exhaust gases, diesel, ecology of city
Military activity influence on some metals content in the Saur-Mogila soil, Donbas
Monitoring of anthropogenically disturbed areas
A. S. Alemasova, Y. I. Penkova, A. S. Pivovarova, R. V. Ostapenko
Soil samples were collected from funnels after artillery shelling (summer 2014) on burial mound Saur-Mogila
(Donbas, Ukraine) as well as from urban garden soil near motorway in the Donetsk central district in order to determine
the concentration of 11 toxic metals total content, acid-soluble forms and mobile forms. The concentrations of toxic met
als Cd, Pb, Sr, Mo, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Ga, Mn, Tl were compared with maximum permitted concentration and background
level. The results quality was controlled by standard addition method. The mean concentrations of Cd (2 samples) and
Co (one sample) exceeded the guidelines while the other metals did not exceed. The level of Zn, Cu, Mn, Pb, Ni, Cd total
and mobile forms in funnels soils was 2–7 times lower than in polluted urban garden soil. The sources of toxic metals in
Donetsk garden soil may be from traffic and industrial emission. The total pollution index (Z
) is much lower than the
“permissible” category. The index of metals mobility (S
) indicates their insignificant mobility with the exception of lead
acid-soluble forms. The obtained results testify to the need for further systematic monitoring of the soils of battlefield in
Donbas. These results refuted the hypothesis as for soil toxic metals content influence on observable state of vegetation
in “Donetskiy Kryazh” landscape park near Saur-Mogila burial mound.
toxic metals, total content, mobile forms, soils, funnels from artillery shelling, urban lawn soil
Comparative analysis of artesian water quality
Monitoring of anthropogenically disturbed areas
T. N. Ashurbekova, N. G. Isaeva, A. N. Murzaeva, E. M. Musinova, Z. G. Gadzhimusaeva, R. А. Abduragimov
Water quality is an essential part of a human life. The availability of high-quality drinking water is one of the main
issues in Russia. One of the most important directions of economic and social development of the Chechen Republic
is to provide the population with clean drinking water. The paper presents the results of research of drinking water
quality in artesian wells in the Chechen Republic. Artesian well water in stanitsa of Chervlyonnaya in Shelkovskoy
District, stanitsa of Naurskaya in Naursky District and stanitsa of Petropavlovskaya in Groznensky District of the
Chechen Republic contains heavy metals, such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and arsenic (As). The presence of heavy
metals in the above-mentioned artesian wells can be attributed to the geological structure of the territory of the Chechen
Republic situated on the rocks of Jurassic and Paleogene age. As confirmed by measurements, samples of water were
found to have cadmium levels above the maximum permissible concentration (water taken from wells in stanitsa of
Chervlyonnaya – 5 times, stanitsa of Naurskaya – 7 times and stanitsa of Petropavlovskaya – 9 times). The content
of lead in all the samples exceeded the MPC by 4–5 times. The samples also contained arsenic at levels that exceeded
the maximum permissible concentration by 4.8 times in stanitsa of Chervlyonnaya, by 1.5 times in stanitsa of Naurskaya and by 6.2 times in stanitsa of Petropavlovskaya. Arsenic, lead and cadmium are toxic elements and long-term
exposure to them is known to cause cancer. Multi-year studies of public health in the Chechen Republic show increase
of cancer rates among the population.
artesian water, heavy metals, lead, cadmium, arsenic, maximum permissible concentration, oncologic diseases
Development of plankton communities in the anthropogenic hydrothermal conditions
Monitoring of anthropogenically disturbed areas
N. A. Tashlykova, E. Yu. Afonina
An electric power plant induced increase in water temperature substantially affects aqueous medium. Any hydraulic
facility zones to be artificially heated and used by power plants may be considered as peculiar “anthropogenic hydrothermal
systems”. Interrelation properties of specific abiotic and biotic parameters of such extreme ecosystems shall be studied at large
for understanding hydraulic facility ecosystem biological efficiency and trophic status alteration factors. This paper applies
to analysis of relations between hydrothermal zone environment factors and basic characteristics of the plankton population
in the Kharanorskaya State District Power Station (Trans-Baikal Territory) cooling reservoir. The population of planktonic
animals and plants were studied at a thermal zone of the cooling reservoir by using standard hydrobiologic methods for the
period of February to October, 2013. Hydrochemical samples were processed at the industrial sanitary laboratory of INTER
RAO-Electroenergy JSC, Kharanorskaya SDPS branch using common techniques. It was found that phytoplankton contained
40 taxonomic groups of algae and 25 invertebrate species of animal plankton. Chlorophyta, Bacillariophyta and Crysophyta
dominated in algocenosis amounted to 80% of the total taxonomic groups. As for Rotifera, it dominated in animal plankton
cenosis amounted to 40% of the total species. It is demonstrated that the dominated complex varies seasonally. Quantity of
phytoplankton and animal plankton has been specified. The algal species diversity has drastically reduced and quality of inver
tebrate animals has fallen down within the period when water was maximally warmed up since temperature values jumped up
and oxygen content come down. With some aquatic organisms (i.e. algae and invertebrate animals) taken as an example, it was
found that the offset and extension of organism growth periods induce a primary reaction to particular thermal load increase
factors. Inverse temperature correlation was identified at surface and natural water layers to have specific abiotic parameters
in relation to clear water and nitrate levels in water. As provided by biotic plankton sampling statistical data, it was found that
temperature, cation and anion water composition, as well as suspended solid concentration are the main factors that affect
growth of organisms in the anthropogenic water reservoir of the hydraulic facilities.
phytoplankton, zooplankton, abundance, biomass, anthropogenic hydrothermal, principal component analysis, cooling reservoir of Kharanorskaya electric power station
Migration of pollutants and contamination of groundwater when mining iron ore
Monitoring of anthropogenically disturbed areas
Yu. A. Babushkina, N. N. Nazarenko
The article considers the problem of migration of chemical pollutants into the aquatic environment of iron ore mining
area on the example of JSC “Sokolovsko-Sarbaiskoye Ore-dressing Production Association” (Kazakhstan). The materi
als of the study where samples of groundwater selected at the plant for the extraction of magnetite ore, on the border of
the sanitary protection zone and beyond. Sampling of water was carried out in accordance with Russian State Standard
GOST 31861-2012 in the period 2012–2016 years.
