ISSN 1995-4301
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ISSN 2618-8406
(Online)

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2 issue of the journal in 2021

1 issue of the journal in 2021

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3 issue of the journal in 2020

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Heavy metal toxicity detection in phytoplankton by using neural network analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence induction

S.S. Khruschev, Т.V. Drozdenko, Т.Yu. Plyusnina, I.V. Тimofeev, D.A. Todorenko, E.I. Tikhomirova, Т.К. Аntal
Section: Ecotoxicology
Application of artificial neural networks for identifying poorly formalized patterns in experimental become widespread nowadays. In the present work, we elaborated a prototype of a model for detection of water contamination with heavy metals. The model is a fully connected neural network (multilayer perceptron) designed by using the Python programming language and the TensorFlow software (Keras). It is intended for application in environmental monitoring of natural water bodies using chlorophyll fluorescence measurements which are considered as highly informative approach for probing photosynthetic activity in vivo and in situ. Fluorescence rise induced by application of a strong light pulse to the dark-adapted plant or algae (the OJIP transient) reflects a stepwise transition of the photosynthetic electron transport chain from the oxidized to the fully reduced state. To provide a quantitative analysis of the OJIP transient, a JIP test was introduced whose parameters describe energy fluxes through the photosynthetic electron transport chain. Our model uses OJIP transients and/or JIP-test parameters, measured in phytoplankton communities, as input data. As a result, it determines the probability of water pollution by heavy metals. In order to test the model, phytoplankton samples were taken from 9 water bodies of Pskov region and then treated with chromium and cadmium under laboratory conditions. For that, phytoplankton samples were exposed to cadmium and chromium salts (CdSO4 and K2Cr2O7) at two concentrations (20 and 50 μM) for three days, and OJIP curves were recorded and JIP-test parameters calculated at different stages of the experiment. In total, 419 curves were collected, and a whole dataset was analyzed. Results showed that accuracy of detecting the toxic effects of Cd2+ (after 2 or more hours of incubation) and Cr2O72– (after 9 or more hours of incubation) by the model achieved 90%. The highly accurate determination of the toxicity of heavy metals indicates a promising prospect for the application of machine learning technology in environmental monitoring.
Keywords: heavy metals, aquatic ecosystems, phytoplankton, environmental monitoring, neural networks, chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthesis

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Article published in number 2 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-2-134-141
Views: 21

Improvement of fluorometric method for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons determination in environmental objects

O.A. Plotnikova
Section: Методология и методы исследований. Модели и прогнозы
The selection of suitable pre-sample preparation and analysis methods for effective monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is essential. An important task is to control the PAHs content in various media. These substances, even at low concentrations, can pose a threat to public health, can have carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic effects on living organisms. A distinctive feature of PAHs molecules is the ability to absorb energy and luminescence under the influence of UV radiation. In this regard, spectroscopic methods are promising for the PAHs determination. The paper presents the characteristic absorption and fluorescence spectra of PAHs, and indicates their excitation and fluorescence wavelengths. An experimental study of the metrological characteristics of various spectroscopic methods has been carried out. The PAHs representative pyrene was determined by spectrophotometry and fluorimetry in solutions, as well as solid-phase fluorimetry with preliminary micellar and sorption concentration on a solid matrix. The use of aqueous micellar solutions of the nonionic surfactant Triton X–100 made it possible to enhance the analytical signals for the pyrene determination. The data obtained confirm the fact that the fluorescence method is characterized by a higher sensitivity than the method based on the registration of these substances’ absorption. The linear range of concentrations determined by the spectrophotometric method is more significant in comparison with the fluorometric methods and amounts to 14–10000 ng / ml. At the same time, the combination of preliminary micellar and sorption concentration with solid-phase fluorescence on a modified by surfactants viscose matrix made it possible to reduce the detection limit of pyrene to 0.8 ng / ml, which is especially important for the development of methods for controlling ecotoxicants contained in the environment in "trace" concentrations.
Keywords: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), spectroscopic methods, absorption spectrophotometry, fluorimetry, sorption concentration, solid-phase fluorescence

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Article published in number 2 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-2-044-048
Views: 9

Natural-climatic factors in ecological zoning of the city of Irkutsk

E.V. Maksyutova, L.B. Bashalkhanova, L.M. Korytny, A.A. Sorokovoi
Section: Мониторинг природных и антропогенно нарушенных территорий
An analysis is made of the natural-climatic characteristics of the formation of the ecological status of the atmospheric air in the city of Irkutsk. It is found that its chronic pollution is associated with a long-term annual exceedance of MAC for 5 to 6 specially hazardous pollutants, and with a persistent presence of suspended substances (up to 2.4 MAC) and benzo(a)pyrene (up to 7.8 MAC). The main volume of pollutants emissions corresponds to a long-lasting heating season (mid-September‒mid-May). A zoning of the territory of the city was carried out according to the degree of the possible effect of topography and prevailing type of underlying surface (water, forest-park, and stone and wooden buildings) on air temperature in the atmospheric ground layer. The zone of strong influence includes three types of microclimate of lowlands, with the January temperature deviations from 1.9 to ‒3.6°C from the Irkutsk, Observatory base weather station. Stagnant phenomena in this zone can promote formation of intense air pollution of residential and recreational territories. In this case, topography is the leading factor for the spatial differentiation of air temperature. Because of a high activity of the air exchange, the summit surfaces experience a weak impact of the environmental factors. The zone of moderate impact on slopes and planate territories reflects the local characteristics of the underlying surface. The dominant influence of stone buildings and roads on air temperature is most clearly pronounced in the center of the city on the right bank of the Angara; on the left bank, it is smoothed out by the influence of forested areas. With distance from the center of the city, similar air temperatures are typical for the slopes of different gentleness and aspect. This occurs as a result of significant differences in heat exchange in the dominant types of underlying surface.
Keywords: atmospheric air condition, microclimate of the city, deviations of air temperature in January, types of underlying surface, zoning of the urban environment
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Article published in number 2 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-2-055-059
Views: 13

The stability assessment of the morphological and functional characteristics of rhizospheric strains of Bacillus subtilis using atomic force microscopy

M.N. Artamonova, N.I. Potaturkina-Nesterova, B.B. Kostishko
Section: Методология и методы исследований. Модели и прогнозы
The important advantage of atomic force microscopy (AFM) is the low power requirements for the studied objects, which allows studying living cells without fixation and with high resolution. It was proposed to use AFM to determine the morphometric and elastic-mechanical characteristics of the marker specie Bacillus subtilis isolated from the rhizosphere of the Cucurbita pepo L. crop in different vegetative phase of plant development. These characteristics of the microorganism are indicators of their functional activity and resistance to the action of biotic and abiotic environmental factors. It was shown that some parameters (length, width and height, elastic modulus, and the root mean square roughness) of B. subtilis isolated at different phases of plant growth were stable. So, elastic modulus of the bacilli was equal to 5.9 ± 0.2 MPa in plant sprouting phase, 5.8 ± 0.1 MPa in the phase of budding, 6.0 ± 0.3 MPa in the phase of flowering 5.7 ± 0.3 MPa in the phase of fruiting of the plant. The indicator of the root mean square surface roughness was equal to 37.5 ± 0.6 nm in plant sprouting phase; 35.1 ± 4.6 nm in the phase of budding; 31.8 ± 2.8 nm in the phase of flowering and 40.0 ± 2.1 nm in the phase of fruiting of the plant. AFM study of the surface of B. subtilis cells revealed a change of the adhesion force of the studied strains. This indicator was equal to 32.0 ± 6.0 nN and 41.0 ± 8.0 nN in plant sprouting and budding phases respectively. And the adhesion force was increasing significantly in the flowering and fruiting phase in comparison to the first phases (73.0 ± 5.0 nN and 69.0 ± 3.0 nN, respectively; p <0.05). The use of atomic force microscopy technology has shown its effectiveness in studying of the stability of the morphometric and elastic-mechanical characteristics of B. subtilis, which are indicators of functional activity of the plant. It was suggested an approach to the development of a methodology for assessing and managing the quality of ecosystem components based on the use of a new information method for the study of marker biological objects.
Keywords: Bacillus subtilis, rhizospheric bacteria, bacterial-plant symbiosis, atomic force microscopy, morpho-functional properties of bacteria

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Article published in number 2 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-2-038-043
Views: 7

A method for assessing the productivity of marine areas by the integrated intensity of bioluminescence of the planktonic community