Analysis of samples was carried out by an accredited laboratory on such factors as pH, dry matter, suspended mat
ter, calcium, magnesium, sulfates, chlorides, phosphates, bicarbonates, nitrates, nitrites, ammonia nitrogen, total iron,
oil, aluminum, lead, zinc, nickel, cobalt, manganese and boron.
The results shows that the magnitude of the concentration of sulfates, chlorides, nitrates, dryness, nitrites, ammonia
nitrogen, boron, manganese in underground water directly in the production area exceed their maximum permissible values.
The critical points of impurities were identified such as a lower sump of quarry, upper sump pit and drainage ditch
with the highest rates of sulfates, chlorides, nitrates, dryness, nitrites, ammonia nitrogen, boron, calcium, magnesium
The main trends of groundwater pollution in the area of the location of the iron ore mining enterprise are revealed.
For the vast majority of pollutants, sharp annual fluctuations of indicators are not observed, the level of pollution is stable,
and there is no tendency to reduce the level of groundwater pollution.
At the same time, no excess of pollutants was detected outside the sanitary protection zone of the enterprise. This
indicates that migration of pollutants beyond the sanitary protection zone of the enterprise is not observed
migration of chemical pollutants, mining enterprise, iron ore, technogenic pollution, groundwater
Ecology and structure of Goodyera repens (L.) R. Br. (Orchidaceae) coenopopulations in the Northern Urals
I. A. Kirillova, S. V. Degteva, Y. A. Dubrovskiy, A. B. Novakovskiy
Data on ecology, phytocoenological preferences and population structure of the species
R. Br. of Orchidacea family in the Northern Urals are considered. Investigations were carried out during 2000–2016
in the three protected areas: Pechoro-Ilychsky reserve, Un’insky complex sanctuary and Yugyd Va national park.
23 coenopopulations were studied. 72 releves with
were used to study phytocoenotical preferences and eco
logical parameters of the species. The species has wide phytocoenotical range establishing various forest formations
and forest types – green moss, herb and sphagnum, being more often in the communities of association
. The species establishes mainly ecotopes with medium humidity and weakly acid poor soils,
and refers to the semi-shadow group of plants according to Ellenberg’s scale. The studied coenopopulations are small
and full up to 500 individual shoots. Spatial structure of
coenopopulations was determined by occurrence of
well-developed isolated clusters resulted from prevailing vegetative reproduction of the model species. In the Komi
Republic, such clusters ranging from 1 to 3–6 m
size consist of several tens or hundreds of individual plants with
an average density from 9 to 224 shoots per m
. All the coenopopulations under study were full and their ontogenetic
spectra were similar with the prevalence of immature or adult vegetative shoots. Average ontogenetic spectrum of all
the coenopopulations under study was as follows: juvenile shoots – 8.7%, immature – 39.8%, adult vegetative – 37.7%,
generative – 13.8%. It corresponds to the basic spectrum of the species that is the evidence of the stable population’s
state. We suggest that
is well adapted to the Northern Urals where there are many suitable ecotopes in the
large arrays of intact forests.
Goodyera repens (L.) R. Br., orchids, coenopopulation structure, the Northern Urals
Anthropogenic adaptation of reproductive biology of conditional-synanthropic birds
L. Kuchar, Е. S. Ivanov, А. V. Baranovskiy, D. V. Vinogradov, Ja. Leśny, А.V. Schur
The article is devoted to studying mechanisms of synanthropization and ecological segregation of birds in an
thropogenic landscapes. The paper presents data on the adaptability of the anthropogenic specifics of nesting behavior
of the spotted flycatcher, a conditional-synanthropic bird species. This species is generally liable synanthropization,
however, it does not occur in the most urbanized parts of the cities, preferring moderately modified habitats. It is shown
that anthropogenic landscape contributes to the formation of new forms of birds’ behavior, which are a response to the
environment. But not all of these forms are adaptive and some are peculiar ecological traps. Such peculiarities of behavior
do not increase, but even decrease the reproductive success of birds, which is not always easy to establish, because as a
whole the results of the synanthropic population breeding may be higher than in the wild, due to different intensity of
the influence of the limiting factors of the environment.
Data on the analysis of nesting and reproductive success of wild and synanthropic populations are presented.
It is pointed out that the spotted flycatcher has specific main reproductive parameters in the anthropogenic landscape,
which is the result of the reaction of birds to the features of synanthropic ecosystems and the unequal effect of the same
environmental factors on them in natural and anthropogenic biocenoses. It manifests itself primarily in changing the
time of the reproductive period and the widespread use of anthropogenic bases for nests fastening. There is also a higher
reproductive success in the anthropogenic landscape, which we associate with more favorable microclimate and the ratio
of specialized and non-specialized predators (prevalence of the latter), different than in nature.
adaptation, birds’ segregation, ecosysems, nesting, ecology, spotted flycatcher, population
Specific character of soil “blooming” in agricultural and urbanized territories
L. V. Kondakova, L. I. Domracheva, I. A. Kondakova
Specious content and quantity characteristics of microorganiams which lead to soil “blooming” in natural, anthro
pogenic, and urbanized ecosystems are shown in the article. In natural ecosystems algae and cyanobacteria communities
develop in gradual succession stages, from unicellular green algae and Xanthophyta, filamentous green algae and non-
heterocyst cyanobacteria to heterocyst cyanobacteria. Agricultural soil “blooming” has some peculiarities, irrespective
of the place, season, soil type, dominating groupings. Among the “blooming” dominants cyanobacteria and green algae
of the geni
Cylindrospermum, Nostoc, Anabaena, Klebsormidium
etc prevail. In agro-coenoses there is a direct connection
between doses and terms of fertilizer treatment and the stage of development of the surface growth. Urban soils suffer
from more intensive and diverse impact, as compared with agricultural and natural ecosystems soils. The specious content
of phototrphs shows that in late summer surface biofilms represent many-species communities with different species of
cyanobacteria and diatoms dominating. Cell density in “blooming” films is very high, it varies from 18 to 47 million cells
. Various city pollutants provide diversity of phototrophic groups.