E.B. Mel’nikova, A.N. Serebrennikov, A.V. Melnikov
Section: Методология и методы исследований. Модели и прогнозы
A method for the comparative assessment of the productivity of marine water areas based on an analysis of the vertical distribution of the glow intensity (bioluminescence) of planktonic communities is presented. In the coastal waters of Crimea, 5 regions were marked out, which differ in the vertical distribution of the intensity of bioluminescence, the total biomass, and the number of plankton communities. It is noted that planktonic communities that have a quick response to changes in the ecosystem can serve as an operational indicator of the effects of various environmental factors on it. Bioluminescence intensity measurements do not require laboratory processing of samples and are carried out in real time. A methodology for calculating the integral intensity of bioluminescence of hydrobionts (IIBH), which characterizes the total biomass, the number of aquatic organisms, and the biological productivity of water, is described. For selected areas, IIBH calculation was performed. A comparative assessment of the water productivity of the selected areas showed that the highest IIBH (an average of 37830 pW∙cm–2l–1) was observed on the southwestern shelf of Crimea. In the area of the Kerch Strait, IIBH was 1.24 times less than on the highly productive south-western shelf of Crimea. In the north-western deepwater part of the sea, stable stratification of the waters promoted the formation of two layers with a high concentration of hydrobionts located at depths of 8–14 m and 40–45 m. At the same time, IIBH of the upper layer was the smallest in the study area and was 8 times lower than the value on the south-western shelf of Crimea. The results obtained on the productivity of water areas and the total biomass of plankton communities serve as the basis for the development of measures for the rational use of natural resources.
Keywords: bioluminescence, phytoplankton community, vertical distribution, water productivity

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Article published in number 2 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-2-031-037
Views: 3

Zoobenthos of the Severnaya Dvina River delta

M.A. Studenova, I.I. Studenov, D.V. Chupov, A.S. Samodov
Section: Мониторинг природных и антропогенно нарушенных территорий
Systematic studies of zoobenthos at the delta of the Severnaya Dvina river begun in 2012. This study contains the most complete information about the taxonomic composition of zoobenthos of the area, the number and frequency of taxons, the number and biomass of each of the taxa. Twenty taxons belonging to 6 types and 11 classes of invertebrates were found in zoobenthos during the whole period of research (2012-2018). The average number of taxons per 1 station during the entire research period was 9, ranging from 5 in the Korabel’ny arm to 16 in the Murmansk arm. Oligochaetes, bivalvia, and chironomidae larvae were found in samples at all stations each year. Isopods, dayflies larvae and beetle larvae were found with lowest occurrence rate. Average value of Shannon ’s zoobenthos index at the delta of the Severnaya Dvina river was 1.21, varying from 0.70 (Maimaxa and Kuznechikha branches) to 1.84 (Murmansk arm). The number of invertebrates over the years varied very widely - from 640 spec/m2 (Korabel’ny arm, 2018) up to 16573 spec/m2 (Murmansk arm, 2014), averaging 5704 spec /m2. Oligochaetes and сhironomidae larvaes were the most numerous. The biomass of invertebrates at the delta of the Severnaya Dvina river varied very widely - from 0.29 g/m2 (Korabel’ny arm, 2017) to 25.3 g/m2 (Murmansk arm, 2014), averaging 6207 mg/m2 for all observation years. The base of biomass was formed by Oligochaetes, their participation in the formation of total biomass reached 94.6%. An average oligochet index was 57.8%. The water condition of the delta of the Severnaya Dvina river was classified as moderately contaminated, according to the values of the oligochet index.
Keywords: Severnaya Dvina river, zoobenthos, taxonomic composition, number, biomass
Article published in number 2 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-2-060-065
Views: 4

Effect of rhizospheric oil-degrading bacteria on the biological state of oil-polluted soil

M.S. Tretyakova, L.A. Belovezhets, L.G. Sokolova, S.Yu. Zorina, Yu.A. Markova
Section: Remediation and rehabilitation
Environmental pollution with oil and oil products is a serious issue faced both by Russia and by the whole world. Currently, the use of microbiological preparations, which include indigenous microorganisms adapted to climatic and environmental conditions of a particular region, is an effective way to remediate oil-polluted soils. The use of microorganisms isolated from plant rhizosphere is promising for soil bioremediation due to their high biotechnological potential. The paper presents the results of model experiments on the influence of strains of oil-degrading microorganisms (Rhodococcus erytropolis 108, Acinetobacter guillouiae 112, Acinetobacter guillouiae 114) isolated from wheatgrass rhizosphere and their consortium on the purification of oil-polluted soil. The indicators of soil phytotoxicity, change in its enzymatic and respiratory activity. After 60 days of the experiment, the oil loss in oil-polluted soil with the introduction of the studied strains was shown to increase by 19-24% relative to the control and amount to 62-68% of its initial content. The enzymatic and respiratory activity of the soil increased against the background of oil destruction by the microorganisms. Treatment of oil-polluted soil with the strains of oil-degrading bacteria contributed to an increase in its phytotoxicity in the early stages of radish (Raphanus sativus) ontogeny. This was especially characteristic of the A. guillouiae 112 strain. The soil inoculated with R. erytropolis 108 had the least phytotoxicity throughout the experiment. For the first time, the obtained rhizospheric strains of the genera Rhodococcus and Acinetobacter were shown to accelerate the process of purifying the soil from oil and be able to be used for bioremediation of oil-polluted soils.
Keywords: rhizospheric oil-degrading microorganisms, oil-polluted soil, soil biological properties, oil biodegradation.

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Article published in number 2 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-2-156-162
Views: 5

Features of transformation of old oil pollution in the soils of the Arctic zone of Yakutia

Yu.S. Glyaznetsova
Section: Chemistry of natural environments and objects
In the Arctic zone of Yakutia, ecological and analytical studies have been carried out to study the chemical composition of the oil-contaminated soils of the tank farm. The row of informative analytical indicators was used to characterize the composition of oil pollution and assess the features of its biodegradation processes in permafrost soils. The features of the chemical composition of oil pollution in soil samples with a long-term contamination are revealed and are taken into account at developing methods for cleaning soils from "old" oil pollution. An experiment on the biological treatment of soils with a biological product based on indigenous hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms isolated from permofrost soils was conducted. The initial oil content was 34594 mg/kg. After 3 months of incubation of a biological product, along with a decrease in the residual oil content, the composition of pollution changed in the direction of increasing the content of resin-asphaltene components and decreasing − hydrocarbons. The proportion of oxygen-containing groups and bonds has significantly increased in the chemical structure of alcohol-benzene resin. In the composition of alkane hydrocarbons, a redistribution is established both within the homologous series and between different rows of homologues. The established increase in the ratio (Pr+Ph) / (nC17+nC18) in the row: oil (as a pollutant) → initial “old” pollution → altered pollution after 3 months of incubation of the biological product, indicates the destruction of n−alkanes nC17 and nC18, which are least resistant to biodegradation, and relative accumulation more stable isoprenoids of pristan and phytane. The degree of destruction of oil pollution reached 56.6%.
Keywords: transformation, old oil pollution, biodegradation, permafrost soils, asphaltenes and resins components

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Article published in number 2 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-2-089-094
Views: 4

Features of the allocation of high conservation values of type “Rare ecosystems and habitats” for certification of forests of the Kirov region

N.P. Savinykh, S.V. Shabalkina, O.N. Perestoronina
Section: Social ecology
One of the modern requirements of forest management is the conservation of biodiversity by identifying forests with high conservation value (HCV), especially rare ecosystems and habitats (HCV type 3). Based on the systemic and regional approaches, the methodology for determining HCV 3 has been improved and a system has been created in the Kirov region with the distribution of classes and levels. The class of Fir-spruce forests includes two levels – large-fern with the presence of nemoral elements and tall grasses; with the presence of rare and vulnerable species. The class of Pine forests are divided into sphagnum with the presence of rare and vulnerable species, lichen (with steppe elements) and heather. The Forest class with the participation of broad-leaved species has three levels – linden and multi-species forests in the subzones of the middle and southern taiga of the Kirov region, oak forests (including the subzone of mixed forests). The classes of Larch and Black alder forests, Old-aged aspens are not subdivided into levels. The composition of the stand, the age of the prevailing species of the stand, the species composition of the grass-shrub layer, the conservation value and the recommended conservation and forest management regimes each HCV 3 describes; necessary criteria for assessing forest management, monitoring and compliance of forestry activities with international standards are identified. The developed system is not final; it can be supplemented and expanded in connection with newly emerging data. The use of the proposed materials will ensure the conservation of biodiversity of production forests, compliance with the requirements of the National FSC Standard of the Russian Federation for forest management, and positioning of the Kirov region as a supplier of quality wood.
Keywords: high conservation value forests, biodiversity, rare species, rare community, ecosystem, forest management regimehigh conservation value, biodiversity, rare species, rare community, ecosystem, forest management regime
Article published in number 2 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-2-229-234
Views: 4