Biodegradation of vegetable waste and obtaining fruit bodies in cultivation of Hericium erinaceus
A. А. Shirokikh, Yu. A. Zlobina, I. G. Shirokikh
Development of technologies for biodegradation of plant wastes in order to obtain new useful products can not only
reduce pollution of the environment, but also provide a raw material base for biotechnology. The possibility of using the
basilial xylotrophic fungus
as a destructor of plant wastes with simultaneous production of economically
valuable secondary products was studied. As a nutrient substrate for the production of fruiting bodies of the fungus, mixtures
of straw, oak sawdust and oat grain were used in various proportions. The productivity of the raw compacted substrate was
calculated as the ratio of the mass of fruiting bodies of fungi obtained from one vessel to the initial mass of the substrate.
The intensity of decomposition of the substrate was judged by the decrease in its biomass during the period of cultivation of
the fungus. It is shown that in order to achieve a high degree of biodegradation of cellulose and lignin-containing waste and
to obtain the maximum harvest of fungi, it is necessary to include a readily hydrolysable grain component in an amount of
not less than 30% by volume in the nutrient substrate. By varying the concentration of the grain, it is possible to regulate
the growth rate of the mycelium, the yield of the fruiting bodies and the degree of biodegradation of the substrate.
Hericium erinaceus , lignocellulosic waste, artificial cultivation, nutrient substrate, yield of fruit bodies, productivity of substrate, degree of decomposition
Method for processing lignin-containing wastes from the paper industry to produce sorbents for wastewater treatmen
Ecologization of industry
Y. I. Vaysman, I. S. Glushankova, E. S. Shirinkina, S. F. Davletova
Pulp and paper mill requires large amount of resources and energy. Technological processes of pulp and paper
mill are associated with high water consumption (10–20 m
per ton of final product) and high consumption of wood
raw materials and electricity (1080–1100 kg of raw materials and 300–350 kWh of electricity per ton of final product).
The most environmentally hazardous objects in pulp and paper mills are cellulose production, which is followed by
the formation of liquid waste – waste liquors containing lignosulfonates, the treatment of lignosulfonates is a compli
cated technological problem. Lignosulfonates are practically not subjected to biological degradation and the extraction
of liquor together with industrial wastewater into biological treatment facilities leads to a significant reduction in the
efficiency of water purification and increase contamination of hydrosphere objects. Despite the possibility of using liquid
lignosulfonates as surfactants, reagents for the preparation of drilling muds, a binder in the production of wood chipboards, fiberboards, the scale of their use is limited due to the volatility of the composition and structure of the waste. The
disposal of waste at landfill sites leads to long negative impacts on environmental objects, incineration of waste will be
followed by emissions of toxic substances and it would be necessary to use expensive waste gas purification technologies.
One of the directions of lignosulfonates treatment is their thermal destruction with the production of carbon sor
bents, which allows not only treating waste, but also obtaining cheap sorption materials for wastewater and gas emissions
The paper presents the results of thermochemical pyrolysis process researches of lignosulfonates formed during the
production of cellulose from birch chips, the results of obtaining carbon sorbents, determining the main factors affecting
the yield of the sorbent, its physicochemical and sorption properties: the pyrolysis temperature, the processing time, the
ratio of lignosulfonate: hydroxide potassium. Determination of the sorbents porous structure parameters and the specific
surface was carried out on the basis of an analysis of nitrogen adsorption isotherms at a temperature of 77 K (-196
obtained from the Quantum Hydrocarbon Analyzer NOVA 1200e and calculated using the metod BET (Brunauer, Em
mett and Teller) of the polymolecular adsorption theory and the Dubinin-Radushkevich eq
Modified sorbents based on soda production sludge for extracting ions of heavy metals from aqueous solutions waste water
Ecologization of industry
I. S. Glushankova, E. V. Kalinina, E. N. Demina
The purification of industrial and surface wastewater from heavy metal ions (HMI) to requirements for the discharge
of treated wastewater into natural waters is one of the most complicated environmental and technological problems. For
the deep purification of waste water from the HMI, the use of cheap sorbents obtained from production waste is the most
promising. One of the many-tonnage wastes of technology of inorganic substances is the sludge formed in the production
of soda by the ammonia Solvay,s method. Currently, sludge is stored in sludge accumulators and is a long-term source
of pollution of environmental objects. Scientific developments in the utilization of slimes with the production of building materials, etc., have not found wide practical use, which is due to the heterogeneity of the granulometric and chemical
composition of the waste. Carried out X-ray phase analysis and studies of the physicochemical and chemical properties
of waste samples showed that its main components are calcium carbonate (calcite) and calcium hydroxide (portlandite).
It is known that the natural mineral limestone efficiently extracts HMI from aqueous solutions with the formation of
less soluble basic salts, carbonates, and hydroxy carbonates of HM. It has been established that sludge samples have
high sorption activity when copper(II) and zinc ions are extracted from low concentrated solutions (sorption capacity for
copper ions is 35.0 mg/g, sorption capacity for zinc ions is 40 mg/g). To increase the operational properties, a method
has been developed for the production of a modified granular sorbent based on the sludge of soda production, consisting
in treating with sodium silicate. The effect of a dose of sodium silicate in the sorbent composition on the mechanical
strength and sorption properties of the obtained samples was studied. It has been established that the introduction of 8,6%
SiO2 into the sludge leads to an increase in the mechanical strength by 50–80%, and does not have a significant effect
on the sorption activity of the material. The kinetic and sorption regularities of extraction of copper(II) ions and zinc on
modified sorbents are revealed. Based on the analysis of the adsorption isotherms obtained, the adsorption equilibrium
constants and maximum adsorption values (Amax (Cu2+) = 50.8 mg/g; Amax (Zn2+) = 97.1 mg/g) were determined.
Obtained sorption materials can be recommended for wastewater treatment from HMI.
heavy metals ions, soda production sludge, calcium carbonate, sorbents, sorption capacity
Production of environmentally safe building materials on the basis of the waste foundry sand
Ecologization of industry
Ya. I. Vaisman K. G. Pugin, L. V. Rudakova, I. S. Glushankova, K. Y. Tyuryukhanov
The object of the research was the waste foundry sand of one of the typical steelmaking enterprises. Estimation of pollutant
emissions from the composition of waste foundry sand has shown their low emission and biological activity, which allowed
to develop a technology for its utilization with obtaining environmentally safe construction material. The granulometric
composition of the waste foundry sand was determined with an average grain size of 0.38 mm. Based on the results of the
analysis of buffer extracts, the content of heavy metals in the samples of waste foundry sand in mobile form was determined.
Heavy metals (lead, zinc, chromium, nickel, manganese), as well as phenol and formaldehyde, were chosen as the indicators.
Samples of waste foundry sand contain formaldehyde in mobile form exceeding the limits for soil. It has been proposed to use
formaldehyde-containing sand in a dense and hydrophobic structure, such as asphalt concrete, to reduce the formaldehyde
emission. Investigations of the physical and mechanical properties of waste foundry sand showed that it is suitable for use as
a mineral aggregate in the production of asphalt concrete mixtures. The conducted studies of asphalt concrete samples in the
composition, which as a fine mineral filler used waste foundry sand, showed that it meets the requirements of Russian standard
GOST 9128-2013. Physico-mechanical characteristics of the asphalt-concrete mixture correspond to asphalt concrete of
B type I grade. The proposed recycling technology is possible without significant capital investment in most steel mills. The
implementation of this technology will reduce the industrial impact on the environment in the locations of the steel plant.
sand waste, recycling, asphalt, industrial waste, construction materials
Population and biological preconditions for the cattle retroviruses’ expansion
D. Abdessemed, E. S. Krasnikova, V. A. Agoltsov, A. V. Krasnikov
This research was aimed at studying of population and biological aspects of cattle retroviruses’ expansion, such as
breed and age of animals, form of head ownership, retroviruses biology.
Bovine leukemia virus
) are retroviruses which cause chronic incurable diseases of cattle. These agents have a phylogenetic
relationship with similar pathogens in humans. There is a possible danger of viral entry to humans through the consump
tion of infected foodstuffs. 773 blood samples from Black-and-White, Holstein, Simmental, Kazakh White-headed and
crossbred cattle of different districts of the Saratov region were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Studies
bovine leukemia viruses
are spread widely in cattle of the Saratov region: 30.5%
and 39.8% on average, respectively. The infection rate varies considerably depending on age-sex group affiliation and
infection rates increase with the animals age, especially among farm herd. Significant
epizootic feature of retroviral infections in cattle in the Saratov region is a high level of retroviral coinfection – 25.2%
on average. The clinical complications of
infection, confirmed by laboratory studies, were most frequently recorded
in cattle aged 5–10 years. For analysis of diagnostic accuracy of serological and molecular genetic methods for enzootic
bovine leucosis diagnosis, 271 cattle blood samples were studied by PCR and AGIDT (agar gel immunodiffusion test) in
parallel. The comparative analysis shows that diagnostic efficiency of AGIDT in comparison to PCR is 30.8%. Taking into
account the retroviruses biological features, the PCR assay can be recommend as a screening method for
revealing, especially when the imported cattle are quarantined at the place of keeping. In herds with high
level, cattle should be tested for
presence to stop the cattle retroviruses’ expansion.
polymerase chain reaction, agar gel immunodiffusion test, retroviruses, enzootic bovine leucosis, bovine immunodeficiency, expansion, diagnostics
Formation and assessment of the phytoregulatory potential of multispecies biofilms based on Fischerella muscicola
Chemistry of natural environments and objects
L. I. Domracheva, I. G. Shirokikh, E. V. Tovstik, S. G. Skugoreva, E. N. Reznik
The results of experiments on the study of the features of the formation of biofilms on the basis of two- and threecomponent associations of microorganisms with the participation of Fischerella muscicola 300 cyanobacteria, Streptomyces wedmorensis streptomycete 38.11 and Fusarium avenaceum 7/2 micromycete are presented in the article. When microorganisms are introduced into sterile soil, over the three months of exposure to light, in variants with a monoculture of cyanobacteria and with a three-component association, growths (biofilms) with a population density of a phototrophic component exceeding 50 million cells/cm2 are formed. In biofilms formed by two-component associations, cyanobacteria experienced inhibition by partners, reducing the number of cells 2.4–7.0 times, and the length of filaments 3.6–7.0 times, depending on the nature of the associate. The growth of the fischerella was limited by the streptomycete culture to a greater degree than by the fungus. In ground biofilms formed on the basis of cyanobacteria Fis. muscicola, the phytopathogenic fungus F. avenaceum, in the saprotrophic phase of development, is able to unite into single structured complexes with other participants in the multi-species consortium of microorganisms, including their antagonists. Aggregation of cells in biofilms is associated not only with the isolation of polysaccharide mucus cyanobacteria, but also with the creation of a net-thread structure of growth due to threads of cyanobacteria and mycelium of heterotrophic partners, the total length of
which can reach values exceeding 400 m/cm2. The development of such biofilms on the soil surface significantly increases its ability to retain moisture and prevent erosion. The two-component association of cyanobacteria and streptomycete
can be considered as promising for biocontrol of fusarium infection. At the same time, under specific conditions of the rhizosphere, the nature of the interaction of the cultures of microorganisms under investigation may differ from that
described for sterile soil lacking root exudates. Nevertheless, in experiments with the inoculation of Triticum aestivum L. seeds, it has been established that the two-component association of Fischerella muscicola + Streptomyces wedmorensis in
perspective can be used as a biological agent to limit the development of fusarium infection in the higher plant rhizosphere.