Pechora Sea polychaete worms: biodiversity and spatial distribution

S.Yu. Gagaev, S.G. Denisenko, A.V. Sikorsky, N.А. Strelkova, E.A. Frolova
Section: Population ecology
The modern taxonomic and geographical composition, trophic mode and spatial distribution of polychaete worms - one of the most important components of the bottom ecosystems of the Pechora Sea, is studied. This area characterized by the special abiotic conditions, a high level of biological production, a variety of biotopes and numerous populations of rare and protected species. According to the materials of the last expeditions in the Pechora sea, 198 taxa of polychaete worms were identified: 165 belonging to species, 113 genera, 34 families and 14 orders. Everywhere the species diversity of polychaetes and stress stability of their populations was high, with the exception of small areas, located near entrance to the Pechora and Khaypudir bays with amount of river runoff. The density of settlements widely varied from 26 to 7144 ind./m2. Density gradients are most pronounced in the south-eastern shallow part of the Pechora Sea and in a lesser extent in the north-western of region. The spatial distribution of polychaete biomass is also heteroge-neous, but varies much less in absolute terms from 0.7 to 387 g/m2. Four major groups represent the trophic mode of polychaete bioresources. More than half of the total biomass is created by surface detrivorous, a few less than a third - by subsurface detrivorous, 2% - by suspension feeders, and 10% - by carnivorous. The 80% of all polychaetes constituted only by six species, and the most significant of which are Spiochaetopterus typicus and Maldane sarsi. During the last 70 years the number ratio of species belonging to main biogeographic groups remains stable, although the taxonomic list is constantly increasing. The stable state of the of poly-chaete taxocene, playing the significant role in the bottom ecosystems, assumes the stable state of bot-tom biocenoses of the Pechora Sea in general.
Keywords: Polychaete worms, Pechora Sea, biodiversity, spatial distribution, biogeography, trophic mode

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Article published in number 2 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-2-208-214
Views: 5

The changes in growth processes of the European grayling from the Timan stream in conditions of non-controlled exploitation

E.I. Boznak, A.B. Zakharov
Section: Population ecology
The work deals with the retrospective analysis of linear growth dynamics for the European grayling in one of the Middle Timan streams (the Vym River, the Northern Dvina basin) under continuous unsustainable exploitation. The European grayling grows relatively fast indicating favorable environmental conditions. In contrast with the data of 1970-1990-ies, the specimens from generations formed in unsustainable fishing years (born in 2003-2012) increase in the segmented body length value (by 15%), absolute increments (by 19%), and specific growth rate (on the second-fourth living year – by 12%). Then, the grow rate slows down. The following five years do not much differ by the considered parameters. The growth slowdown seems to be related to the active commercial catching of quickly-growing fish specimens as they early reach the right size. The accelerated growth processes are accompanied by accelerated sexual development. The grayling normally becomes mature on the fifth-sixth living year (in 1980-1990-ies). From the early 2000-s, we regularly face sexually mature four-year-old (3+) specimens. There are no true correlation between mean annual temperatures and body length of five-to-seven-year-old specimens. The food resources of grayling also hold stable. Thus, the continuous over-exploitation of fish population results in visible changes in population parameters (population decrease, age structure degradation) and invisible aftereffects (growth and sexual maturation acceleration).
Keywords: the European grayling, linear growth, sexual maturation, non-commercial fishing, over-exploitation

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Article published in number 2 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-2-222-228
Views: 6

Stimulation of indigenous aerobic microflora for bioremediation of soils polluted with petroleum products

I.V. Trusei, Yu.L. Gurevich, V.P. Ladygina, S.V. Fadeev
Section: Remediation and rehabilitation
The numbers of hydrocarbon-oxidizing and ammonifying microorganisms (psychrophilic and mesophilic) in the soils of the aeration zone and groundwater polluted with petroleum products under application of mineral fertilizers were analyzed. In the soils of the aeration zone, the numbers of aerobic microorganisms increased by 1-2 orders of magnitude, ammonifying ones – up to 107 CFU/g, hydrocarbon oxidizing microorganisms – up to 106 CFU/g, at the same time numbers of psychrophilic microorganisms increased by 13%. In groundwater the numbers of psychrophilic hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms increased from 104 to 107 CFU/g, mesophilic ones from 105 to 107 CFU/g; the numbers of ammonificating microorganisms increased from 104 to 108 CFU/g and from 105 to 107 CFU/g, respectively. The number and variety of protozoa also increased. In the soils only flagellates of Bodo genus were found, their numbers during processing changed from 10-102 cells/g to 103 cells/g; in groundwater from 102–103 cells/ml to 104 cells/ml. The number of ciliata (Ciliata, Uronema genus) in groundwater changed from tens of cells per ml to 102–103 cells/ml. After treatment, ciliata were detected in all water samples, and in addition to Uronema genus ciliata of Colpoda genus were discovered. The biostimulation produced changes in the chemical composition of groundwater (ammonium concentration, permanganate oxidizability of water), that indicated the decomposition of petroleum products and the appearance of easily oxidizable organic substances in water. The concentration of petroleum products in groundwater over the course of 3 years has decreased from 500–120 mg/dm3 to 10–1.5 mg/dm3.
Keywords: bioremediation, cold-adapted microorganisms, aeration zone, groundwater, petroleum products, protozoa

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Article published in number 2 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-2-149-155
Views: 1

Elimination of fecal indicator bacteria in soils at repeated irrigation with livestock waste

О.E. Chezlova, А.A. Volchak
Section: Social ecology
To determine the survival time of fecal indicator bacteria (coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli and enterococci) in soils, a field experiment was conducted on sod-podzolic gley soil on cohesive sand when disposing of wastewater from livestock farms. During the field season, wastewater was introduced three times by the norms of 90, 180 and 270 m3 / ha. By the end of the vegetation period, the content of coliform bacteria in the soil using the norms of 180 and 270 m3 / ha is 2.17x102 and 2.16x102 CFU / g, respectively; the number of enterococci is 3.94x102 CFU / g and 2.17x102 CFU / g, respectively. To describe the dynamics of the number of microorganisms, a first order approximation was used. During the first irrigation with wastewater, the highest withering rate was observed in E. coli: the extinction constant k was in the range from 0.129 to 0.253 day -1, and the time of a 10-fold reduction in numbers from 17.9 to 10.4 days with irrigation rates of 90 and 180 m3 / ha, respectively. For enterococci, the parameter k ranged from 0.092 to 0.149 day -1, and the time of 90% elimination ranged from 25.1 to 15.4 days with irrigation rates of 90 and 270 m3 / ha, respectively. For coliform bacteria with a watering rate of 90 m3 / ha, k = 0.131 day-1, and the time of 90% elimination is 17.6 days. By the third irrigation with wastewater, the rate of elimination of E. coli, enterococci and coliform bacteria decreased - the constant k decreased by an average of 4.45, 3.79 and 2.12 times, respectively. For an adequate description of the dynamics of indicator bacteria in soils, it is necessary to take into account climatic, soil factors, the amount of wastewater, etc.
Keywords: sanitary-indicative bacteria, sewage irrigation, soil quality, models

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Article published in number 2 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-2-236-242
Views: 4

Ecological condition of the coast of the Maloe More strait and its influence on pollution of Lake Baikal

I.A. Belozertseva, I.B. Vorobyeva, N.V. Vlasova, D.N. Lopatina, M.S. Yanchuk
Section: Мониторинг природных и антропогенно нарушенных территорий
In the winter-spring, in the summer and fall of 2016-2018 complex physiographic researches in east Priolkhonye with sampling of snow, soils and a surface water are conducted. Local pollution of snow and atmospheric air near settlements and camp sites of the coast of the Lake Baikal is revealed. Content of ammonium, phosphates and oil products in snow exceed maximum allowable concentration. Pollution of coastal waters of Small Sea Strait and the Sarma River in a recreational zone is established. Ecological, chemical and physical soil properties of meadow and steppe landscapes of Olkhon district in the territory of the east coast of the Lake Baikal which is most visited by tourists are studied. The explored soils have mainly low-power strong and middle stony profile, light particle size distribution, high content of a humus, mainly neutral and weak alkaline reaction. As a result of the conducted researches it is revealed that soils near tourist tracks are polluted by heavy metals. The ecological condition of soils at the present stage can be characterized as average degree of a disturbance as a result of recreational activity. Geochemical barriers are - organic and alkaline. However owing to light particle size distribution of soils there can be a pollution of waters of a coastal zone of the lake.
Keywords: soils, snow, water, pollution, recreation, Maloe More Strait, Lake Baikal

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Article published in number 2 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-2-066-074
Views: 1