cyanobacteria, streptomycetes, micromycetes, biofilm, density of populations, rhizosphere, microbial inoculation
Degradation of Acid Orange 7 in a persulphate-bisulfite system under visible light
Nature management and natural resources consumption
Heng Zhong, Jia Fang, Lei Sun, Hui Zhao, Aihua Xu, Dongsheng Xia, A. V. Nevsky
Textile industry is one of the most significant manufacturing sectors that produce large volumes of highly polluted and toxic wastewater. Dyes represent an important part of waste effluents. In this study, the degradation of Acid Orange 7 dye (AO7) in a persulfate-bisulfite (PS-BS) system under visible (Vis) light (wavelength more than 420 nm) was performed. All batch experiments were conducted in a 100 mL undivided glass beaker containing 50 mL solution at about 25 оC without irradiation or under irradiation by a direct exposure visible light power supply (CHF-XM-500W) from
Beijing Trusttech Co. (China). After the desired amounts of AO7 and PS in 50 mL of the aqueous solution were added into the reactor, the reaction was initialized by adding BS. To monitor the degradation process of AO7, solution samples were taken out at given reaction time intervals and measured immediately on a METASH UV-5500PC spectrophotometer under the maximum absorption wavelength (484 nm) to record the temporal UV-vis spectral variations of the dye. The related reaction progress was monitored using the UV-vis absorption spectra of AO7 in terms of the percentage of
degraded azo-dye. The activities of different systems including BS/Vis, PS/BS, PS/Vis and BS/PS/Vis were evaluated. It was found that the efficiency of PS/Vis system was negligible, and almost 29 and 40% of AO7 was oxidized by BS/Vis and BS/PS within 30 min, and it was further improved to almost 94% within 30 min by BS/PS/Vis system at room temperature. Various operational parameters, such as PS concentration, BS concentration and initial pH were investigated to optimize the process.
Some aspects of aluminum detoxifying in plants: phytotoxic and genotoxic effects
B. I. Synzynys, L. N. Ulyanenko
The separate and combined impacts of aluminum, manganese and silver ions on onion (Allium cepa L.) have been studied. The experiments have been performed in several series with different solutions of metal salts: AlCl3 • 6H2O,KMnO4, MnCl2 • 4H2O for the first and second series and Al(NO3)3 and AgNO3 – in third series. The ion concentrations of all studied metals amounted to 1 MPC according to the Russian health legislation and were 0.5 mg/L for Al,0.1 mg/L for Mn and 50 mg/L for Ag. The phytotoxic effect and genotoxic effect (such as mitotic index and the frequency
of chromosome aberrations) were estimated. It was showed that aluminum ions promote negative processes in all our experiments. We found that manganese in combined presence in solution with aluminum reduced the phytotoxic and genotoxic effects aluminum on Allium cepa: the coefficients of antagonism calculated for frequency of aberrant cells and mitotic index are equal to 0.2. We have the same tendency for the silver ions. Taking into account our previously obtained data (the reducing of genotoxic effect of aluminum ions by iron ions) it is possible to conclude about similar mechanism for manganese (regardless of valency) and silver. Thus our results demonstrated this unique and at the same time universal mechanism of interaction between two metals (aluminum and other) and their detoxification effect in plant. We anticipate our assay to be a new starting point in investigation of detoxification mechanisms for heavy metals in plants: it is found that a combination of several metals reduces the negative action of each of them.
aluminum, manganese ions, silver ions, barley, separate and combined action, phytotoxicity and cytogenotoxicity of aluminum, antagonism indicies
Comprehensive chemical-toxicological research of copper(II) sulfate solutions containing reduced glutathione
E. I. Lyalina, A. I. Fokina, T. Ya. Ashikhmina, A. S. Olkova, E. V. Beresneva, L. V. Darovskikh, A. S. Yarmolenko
The composition and toxicological properties of copper(II) sulfate solutions containing reduced glutathione (GSH)have been studied. It was found that complex compounds Cu2+ with GSH are formed in the solution in the Cu(II):GSH molar ratios 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4. Simultaneously with the formation of complexes in solutions, oxidation-reduction reactions occur, accompanied by the formation of active forms of oxygen and oxidized glutathione (GSSG). All the described processes lead to a decrease in the active concentration of Cu2+. The toxicological properties of solutions with a molar ratio of Cu(II):GSH 1:1, 1:2, 1:4 were determined. For this purpose, test objects of different systematic accessory were used: cyanobacterium Nostoc linckia 271, crustaceans Daphnia magna Straus, infusoria Raramecium caudatum Ehrenberg and bioassay “Ecolum” . The chemical composition of solutions was correlated with toxicity. Reduced glutathione has a protective effect on daphnia, which is most pronounced in the variant 1Cu(II):4GSH. However, the level of viability of cyanobacteria, in contrast to hydrobionts, decreases in the 1:1 → 1:2 → 1:4 range. The decrease is due to the bioaccumulation of copper, which increases with the increase in the fraction of reduced glutathione. Such an effect may be formed
by complex compounds, which is consistent with the literature data. For D. magna, such a relationship is not observed, the resulting compounds and reduced glutathione do not affect the accumulation of metal.