Influence of microbiological preparations on yield of spring soft wheat

I.U. Ivanova, D.A. Dementiev
Section: Agroecology
Thousands of tons of chemical products are used annually in the world industrial production of agricultural products, both mineral fertilizers and toxic chemicals, aimed at combating diseases, pests and weeds. These chemicals actively influence not only the object of the struggle, but also the soil flora and fauna. The inhabitants of the soil, which loosen the soil, as well as the microorganisms involved in the processes of humification and mineralization of humus, are dying. The vacant ecological niches are occupied by organisms pathogenic for plants. This leads to the need to apply disinfectants and fungicides in even larger quantities. One way to break this destructive chain is to replace chemical fungicidal drugs with microbiological ones. In these preparations, microorganisms are natural competitors of phytopathogens, which have an antibiotic effect, protecting the cultivated crop from diseases. In addition, these microorganisms are able to assimilate free nitrogen of the air, supplying them with plants and soil, transfer inaccessible phosphorus compounds to plants that are readily available for plants, produce growth stimulants and other biologically active substances that positively affect the growth, development and productivity of the crop. Also, the soil is saturated with microflora useful for the soil and plants. On the experimental base of the Chuvash Research Institute of Agriculture, the effect of microbiological preparations on biometrics, yield and economic efficiency of cultivation of spring soft wheat varieties Moskovskaya 35 was investigated. The greatest increase in yield on average for 2 years was given by the joint use of preparations based on nitrogen-fixing and phosphate-mobilizing microorganisms - up to 1.5 t / ha. At the same time, the cost of bio-fertilizers amounted to 1.9-5.4% of the total cost structure. The profitability of cultivation increased from 14.4% with the use of only one strain of microorganisms, up to 43.5% with the use of 2 types of microbiological fertilizers, in comparison with the control.
Keywords: microbiological fertilizers, growth stimulants, spring soft wheat, yield

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Article published in number 2 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-2-128-133
Views: 1

Estimation of Dunaliella salina Teod. maximum productivity under natural illumination

A.S. Lelekov, A.B. Borovkov, I.N. Gudvilovich, T.M. Novikova, A.L. Avsiyan, O.A. Memetshaeva, R.P. Trenkenshu
Section: Population ecology
The research deals with theoretical calculation of the maximal growth rate of green halophilic microalga Dunaliella salina in the conditions of natural illumination at South regions of Russia (Sevastopol city as an example). The calculation is based on the concept that microalgae growth rate is defined as the difference between gross productivity and endogenous biomass expenditure rate. Gross productivity is a function of PAR, absorption coefficient and energy utilization efficiency. For maximal productivity calculation it is suggested that all incident of the pond surface light energy is absorbed by microalgae culture. As far as photobiosynthesis efficiency value depends on illuminance in a complex way, we used average value 5.58 %. The rate of endogenous biomass expenditure was determined based on the value of night losses, which for D. salina was about 5 %.Computations showed that for D. salina maximum biomass gain makes 26 g DW/(m2•day). It is shown that the maximum observed productivity of D. salina in the conditions of natural light in the southern regions of Russia cannot exceed 26 g DW/(m2•day).
Keywords: Dunaliella salina, natural lighting, efficiency photobiosynthesis, productivity, modeling

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Article published in number 2 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-2-202-207
Views: 3

The biodisposal of organic waste by larvae of the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens and the possibility of using the formed zoocompost against phytonematodes

N.A. Ushakova, S.V. Zinovieva, Zh.V. Udalova, A.I. Bastrakov, A.I. Butenko
Section: Remediation and rehabilitation
Larvae of the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens effectively use fruit and vegetable mixtures as a feed substrate-waste of retail chains, including those infected with nematodes. It is shown that the larvae are capable of high speed to dispose of the potatoes (for the 12 day it reached 70% conversion of substrate) and completely eliminated in the affected root as the potato plant pathogenic nematode Ditylenchus destructor and saprobiotic nematode Rhabditis spp., which impair the commercial properties of potatoes and other root crops during storage. In the control substrate without larvae of the black soldier fly phytopathogenic nematodes were preserved during the study period, and saprobiotic nematodes multiplied. Introduction derived from fruit and vegetable waste zoocompost (excrements of the larvae with the remains of undigested substrate) to the soil reduces the infectivity of tomato root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. The introduction of compost under the root system immediately before the infection of the 2-month tomato seedlings reduced the negative impact of the nematode, the plants were more powerful than the infected control. Plants treated with zoocompost at a dose of 6.5 g / plant were particularly distinguished: the mass of their above-ground part and the height of the stem was close to uninfected control. Shown the prospects of using to compete to stimulate growth and development of plants, especially of plants suffering from nematode infestation.
Keywords: fruit and vegetable waste, larvae, Hermetia illucens, bioutilization, nematodes, Ditylenchus destructor, Rhabditida, Meloidogyne incognita, tomatoes

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Article published in number 2 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-2-163-169
Views: 1

Binding capacity of humic substances of peats in the relation to petroleum products in the presence of microorganisms of the genus Rhodococcus in aqueous media

M.M. Gertsen, E.D. Dmitrieva
Section: Ecotoxicology
The biotesting method was used to study the effect of humic substances separately and together with oil degrading microorganisms of the genus Rhodococcus on a test object - duckweed in the relation to oil products. The maximum growth of duckweed blades in the presence of humic substances of black alder fen peat is 42%, the minimum - humic substances of sphagnum transition peat 24%. It was found that humic substances of peats can reduce the toxic effect of model pollutants: hexadecane by 3–23%; diesel fuel - 8–40%; oil - 6-16%. The detoxifying ability of humic substances and microorganisms of the genus Rhodococcus in the relation to oil hydrocarbons was determined: the maximum values ​​of the detoxification coefficients of microorganisms Rh. erythropolis S67 and humic substances of reed fen and sphagnum high-moor peat 95–79% and 84–68%; Rh. erythropolis X5 and humic substances of sphagnum high-moor and sphagnum transition peat 82–68% and 71–63%. Humic substances are able to stimulate the growth of oil degrading microorganisms, activating their enzymatic system, thereby contributing to the maximum oxidation of oil hydrocarbons. Due to its surface and biologically active properties, the combined use of humic substances and oil degrading microorganisms can provide environmentally friendly and effective remediation of contaminated water areas.
Keywords: humic substances, petroleum, petroleum products, oil–destructive microorganisms, binding capacity, detoxification coefficients

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Article published in number 2 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-2-142-148
Views: 1

Ecologization of agricultural science and production – agricultural ecology – agricultural econology (in the light of the scientific heritage of N. F. Reymers)

A.V. Kaverin, A.V. Kiryushin, D.A. Masserov
Section: Agroecology
The article substantiates the relevance of further improvement of ecological professionalism in agriculture. The dominant environmental problems in the agricultural sector, the authors see the following: extensive agriculture and cattle breeding – everywhere in the world leads to desertification; intensive management causes acute environmental conflicts associated with pollution of soil, water and air, deterioration of the quality of agricultural products, etc.are the proposals of a prominent domestic theorist of environmental science N. F. Reimers on the greening of agricultural science and practice. The importance of studying by students of agricultural specialties of natural-scientific fundamental ecological bases of conducting agriculture-the laws, rules and principles of Agroecology defining "rules of behavior" in agricultural environmental management is considered. It is pointed out that there is an urgent need for new methodological, methodical and purely practical approaches to solving environmental prob-lems of agriculture. As a new, ecologically oriented worldview in agricultural science the inte-grative discipline economic ecology – the science of ecological and economic systems is offered. Among the main directions of agricultural economic ecology is the greening of planning and management of agricultural environmental management. Under the environmental planning of agriculture, the authors, after N. F. Reimers, understand, first of all, ecological land planning and establishment of forms, methods and restrictions of use of land resources. The article presents the results of economic and environmental studies and practical recommendations for environmental and economic optimization of the structure of agricultural land in the Republic of Mordovia over the past 28 years. Such spatial optimization allowed to increase a number of important indicators (crop yields, water availability, etc.) by 30-50%. At the same time, it expanded the recreational and waste-absorbing (assimilation) opportunities of the region by about the same amount.
Keywords: agricultural ecology, agricultural economic environment, agricultural land use, ecological theory, ecologization
Article published in number 2 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-2-102-106
Views: 2

Optimization of the conditions of microbial cells immobilization for the creation of hydrocarbons-degrading biopreparations

A.A. Samkov, N.N. Volchenko, А.A. Khudokormov, S.M. Samkova, E.V. Karaseva
Section: Ecotoxicology
The dependence of the adsorption efficiency on the oil sorbent surface on the pH of the immobilization medium, Al3+ concentration and the duration of the suspension of cells and carrier contact, was investigated for oil-oxidizing actinobacteria Rhodococcus erythropolis F1 (ВКМ Ac-2271) by the full factorial experiment method. Tolerance of growth and hydrocarbon-oxidizing activity of rhodococci to selected experimental factors in the used ranges of values was experimentally proved. The obtained optimized conditions of immobilization provide the increasing of R. erythropolis F1 immobilizing cells proportion from 34.0 to 69.7%. A similar increasing was also found for five different strains of genus Rhodococcus and Gordonia, significantly distinguishing in terms of cell surface hydrophobicity (hydrophobicity index vary from 10% in the case of Rhodococcus sp. J12 up to 88% in case of Rhodococcus sp. J8). Modeling of biodegradation of crude oil in sea and freshwater conditions using immobilized R. erythropolis F1 cells has shown greater hydrocarbon concentration reduction efficiency in comparison with free non-immobilised cells and empty carrier, applied separately.
Keywords: actinobacteria; adsorption; oil-oxidizing bacteria; Rhodococcus; biodegradation; immobilization; biological preparation.
Article published in number 1 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-1-194-202
Views: 77