reduced glutathione, copper(II) ions, bioassay, active forms of oxygen
Assessment of soil contamination in the recreational areas of the city by the industrial compounds of heavy metals and arsenic
T. A. Trifonova, A. A. Podolets, O. G. Selivanov, A. A. Martsev, A. A. Podolets
The article presents the results of determination of total content of heavy metals (HM) and arsenic in urban soils of recreational areas in the city of Kolchugino of Vladimir Region. The most polluted recreational areas of the city that are
close to the industrial area and in the Central area. According to a spatial correlation analysis, the elements Pb, As, Zn,Cu, Ni, Co and Cr contained in the soils of the city are in approximately equal ratio in all reference areas that may indicate the joint intake of these pollutants. With the aim of obtaining justified results of anthropogenic accumulation of HM and arsenic in the soil, an analysis of ratio of the content of pollutants in the upper layer to its content in the bottom was conducted using the radial differentiation coefficient (R). It is established that the pollutants are concentrated mainly in the upper layers of the soil, and their accumulation has an anthropogenic character. To identify priority of pollutants, the index of accumulation was used, which decreases in the series: Cu > Zn > Pb > Ni > As > Co = Cr > V > Sr. On the calculated level of soil pollution by separate pollutants, the the excess over maximum permissible concentration was
revealed in the following series: Zn > Cu > As > Pb > Ni. The highest values of the hazard coefficient were noted in the area of the plant “Kolchugtsvetmet”. The correlation analysis between the pollutant concentrations revealed statistically
significant positive dependences (p < 0.05) between Pb, As, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co and Cr. Based on this, it can be assumed that these elements enter the soil of the city from one source.
heavy metals, gray forest soil, recreational areas, the coefficient of radial differentiation, the rate of accumulation, the hazard ratio
Technology for conversion of whey into organic-mineral fertilizers with amino acids
Ecologization of industry
Yu. N. Terentyev, N. V. Syrchina, T. Ya. Ashikhmina, А. V. Sazanov, M. L. Sazanova, V. A. Kozvonin, D.V. Petukhov
Rational processing of whey is one of the most important problems of the dairy industry. Less than 50% of this waste is processed in Russia. Unprocessed whey is discharged into the sewage systems, which significantly increases the degree of contamination of the process waste water. Basically, processing of whey in commodity products is limited by economic factors. At the enterprises of small and average capacity high costs of introducing processing technologies do not pay off proceeds from realization of the received products. The authors of the research have used the method of cryogenic concentration (freezing) which provided the complete conservation of bioactive substances (proteins, vitamins,enzymes) in whey. Proteins of the received concentrate were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis to free amino acids. The
mineral salts complex (which contains plant-available forms of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and trace elements) was dissolved in the hydrolysate. As a result, the researchers have got a marketable product – liquid organicmineral
fertilizer with natural amino acids. Whey-fraction that remained after cryogenic concentration contained no more than 1.2% of dry substances. For its removal there was used glauconite-containing efel as sorbent (the waste of phosphorite ore enrichment, it is a quartz-glauconite sand containing up to 45% glauconite). The waste sorbent was dried up and used as the second commercial product – solid organic-mineral fertilizer (S-OMF). The S-OMF included only natural ingredients, which made this product suitable for use as a fertilizer in natural farming systems.
The simplicity and high market value of the received marketable products make it economically viable to introduce the proposed technology into practice. The calculated payback period of the offered technology at the enterprises of a
mean power is less than two years.
Modification of the sludge from soda production for producing oil sorbents
Ecologization of industry
E. V. Kalinina, I. S. Glushankova, L. V. Rudakova
At present, the volume of accumulated sludge from soda production is more than 50 million tons and the issue of their utilization is topical. The paper presents the results of studies on the production of oil sorbents based on soda production
sludge, the main component of which is calcium carbonate. Reagent modification of sludge from soda production allows obtaining materials that have sorption activity to oil and petroleum products. It is established that the oil capacity of
samples of initial sludge of soda production is 0.95 for gasoline; on engine oil – 0,9; for oil – 0.75 g/g. Reagent treatment of soda production sludge by sodium methylsiliconate or potassium methylsiliconate increases the petroleum capacity
on gasoline by 30%; on engine oil – by 80%; for oil – by 73%. Obtained sorbents can be used for liquidation of oil and oil product spills from solid surfaces. For the liquidation of oil and oil product spills from the surface of water bodies, soda
production sludge of less than 0.1 mm fraction obtained by modification with sodium methyl siliconate or potassium methylsiliconate with a working dose of 1.5–1.8% by weight of active substance and heating to a temperature of 90 °C may be recommended. Based on the results of the research, two environmental objectives can be achieved: new oil sorbents are obtained and a method for the utilization of sludge from soda production is proposed. The cost of oil sorbents based on waste will be low, due to the zero cost of the raw materials – waste products of soda production.
Thermotechnical properties of municipal solid waste depending upon component and fractional composition
Ecologization of industry
S. V. Polygalov, G. V. Ilinykh, V. N. Korotaev
Thermotechnical properties of municipal solid waste (MSW), in particular their moisture, ash content and heating value, determine the effectiveness of methods of thermal utilization of waste, interest in which is currently growing in Russia. The MSW heterogeneity leads to difficulties in determining their thermotechnical properties and causes the urgency of carrying out complex researches of MSW fractional and component composition with the isolation of sufficiently homogeneous components, the selection and laboratory researches of samples of such components. The article presents an approved methodological approach to MSW analysis, which includes full-scale field investigation of MSW component and fractional composition and analysis of their moisture and ash content in a laboratory with the subsequent calculation of the thermotechnical properties of the MSW flow as a whole. A distinctive feature of this approach is the provision of representative samples of MSW and individual components, consideration of seasonal and weekly fluctuations in waste composition, as well as the allocation of a large number of MSW components and separate investigation of their moisture and ash content in fractions of different sizes. Moisture and ash content of individual components within the same category differ significantly from each other and depend on the component’s material, properties and size. Heating value an individual component category depends on the component composition within the category and vary with the same water and ash content of the individual components. The obtained results allow modeling of MSW composition, heating value and other properties after different treatment technologies, including mechanical, manual and optical sorting, and
select technologies and equipment for achieving specified waste quality parameters.
component composition of waste, fractional composition of waste, moisture, ash content, heating value
Assessment of the composition and the microstructure of aluminiumcontaining waste for the substantiation of the directions of its use
Ecologization of industry
A. A. Martynova, G. M. Batrakova
Complex recycling of industrial wastes involves the extraction of valuable components and the use of waste as secondary material resources. Implementation of resource-saving technologies reduces the anthropogenic load on the environment.