Faunistic characteristics and monitoring of vertebrates on the territory of the State Nature Reserve “Bylina”

V.M. Ryabov, Т.Ya. Аshikhmina
Section: Мониторинг природных и антропогенно нарушенных территорий
Based on many years of research (2004-2014), an inventory of vertebrates of the State Nature Reserve "Bylina" was carried out, one of the most significant both in terms of area and biosphere significance of the regional PA in the Kirov region. The main wealth of the reserve is the massifs of old-growth forests and vast areas of raised bogs that have escaped reclamation. The faunistic value of the territory lies in the fact that the taiga fauna is represented here in a fairly complete volume, there are places of natural concentration of wetland avifauna. The vertebrate fauna of the Bylina State Reserve includes 234 species, of which 23 species are included in the Red Book of the Kirov region. GPZ "Bylina" is a reserve of species of economic importance, which plays a significant role in maintaining a relatively high number of species of resource animals in the north-west of the Kirov region. The data of the inventory works are today the initial basis for monitoring studies and the development of a strategy for preserving the biodiversity of natural complexes of the Bylina Gas Processing Plant.
Keywords: preserve, biota inventory, vertebrates, monitoring
Article published in number 1 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-1-079-084
Views: 34

The effectiveness of oil gathering devices in ice conditions and methods for its increase

А.V. Salnikov
Section: Theoretical problems of ecology
The article presents the world experience of testing to assess the effectiveness of oil gathering devices (skimmers) of various designs during their operation at low temperatures and in ice conditions. The conditions and factors affecting the efficiency of skimmers during such operation and methods for increasing it are considered. The relevance of the article is associated with the constant need to improve industrial safety when working in water (marine) facilities and water areas and the use of the energy value of waste oil waste. The novelty is due to the consideration of modern existing oil gathering devices with an indication of their effectiveness in ice conditions.
Keywords: oil spill response, icy seas, ice concentration, sludge ice, broken ice, skimmers, oil gathering equipment
Article published in number 1 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-1-030-039
Views: 29

Effects of humus compounds stabilization by influence of bentonite rock as criteria for environmental sustainability of sod-podsolic soil agroecosystems

A.V. Kozlov, A.H. Kulikova, I.P. Uromova, R.I. Rumyantsev
Section: Agroecology
The article contains an analysis of physical and chemical changes in system of “humus substances – bentonite”, which occurred in sludge and colloidal fractions of sod-podsolic light loamy soil during 3 years of interaction with bentonite clay (Zyryan deposit) in the conditions of the agroecosystem (northern subzone of forests, Nizhny Novgorod region). The 3-year microfield experiment (2015–2017) has been conducted on the territory of Elitkhoz LLC in the Borsky municipal district. Bentonite was added to the divisions (accounting area of each is 1 m2 ) during July of 2014 in doses at rate of 3, 6 and 12 ton/ha, on which varieties of winter wheat, barley and seed peas adapted for the Volga-Viatka region were grown. Infrared analysis of soil colloidal component showed presence of new silicon-containing organomineral complexes in studied samples, and identified types of chemical compounds directly indicate participation of silicon in their formation. The use of bentonite contributed to preservation of natural content of humus in soil, which can also confirm presence of silicon substances interaction of the rock (mono- and polysilicic acids, silicic-oxygen packets) with the organic part and, as a result, to keep it from mineralization. The physicochemical effects of silicon substances imteraction with organic substance of soil-absorbing complex described in work, leading to strengthening of elementary humus particles and increasing their resistance to degradation, can be regarded as criteria for environmental stability of podzolic agrosoils under conditions of using bentonites as meliorants of complex stabilizing effect.
Keywords: sod-podsolic light loamy soil, bentonite clay, spectroscopic infrared analysis, sludge and colloidal soil fractions, silicon-containing reaction-active centers, stabilization of organic substance, ecological stability of agroecosystem

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Article published in number 1 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-1-133-138
Views: 17

Effect of aerotechnogenic impact of pulp and paper production on the pigment complex of Scots pine

V.V. Tuzhilkina
Section: Мониторинг природных и антропогенно нарушенных территорий
Here we present the results of studying the effect of aerotechnogenic emissions of pulp and paper production of Mondi Syktyvkar JSC on the pigment system of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles in blueberry and lichen pine forests over a 25–year observation period. We conducted comparative analysis of the indicators of the pigment complex of the pine in background and impacted areas. In 1993––1995, aerotechnogenic pollution of the environment was 20–100 times higher in the area of strong impact compared to the background and had a negative impact on the Scots pine pigment complex. Pollutants were found to inhibit the synthesis of pigments. After the decrease in volume of industrial emissions in 2015 and 2018, several changes occurred in the pigment apparatus of pine needles in the impacted area. In view of a significant reduction in industrial emissions, chloroplasts demonstrated an increase in pigment content even in the area adjacent to the emission source. With a weakening technogenic impact (in the area of moderate contamination), the photosynthetic and respiration abilities of the needles do not undergo changes. This indicates that the basic processes of pine vital activity are stable, and its to the resistance to pollution.
Keywords: , pulp and paper industry, air pollution, pigments, needles, photosynthesis, respiration

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Article published in number 1 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-1-090-096
Views: 18

The study of Lake Aslykul (Southern Cis-Ural) area dynamics by processing the satellite images on the basis of the algebraic approach

B.I. Kochurov, R.F. Malikov, A.R. Iskhakov, G.T.-G. Turikeshev, A.R. Usmanova, E.B. Kratynskaya
Section: Методология и методы исследований. Модели и прогнозы
We use the remote sensing data demanding appropriate processing and special mapping technolo-gies. A mathematical model of image processing is proposed, based on numerical optimization of a multi-parameter nonlinear function with linear constraints with respect to the standard, the latter be-ing set by the expert for the selected image at the beginning of processing. As the image, the satel-lite imagery data, obtained by the LandSat-5 satellite during 10 years since 1987, are used. The pa-rameters of the measuring function of the technical vision system, which also performs numerical measurements of the water body, are determined. Due to the multimodality of the objective func-tion, there can be variety of solutions. The expert keeps freedom in selecting a set of parameter val-ues. To determine a set of parameters for the measuring function of the technical vision system, we carry out "calculation of the lake area" and data collection. The data are processed by algebraic and statistical methods. The results of the study showed that the lake area increased by 2.5-3 qu.km. We suggest that one of the reasons of changing the lake area is tectonic activity.
Keywords: lake area, satellite image processing, Landsat 5, vision system, remote area measurement, modified descriptive image algebras.
Article published in number 1 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-1-058-064
Views: 16

Mouse-modeled change in the toxicity of manganese(II) ions when using activated carbons

O.M. Plotnikova, A.V. Sharov
Section: Ecotoxicology
The content of manganese ions (Mn2+) in the rivers and lakes of the Kurgan region (Russia) reaches 3–6 mg/L, reaching 10 mg/L and more in winter, which is significantly higher than the permissible concentrations. The article presents the results of studying the effect of Mn2+ ions on the blood biochemical parameters of three generations of laboratory mice after drinking solutions containing Mn2+ ions (20 mg/L). In mice of the first generation, an increase in the products of lipid peroxidation (LPO) by 1.4 times was observed while the activity of aminotransferases decreased by 20–30% and carbonyl protein products (CPB) by 15–25%; in the 3rd generation, Mn2+ -induced protein oxidation increased, as the aldehyde and keto derivatives increased 1.4 and 1.7 times, aerobic processes of glycolysis were activated, which was accompanied by a decrease in lactate and glucose and an increase in urea. The waviness of the effect of Mn2+ ions on chronic exposure is noted – the effect in the first and third generations is more intense than in the first. And also assessed the possibility of using activated carbons obtained from birch wood (AC) for cleaning from water from excess Mn2+ ions. Synthesized in the course of the study, ACs are characterized by high adsorption activity: the specific surface area is 560 m2/g, the pore radius is 2–7 nm, the amount of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups is 0.8–0.9 mmol/g. The number of Mn2+ ions on the surface of the AC was 0.60 mmol/g (calculated from the adsorption isotherm of the manganese sludge solution). The biochemical blood parameters of mice were determined after oral administration of a solution containing Mn2 + ions (20 mg/L) and after oral administration at a dose of 7.5 μmol/g Mn2+ ions, as well as extracts from AU with adsorbed Mn2+ ions. The extract from AU with adsorbed Mn2+ ions increased lipid and protein oxidation products and the activity of aminotransferases 1.3–1,4 times, the amount of urea 1.7 times, and the solution in the maximum dose of Mn2 + - POL and reduced the level of keto-derived proteins.
Keywords: manganese(II), activated carbon, biochemical blood parameters, laboratory mice

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Article published in number 1 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-1-188-193
Views: 7

Phthalates – a strange delusion of ecologists

A.A. Semenov, A.G. Enikeev, T.A. Babenko, T.N. Shafikova, A.G. Gorshkov
Section: Theoretical problems of ecology
The environment is polluted with orthophthalic acid esters (phthalates). There is a steady and generally accepted opinion that the reason for this is human production activities. The global annual production of phthalic esters is estimated at 4.9 million tons. It is believed that part of this amount enters in the environment as a harmful industrial pollutant and has an adverse effect on the health of the human population. However, from a large number of publications it is clear that phthalates, as natural metabolites, are also produced in living nature: bacteria, algae, fungi, plants and other organisms. Dibutyl phthalate and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate are the main ingredients among natural phthalic acid metabolites. The green cover of the planet simultaneously contains these substances many times more than their annual industrial production. The unicellate inhabitants of the oceans, soils, and other planetary spaces make a big contribution to the phthalates entering in the nature. The lifetime of phthalates in the environment is short and their long-term accumulation is impossible. The observed level of these pollutants in the environment is the result of a dynamic equilibrium process with the participation of natural biosynthesis and industrial production, on the one hand, and biota absorption and natural degradation, on the other. The proportion of biosynthesis and degradation in this equilibrium is seen to be predominant. Therefore, the recommended measures and efforts to limit the production and use of o-phthalic acid esters are of little use and make little sense. The observed level is supported by constant feeding from wildlife. Throughout human history, people have received and are receiving phthalates with plant foods without visible consequences. Their harmful effects on the health of the human population are exaggerated. And in the process of evolution, effective endogenous ways of detoxification have been developed.
Keywords: ortho-phthalic acid esters, environment, natural origin
Article published in number 1 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-1-016-021
Views: 15

Changes in the amino acid composition of humic substances of podzolic soils during forest regeneration after harvest cutting

N.N. Bondarenko, Е.М. Lapteva
Section: Agroecology
We studied how cuttings affects the amino acid composition of humic and fulvic acids isolated from the upper horizons of podzolic texture-differentiated soils. Amino acid fragments of the hydrolyzable part of humic acid macromolecules were identified and quantified in soils of spruce bilberry forest and different aged deciduous forests, forming during the post-cutting succession in the middle taiga subzone. We found that mass fraction of amino acids in the humic acids isolated from podzolic horizons of cutting places was higher than that in the intact bilberry spruce forest. In fulvic acids, an increase of the proportion of amino acids was found in the organogenic horizons only at the initial stages of reforestation. The regularities of changes in the amino acid composition of humic substances in the relative molar fractions of identified amino acid groups (acidic, basic, neutral polar and nonpolar) were revealed at different stages of the reforestation after cuttings of blueberry spruce forests. Initial stages of forest regeneration are characterized by a decrease in the ratio of hydroxyamino acids to heterocyclic acids, which indicates a depressed state of the zoomicrobial complex as a result of contemporary waterlogging of podzolic soils. Fulvic acids react most sensitively to changes in the synthesis and destruction of soil organic matter under forest regeneration through a change of species, which is characterized by the largest shifts in the ratio of the molar fractions of both individual amino acids and amino acid groups in the composition of their hydrolysates as a whole.
Keywords: cuttings, different aged deciduous forests, podzolic soils, humic and fulvic acids, amino acid composition.
https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=23605054

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Article published in number 1 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-1-126-132
Views: 10

Anthropogenic transformation of the landscapes of Southwestern Crimea in the vicinity of Balaklava for the period from 1836 to 2017

I.V. Agarkova-Lyakh, A.M. Lyakh
Section: Мониторинг природных и антропогенно нарушенных территорий
Opencast mining is accompanied by the destruction of landscapes. Based on cartographic materials, satellite data and field studies, landscape maps of the Balaklava vicinities in the southwestern part of the Crimean Peninsula have been compiled, where flux limestone mining has been carried out since the 30s of the last century. The analysis of landscape maps for the period from 1836 to 2017 showed that active technogenic activity has led to a radical replacement of natural landscapes by human-made. From 1836 to 2017 the area of natural landscapes has decreased more than two times and constitutes 37,9% of the investigated territory. They are represented by petrophytic steppes, juniper woodland and shiblyak forest. At present, anthropogenic landscapes occupy about 60% of the studied area. Their area increased more than five times from 1836 to 2017. In 1836 there were two classes of anthropogenic landscapes (residential and agricultural), in 1957 there were four classes (residential, agricultural, industrial and military), in 2017 there were seven classes (residential, agricultural, industrial, forest, water, recreational and military). Today, the largest areas (31%) are occupied by industrial landscapes.
Keywords: technogenic activity, anthropogenic landscapes, natural landscapes, comparative cartographic analysis, Psilerakhsky quarry

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Article published in number 1 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-1-085-089
Views: 14

Comparative evaluation of biochemical composition of microalgae biomass Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus оbliquus

V.А. Lukyanov, S.Yu. Gorbunova, I.V. Gribovskaya
Section: Population ecology
A comparative evaluation of the productivity, biochemical, mineral and fatty acid composition of dry biomass of two green microalgae Ch. vulgaris and S. obliquus was carried out. Under these conditions of cultivation, no significant differences between the values of the maximum productivity of microalgae were found. After 72 hours of cultivation, the maximum density of Ch. vulgaris and S. obliquus increased by 10 times. The superiority of S. obliquus biomass quality in the following biochemical parameters was established: protein - 68.7%, lipids - 27.6% carotenoids - 0.096 mg/g. It has been shown that when growing the studied species of microalgae on the same Tamiya nutrient medium, their biomass had a sufficiently distinct mineral composition. It has been experimentally established that the nitrogen content in S. obliquus cells was by 2,5% higher than in Ch. vulgaris cells, herewith the concentration of phosphorus was almost the same. The sodium content in Ch. vulgaris biomass was twice as little as its quantity in S. obliquus; potassium was 3 times less. Calcium, sulfur, magnesium, iron had a higher content in Ch. vulgaris microalgae. The concentrations of Сr и Pb were higher in S. obliquus biomass. The difference in the quantitative composition of fatty acids of the studied objects has been established. In Ch. vulgaris biomass the following acids predominated (their content was more than 5%): 16:0 – 23,63%, 16:2ω4 – 6,37%, 18:0 - 18,57%, 18:2ω6 – 16,73%, 18:3ω3 – 5,46% and 24:0 – 5,46%; as far as S. оbliquus biomass is concerned the acids whose content was more than 5% were the following: 16:0 – 18,82%, 16:4ω3 - 9,82%, 18:1ω9 – 10,81%, 18:2ω6 - 21,54% and 18:3ω3 – 10,74%.
Keywords: microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus obliquus, biochemical composition, fatty acids, productivity, biotechnology
Article published in number 1 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-1-216-221
Views: 16

Bioassay of water from urban river systems of Armenia using model test system

R.E. Avalyan, E.A. Aghajanyan, A.L. Atoyants, R.M. Aroutiounian
Section: Мониторинг природных и антропогенно нарушенных территорий
The Tradescantia clone 02 stamen hair mutations (Trad-SHM) and Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) bioassays are two of the efficient and reliable biomonotory test systems for mutagenicity of air, water and soil polutans. The genotoxicity and clastogenicity of water samples collected from diferent sites of Razdan river were assessed by means of Trad-SHM and Trad-MCN assay using model test plant Tradescantia (clone 02). Here we report a significant increase in the level of somatic mutation (recessive mutation events – RME) and micronuclei (MN) in tetrads of pollen microspores frequency in the Tradescantia inflorescences exposed to the water samples of river compared to the background. The maximum manifestation of these genetic effects from both investigated bioassays was observed in Kievsky bridge water samples. A significant positive correlation between the somatic mutation events and MN with tetrads was revealed. These results indicate that Trad-SHM and Trad-MCN bioassays of the Tradescantia clone 02 can be applied for biotesting of water quality of river’s ecosystems.
Keywords: Tradescantia clone 02, biotesting, genotoxicity, clastogenicity, water pollution

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Article published in number 1 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-1-097-103
Views: 4

Microelemental composition of fluvioglacial sands as a factor of increased phytodiversity in the polissya landscapes