In the process of thermal destruction of calorific materials, waste with a high content of aluminum oxide is generated. In order to determine the directions of usage of alumina-containing waste the initial study of its composition and structure
was made. The methods of scanning electron microscopy and quantitative physicochemical analysis were used. The following samples were studied: construction samples with waste additives (15 and 30%), and a series of samples purified
with mineral acids and water. The mineral composition of the alumina waste corresponded to the requirements for raw materials for use as a reinforcing
additive in cement mixtures, heat-resistant concretes and for the manufacture of binders. Compaction of the structure by spherical particles Al2O3 affects the strength characteristics of gypsum binder samples. A comparison is made between
the physico-mechanical characteristics of samples with different waste content and control sample of gypsum. A study of the microstructure and element analysis of waste, purified by mineral acids, was made. The analysis showed an inhomogeneous composition of impurities. Treatment of waste with acids and water is effectively remove impurities, at the same time mass content of aluminum in the purified samples is increasing.
The results of evaluation of waste structure and composition can be used for explanation of materials formation with new structure on aluminum-oxygen basis and ceramic materials formation that can be manufactured using this type of waste.
Production of organic matter and carbon stock in ground vegetation of spruce and birch phytocenoses in the Foothills of the Subpolar Urals
Monitoring of anthropogenically disturbed areas
T. A. Pristova, S. V. Zagirova, A. V. Manov
The reserves of phytomass and carbon in the ground cover of spruce and birch phytocenoses in the foothills of the Subpolar Urals in Komi Republic are determined. The concentration and carbon stocks of these forests are currently poorly understood. Three types of forest were studied: bilberry green moss spruce forest, sphagnum spruce forest, polytric birch forest. These forests consist of spruce, birch and fir, stands of different ages and low productivity. It is established that the concentration of carbon in plant species varies from 39 to 50% of absolutely dry matter. High concentration of carbon in bilberry shrubs, low in horsetail, medium in herbs. Carbon content in plants of one species or group of species growing in different forests was similar. Ground vegetation plants accumulate 512–960 g/m2 organic matter, including carbon 250–409 g/m2. Carbon accumulation in ground vegetation plants of the sphagnum spruce forest was the highest.
More than 50% of the phytomass carbon concentrated in aboveground part of plants. The aboveground parts of shrubs accumulated carbon 8–49 g/m2, herbs – 54–68 g/m2, mosses – 62–140 g/m2. Aboveground phytomass contents 44–62%,underground phytomass – 31–36% of the total carbon reserve in annual production, 86–95% of it returns to the litter.
The leading role in the accumulation of carbon in the growth of ground cover belongs to grasses. Annual carbon stock in ground vegetation of spruce forests is 11–20 gC/m2, in birch forest – 9 gC/m2. Thus, a significant part of the carbon accumulated in annual production of plant cover is included in the destructive process of the carbon cycle.
The response of lichens to the environmental pollution under the bauxite mining in the taiga zone
Monitoring of anthropogenically disturbed areas
T. K. Golovko, M. А. Shelyakin, I. G. Zakhozhiy, G. N. Tabalenkova, T. N. Pystina
The activity of the mineral complex enterprises resulted in the pollution of the biosphere by the products of mining and processing of minerals. The open method of mining is the most vulnerable for the landscapes. Northern ecosystems have relatively low capacity of self-purification and self-healing, which increases their vulnerability to anthropogenic impact.
The functional status of the three lichen species (Hypogimnia physodes, Lobaria pulmonaria and Peltigera aphthosa)from the areas with different degree of pollution in the zone of influence of the largest in Eurasia Middle Timan bauxite mine was studied. It is shown that the bauxite dust pollution led to the accumulation of metal compounds in the thalli,especially aluminum and iron. Their content in the lichen samples collected on the plot located near the concentrating mill, reached 16000–20000 μg/g of dry weight (DW). It is 40 times more compared to relatively clean (background)site. The significant part of the metal compounds was localized in the surface fraction. In the intracellular fraction it was detected from 3–10% (Mn, Fe, Al, Cr, Pb) to 40% (Cu) of their total amount.
The content of organogenic elements (carbon, hydrogen and oxygen) was lower by 10–15% in the thalli from impact areas. These thalli showed a high level of lipid peroxidation and increased activity of antioxidant enzymes that indicate the development of oxidative stress. The lipid peroxidation, and superoxide dismutase, and peroxidase activities were increased by 1.5–2 times. Judging by these parameter values, the reaction of three-component cyano-lichens L. pulmonaria and P. aphthosa to pollution were expressed more strongly in comparison with chloro-lichen H. physodes. It was concluded that the application of physiological approaches increases the efficiency of lichenoindication and allows us to identify the first signs of defects long before significant reduction in vitality and taxonomic diversity of
lichens will become apparent.