O.V. Shopina, N.G. Kadetov, I.N. Semenkov
Section: Chemistry of natural environments and objects
To determine the reasons for the presence of area with increased phytodiversity and resistance to fires within the Kerzhensky Reserve, in 2017, field works were carried out to analyse the characteristics of the flora and soils. Within the study area (less than 4.7 km2) 169 species of vascular plants (26% of the whole reserve flora and 69% of the species found in places burnt in 2010) were found including rare species for Zavolzhie: Cephalanthera rubra (L.) Rich., Gymnadenia conopsea (L.) R. Br., Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz, Kadenia dubia (Schkuhr) Lavrova et V. Tichomirov, Equisetum hyemale L., Trifolium montanum L. et al. In the study area, the share of eutrophs and xerophytes is 10 and 5% more than in the burnt area. The share of hygrophytes is 10% less. The high levels of phytodiversity and resistance to fires allow us to consider the surveyed (studied) area as a refuge in the period of fires and a source of subsequent spreading of species. The podzols of the studied site (13 cross-sections) are characterized by standard pH values, particle size and humus distribution, with the 1.5 to 2 times elevated content of microelements. According to the content in the A-horizon (n=13), microelements form a range: Zn (90–118 mg/kg)> Sr (82-101)> Ni (45). On the biogeochemical barrier in the A-horizon, Mn, Fe, Mg, As, Ca, P, Ti, Al, and K accumulate. In subordinate landscapes, Fe, Mn, Al, K, and As accumulate; Co and Cu dissipate. The content of Ca, K, Mg, P, Si, and Ti is similar in autonomous and subordinate landscapes. The high content of microelements results in the increased phytodiversity of the study area.
Keywords: microelements, Podzol, phytodiversity, Zavolzhie

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Article published in number 1 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-1-154-158
Views: 4

Correction of adaptive reactions of the cardiovascular system using the ecdysteroid-containing remedy Adasten during intensive physical work in the North

V.V. Volodin, V.I. Vetosheva, S.O. Volodina
Section: Social ecology
The efficiency of the cardiorespiratory system of men performing intensive physical work in the North, was evaluated by Bicycle ergometric test before and after phytopharmacological support using Adasten adaptogen. Adasten activated the adrenal cortex (cortisol increase), and sympatho-adrenal system (growth of Kerdo vegetative index). Besides, the pulse slowed down and heart rate decreased, the time of its recovery after the load was reduced. Systolic, pulse and pressure rise increased in time. The relationship between heart rate and pressure to load was revealed only in individuals up to 30 years after phyto-support. Cardiac output and minute blood volume before and after 100 watts load increased and at a load of 200 watts in individuals up to 30 years decreased. In more qualified men over 30 years of age, cardiac output increased not only at a load of 100, but also 175 watts. Minute blood volume increases to a greater extent than cardiac output before and after phyto-support in both groups of men before load. At a load of 100 watts, the increase in cardiac output exceeded that of minute blood volume, increased hemodynamics was carried out by increasing the blood volume release at systole with a decrease in heart rate after phytopharmacological support. At a load of 175 watts, cardiac output is maintained, and minute blood volume tends to decrease, becoming reliable at a load of 200 watts. That is, the strengthening of hemodynamics takes place mainly by increasing the blood volume at systole, which is energetically more beneficial to the organism. The maximum oxygen consumption increased against the background of phytopharmacological support for the load in persons under 30 years; in the older age group there was only a growth trend. The facts obtained suggest that phytopharmacological support synchronizes the activity of the cardiorespiratory system, physical efficiency becomes more effective, especially in the group of younger men. Dietary Supplement Adasten allows to activate and regulate natural-determined protective mechanisms of the human organism, performing intensive physical work without causing a negative aftereffect.
Keywords: Adasten, adaptogens, physical performance, cardiorespiratory system, intensive physical load, North
Article published in number 1 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-1-227-234
Views: 6

Cartographic modeling of the Russian steppe-zone urban landscapes with the use of neural networks

S.A. Dubrovskaya, R.V. Ryakhov
Section: Методология и методы исследований. Модели и прогнозы
Based on the method of automated classification of artificial neural networks, an urban-ecological landscape cartographic model of Volgograd was constructed, using geomorphometric data to identify spatially homogeneous sections of the urban-geographic system landscape structures. The neural network approach and data of ecological-functional zoning allow us to carry out the spatial differentiation of urban ecosystems and to obtain reliable information that is necessary to improve the ecological situation of urban space. As a result of the application of the Self Organizing Map learning algorithm and the created digital model, a cartographic model of urban landscapes was compiled, which is a reflection of the geographic environment and the processes of development of technogenic impacts on the state of the natural-anthropogenic complex. In the classification by the method of artificial neural networks, based on vertical differentiation, the features of horizontal geomorphometric indicators information is included. For the first time, the integration of selected genetic types of relief with the modern functional purpose of the zones of the studied urban ecosystem was carried out. The accumulative relief type of Volgograd is identified by the neural network algorithm as a single continual polygon, characterized by a fairly uniform orientation of the slopes. The above-terrace complex is represented by the Khvalynsk abrasive and accumulative terraces, identified by a neural network by morphometric parameters. The water partite geoecological area is presented by gully slopes and near watershed slopes. To classify the slope type of terrain, maps of the exposures along the lines of local watersheds are applied.
Keywords: Artificial neural networks, digital relief model, geomorphic indicators, urbogeosystem, natural-anthropogenic complex
http://orensteppe.org/

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Article published in number 1 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-1-053-057
Views: 3

Waste disposal in the Udmurt Republic: analysis of the raw material base and current trends

O.P. Druzhakina, I.L. Bukharina, A.G. Kovalchuk
Section: Problems of environmental protection
An analytical study of statistical data on the types and volumes of waste generated in the Udmurt Republic was carried out. The trends and directions of the formation of the industry for waste management in the Republic are shown, taking into account the current regulatory framework and indicators of resource saving wastes generated in the region are considered from the point of view of the raw material base of the secondary raw materials market. The prospects for the development of the processing industry, minimization of environmental damage are shown. Proposals have been developed for the types of waste that are promising in the implementation of technologies and methods of recycling. The problems of separate waste collection in educational institutions are touched upon.
Keywords: waste disposal, separate waste collection, secondary raw materials, waste accumulation, solid household waste

Article published in number 4 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-4-123-128
Views: 59

A new approach to developing a remediation plan for soil contaminated with industrial waste

M.A. Shumilova, V.G. Petrov
Section: Remediation and rehabilitation
After what happened in August 2018 the spill of caustic industrial waste on the agricultural lands of the Alnash district of Udmurtia, we were tasked with the prompt remediation of the affected farmland. A group of environmental and resource-saving technologies carried out regular sampling of four soil samples, including the control one from a conditionally clean soil, before the start of work and after technological measures for a long period. Analysis of the water extract of contaminated soil samples a month after the spill showed a high acidity of the waste: pH = 1.546 ÷ 2.186. The content of nitrates in the soil was determined by a photometric method; however, the acid trapped in the soil oxidized the iron(II) ions to iron(III); therefore, the formation of its complex of bright purple color makes further determination of nitrates problematic. The addition of a 5% sodium carbonate solution to the original soil filtrate at a ratio of 2: 1 caused the formation of a precipitate of iron(III) hydroxide, which was filtered off and then worked according to the procedure. According to the experimental data, nitrates in the contaminated soil did not exceed the values of the background sample. The quantitative determination of chloride ions in the soil was carried out by argentometric method, preliminarily precipitating iron(III) with a sodium carbonate solution. The excess of the chloride content in the contaminated soil compared to the background was from 113 to 213 times. A method for remediation of contaminated soil was developed at the experimental stand. Carrying out the proposed measures made it possible to reduce the amount of pollutants in the affected soil to background values. To exclude the ingress of hazardous industrial waste into the environment it is required to create specialized enterprises for their neutralization and disposal.
Keywords: damaged soil, industrial waste, chlorides, nitrates, acidity, remediation
Article published in number 4 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-4-198-202
Views: 51

Iron-based nanostructured reagents in the processes of biological wastewater treatment

Y.V. Kobeleva, А.S. Sirotkin, T.V. Vdovina, N.N. Shurgalina, E.I. Sidorova
Section: Ecologization of industry
The joint in the time and in the space biological and reagent treatment processes act as the modern innovative proposals in water treatment and sewerage technologies in order to increase the efficiency of removing various water impurities and improve the physiological characteristics, biochemical and operational properties of microorganisms-destructors of pollutants. Moreover, it is relevant to assess the effect of reagent which is introduced into the microbial community of the activated sludge. One of the promising directions of development for joint biological and reagent wastewater treatment is the design of innovative reagent preparations based on nanostructured metals, in particular iron. This work presents the results of obtaining of iron nanoparticles, experimental determination of the dosage for iron nanoparticles in wastewater treatment system. Comparative analysis has been performed to assess how the iron-based nanostructured reagents used in the processes of biological wastewater treatment remove phosphorus compounds. In addition, the efficiency of the treatment processes was evaluated by the extent to which the concentrations of organic substances, nitrogen compounds, phosphorus were changed, as well as by the enzymatic activity of the activated sludge microbial community. The results of experimental studies have shown that the using of nanostructured reagents improves the most important technological parameter of the process - sedimentation of the activated sludge. The results indicate the increase in the wastewater treatment efficiency in all samples with iron-containing reagents. The analysis of the microbial community state on the activated sludge enzymatic activity has shown that the inhibition of microbial activity was not observed when applying the reagents based on nanostructured iron.
Keywords: active sludge, wastewater, biological treatment, reagents, iron nanoparticles, dephosphorization, sedimentation