Characteristics of cryogenic calcite from cave Grandioznaya (V. A. Anufrieva), Southern Ural
Monitoring of anthropogenically disturbed areas
O. I. Kadebskaya, Y. V. Dublyansky
Cave Grandioznaya, discovered in 1999 in Republic Bashkortostan is one of the largest natural caves in Ural Mountains.Speleological research of the cave is conducted by the Salavat club of speleologists (Republic of Bashkortostan).Unusual calcite formations were found in the cave in 2016, as on large blocks, and on a clay bottom in free space were discovered. Using the temperature data logger HOBO Water Temp Pro v2, it was found that stable positive temperatures are observed throughout the year in the grotto where calcite was found (fluctuations do not exceed 0.5 оC). On the basis morphological, chemical and stable isotope studies, as well as the 230Th/234U dating, this calcite was found to be of cryogenic origin. Crusts are aggregates (up to 6 cm in size) of differently oriented calcite crystals with clay primers. The color tone of the crusts depends on the amount of clay particles. Finding of such calcite, formed on the transition from Younger Dryas to the Preboreal stage of the Holocene epoch is indicative of the presence of degrading permafrost in this part of
Ural at the time. During this, rather sharp, warming of the climate, an active thawing of the permafrost existed, which is a prerequisite for the formation of cryogenic calcite in caves. Methods of identification of cryogenic calcite, as well as other speleothems that remained after disappearance of underground ice, developed by the authors allows assessing the extent of ancient permafrost and its effect on karst ecosystems in the study region.
Genetic engineering in solving “unsolvable” problems of soil remediation
Theoretical problems of ecology
A. A. Gulevich, E. N. Baranova, I. G. Shirokikh, A. A. Shirokikh
Many centuries of cultivation of plants allowed human civilization to significantly increase the population of the planet. However, as a result of economic activity, many areas have turned into waterless deserts, salt heaths, dumps and waste pits that remain after mining. Classical technology has been developed for many decades, but this has not led to an effective solution of the problems that have arisen, and humanistic values do not allow for the reduction of the population.
In this review, new approaches are considered that can significantly improve the efficiency of remediation. The solution involves combining biotechnologies: genetic engineering of plants, fungi and microorganisms; in the compartment with
the application of nanotechnology recultivation and creation of artificial analogues of soil and new materials of geoplastics for the creation of an artificial landscape. The principal possibility of creation of plant complexes and microbes-rescuers
on the basis of potentially resistant organisms capable of effective interaction is considered. The review deals with the genetic modification of plant and bacterial organisms that allow to accelerate in principle the formation of biogenic matter
on disturbed and remediated soils, including man-made soils. This can restore the ecology of the abandoned lands destroyed by mankind over the centuries of its existence.
Identification of the thickets of Heracleum sosnowskyi using Earth remote sensing data
Research methods. Models and projects
E. V. Tovstik, T. A. Adamovich, V. V. Rutman, G. Ya. Kantor, T. Ya. Ashikhmina
Sosnowsky’s hogweed (Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden.) is one of the most dangerous invasive plant species,common in the European part of Russia and some European countries. Its spread threatens the biological diversity of natural ecosystems. The danger of H. sosnowskyi for the human health lies in its ability to cause skin burns. Large populations of H. sosnowskyi can be found in uncultivated fields, meadows, on the banks and in the vicinity of watercourses and reservoirs, on the outskirts of forests, and along roads. Currently in Russia, in connection with the massive
spread of H. sosnowskyi, the question is raised about the need to create a special federal target program to control this dangerous species. The data of the Earth remote sensing can provide essential assistance in planning the measures to control the spread of H. sosnowskyi. Satellite imagery provide information about localization and areas of plant communities in large areas. To monitor the distribution of H. sosnowskyi, it is possible to use multispectral as well as monochrome satellite images of high and medium resolution. In our study we used images from the Sentinel-2 satellitewith a resolution of 10 m. The detection of the foci was carried out on the territory of certain districts of the Kirov region of Russian Federation. The populations of Sosnowsky’s hogweed are well recognized visually on synthesized
color images using either three channels of the visible range (blue, green, red), or two visible (blue and green) and near infrared channel. Both variants give very close results, providing reliable identification of thickets of the hogweed.
A multi-factor model as the basis for the environmental quality management of urban аreas
Research methods. Models and projects
E. V. Sokolskaya, B. I. Kochurov, Yu. A. Dolgov, V. A. Lobkovsky
The article considers mathematical approach to environmental quality management to improve the ecological comfort of living for the population. The problem of environmental management is described using a multi-factor model of quality
of the environment with the weight coefficients of the importance of its components: atmospheric air, acoustic impact, soil, water resources, and green spaces, accessibility of natural and recreational areas. The values of weight coefficients of importance of influencing factors for environmentally comfortable living are determined by the method of expert assessment.
A multi-factor model is used for detailed assessment of the ecological quality of the urban environment. The proposed quantitative approach also allows to compare the environmental comfort of the different residential districts or to study the dynamics of environmental comfort of specific urban area.
Much attention is paid to scientific and methodological principles of management and the formation of the concept of «environmental quality». The strategy of environmental management with ecological foundation of various practical
solution is shown. The plan of measures on organization of optimal management of quality of the environment to improve comfort of living for the population of the residential microdistrict of Tiraspol is presented. Graphical scheme
of the results of integral analysis of various environmental indicators and assessments for improving the comfort of the environment is given.
Realization of environmental quality management of the urban areas on the basis of a multi-factor model contributes to the gradual change of dangerous ecological conditions of environmental factors, to increase a comfort of the territory
taking into account the real preferences and needs of the population.
The model of a coral reef ecosystem, proposed by D.B. Kramer and published in Ecology and Society in 2008, explored the implications of changes in biological parameters and changes in economic and social interaction variables governing the fishing behaviour of anglers targeting the two fish species included in the model, herbivore and piscivore fish. This model is parametrized based on evidence provided in the literature. The recognition of multiple species in the model as well as the inclusion of adaptive harvesting behaviour may supposedly allow to explore policy or management options. This paper reviews, extends and sharpens the analysis undertaken in original article, and reveals both mathematical and interpretational mistakes in it. We use analytical and numerical methods to show that, contrary to the assertion in discussed article, some of the equilibrium outcomes are independent of the parameter values that were identified as important in this paper.
At the same time the model is highly sensitive to the setting of some parameter values as well as to the structures representing interactions in the model. We suggest ways in which the model can be modified so that it would become interpretable.