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Article published in number 4 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-4-117-122
Views: 35

Economic effect of environmental safety of galvanic production

A.A. Nester, O.O. Nikitin, O.V. Romanishina, V.V. Mysliborskiy, S.V. Ataev, O.S. Tyutyunnik, N.M. Gordiy
Section: Ecologization of industry
Purpose. Dumping and preserving spent pickling solutions on the territory of enterprises leads to environmental pollution, requires significant costs for their neutralization at the enterprise and at treatment facilities at the production sites. The purpose of the article is to present the results of research and tests carried out to create environmentally friendly equipment. Methodology. In this work, individual processes of regeneration of copper-ammonia pickling solutions with the production of dense copper precipitates, the release of which sharply reduce the formation and storage of waste in the form of sludge on the territory of enterprises, are studied. Results. It is noted that the chemical correction of pickling solutions leads to the formation of a significant amount of wastewater, which contains heavy metals, which negatively affect soils, groundwater, flora and humans, as the top of the food chain. The creation of equipment for the recovery of used solutions with the release of metal in a form suitable for remelting is becoming an important element in saving the environment. Scientific novelty. The research carried out made it possible to create promising equipment on their basis. The diagram of the etching line with the withdrawal of the used etching solution for regeneration to restore operating parameters is presented. The research-based etching line for printed circuit boards provides for the reuse of rinsing waters in the technological process to replenish the withdrawn pickling solution or after their recovery and use for rinsing the printed circuit boards. For the regeneration of a copper-alkaline solution based on CuCl2, a continuous-operation unit was proposed using a stainless steel or titanium cathode 3 mm thick and a graphite anode 30 mm thick. Practical significance. The use of a dense precipitation copper recovery process facilitates metal removal by simple mechanical operations and avoids the complex design for recovering copper in the form of metal powders. Separate dimensions of structural elements are given to ensure the operation of the regenerator of the used pickling solution.
Keywords: regeneration, sludge, pickling solution, titanium, cathode, wash water
Article published in number 4 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-4-086-092
Views: 27

Prospects for sonochemical treatment of wastewater containing synthetic surfactants

R.K. Zakirov, F.Y. Akhmadullina, E.S. Balymova
Section: Ecologization of industry
Experimental studies have been carried out to study the effect of low-frequency ultrasound on the destruction of nonionic synthetic surfactants, which have different molecular weights. Model solutions of two nonionic surfactants: polyethylene oxide and oxanol were chosen as the objects of study. The studies were carried out in order to confirm the prospects of using low-frequency ultrasound in the process of local treatment of wastewater, containing nonionic synthetic surfactants. The level of disintegration of polyethylene oxide and oxanol was evaluated by two methods in a comparative aspect: viscometry and photocolorimetry. A similar nature of the dependences of the destruction efficiency of nonionic surfactants, obtained on the basis of photocolorimetric and viscometric measurements, was revealed. The possibility of using the viscometric method for express determination of the most effective mode of ultrasonic exposure has been confirmed. A more significant effect of the intensity of ultrasonic action on the degree of decomposition of nonionic surfactants was found in comparison with the duration of ultrasonic treatment. The possibility of manifestation of surface-active properties in the decay products of the studied pollutants is shown. Prospective modes of ultrasonic treatment of industrial effluents are proposed. As a result of the research, the most promising from the point of view of economics and purification efficiency was established mode of preliminary ultrasonic treatment of industrial effluents: intensity - 6 W / cm², duration - 1 min. This mode provides a sufficiently high efficiency of decomposition of nonionic surfactants. At significant initial concentrations of nonionic surfactants in wastewater (above 50 mg / dm³), it is recommended to increase the intensity of ultrasonic action.
Keywords: synthetic surfactants, ultrasound, wastewater treatment, photometry, viscosimetry.

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Article published in number 4 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-4-111-116
Views: 16

Adsorption purification of phenol-containing wastewater from oil refineries

L.A. Nikolaeva, N.E. Aikenova
Section: Problems of environmental protection
In this paper, the possibility of adsorptive purification of industrial wastewater from oil refineries from phenols by industrial wastes is considered. It is proposed to use carbonate sludge for water treatment of natural water as one of the most accessible materials, which is a large-tonnage waste of energy, for sewage treatment. A flowchart for the purification of wastewater from phenols is proposed, the calculation of the adsorption filter with the loading of carbonate sludge in the scheme for the purification of wastewater from phenols is performed.
Keywords: adsorption, adsorbent, carbonate sludge, wastewater, phenols, wastewater after treatment

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Article published in number 4 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-4-136-142
Views: 15

Gas-air emissions from glass container production as a risk factor for public health

T.А. Trifonova, A.А. Martsev, O.G. Selivanov
Section: Problems of environmental protection
Therefore, the purpose of this work was to assess the impact of environmental pollution on the health of the city, which operates a modern enterprise for the production of glass products. The paper uses the statistical data of the official services of the region in the Gorokhovetsky district of the Vladimir region, as well as the data of their own research. Determination of heavy metals in the soil was performed by x-ray fluorescence method on the spectrometer "SPECTROSCAN MAX-G". Determination of anion content in soils was carried out using water extracts of soil samples by capillary electrophoresis on the device "Drops-104". Statistically significant positive correlation coefficients between population morbidity and emission dynamics from stationary sources were obtained. Data on the content of heavy metals (HM) and anions in different parts of Gorokhovets were obtained. It is established that the main stationary source of environmental pollution is a glass plant, by-products of which are primarily nitrogen oxides. Statistically significant correlation between the dynamics of emissions of pollutants from stationary sources and a number of classes of diseases, as well as the excess of nitrates in the soil of the city, in comparison with the control, suggests a possible dependence of the development of pathological processes in the population from the receipt of nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere. The solution to the problem of reducing harmful emissions of glass container production can be innovative changes in the technology of glass cooking and furnace design, the use of new devices for burning organic fuel, the transition to cooking using electricity, which practically eliminates the entry of harmful volatile pollutants into the atmosphere.
Keywords: glass production, heavy metals, nitric oxide, morbidity
Article published in number 4 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-4-155-161
Views: 18

HELCOM “hot spots”: cattle-breeding complex “Pashskiy” as the object of accumulated environmental damage

A.M. Dregulo, V.Z. Rodionov
Section: Мониторинг природных и антропогенно нарушенных территорий
he economic activity of livestock complexes located in the Leningrad region, in particular the Pashsky livestock complex, has a negative impact on the ecological state of the Gulf of Finland. The main reasons for this were laid in the 70s of the last century, when without sufficient scientific justification, livestock and poultry were transferred to the industrial basis. The present study includes a retrospective look at the process of degradation of the Pashsky livestock complex in the context of accumulated environmental damage. It is shown that the most probable source of anthropogenic impact is the leaching of manure masses from the territories of the complex, which is facilitated by the increasing intensity of precipitation. The most significant causes of these negative phenomena to date remain the lack of hydro meteorological information, both current, due to insufficient development of the observation network, and retrospective - due to irreparable flaws and losses in the past years, the failed policy of the industry, the lack of practice of "environmental debt" and management decisions on the treatment of objects of accumulated harm to the environment.
Keywords: Gulf of Finland, HELCOM «hot spots», livestock complex, accumulated environmental damage

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Article published in number 4 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-4-049-054
Views: 14

New approach to utilization of oil-polluted soil

E. Gilazhov, A. Saginayev, M. Urazgaliyeva, A. Aronova, S. Izgaliyev
Section: Remediation and rehabilitation
The material for the study of the authors selected soils polluted with oil, selected from the territory of the oil and gas industry «Prorvaneft» and the oil and gas industry «Zhyloyneft» of the Atyrau region of the Republic of Kazakhstan and studied the possibility of their utilization by using as organic binders to strengthen the soil. The result of the research is the development of the new method for the disposal of waste oil and gas production - oil-contaminated soils by using them as an organic binder to strengthen the soil in the construction of unpaved roads. The use of compositions prepared from contaminated soil, selected from the «Karaton» sludge collector of the oil and gas industry «Zhyloyneft» for physical and mechanical properties complies with the requirements of the building regulations of the Republic of Kazakhstan and even exceeds the requirements for soils reinforced with organic binders for the construction of upper layers of foundations and road pavements of III-V technical equipment category. The soil strengthened by the proposed astringent compound, even with a lower content of oil hydrocarbons in the composition, has high strength, and in addition, water resistance is 2 times improved. By the proposed method, it is possible to obtain astringent compositions for strengthening the soils of the lower layer of the base of dirt roads. They give high strength, frost resistance to the soil and improve the water resistance of the soil than the well-known binders. The application of this method can solve one of the most important environmental problems in the field of soil and atmosphere protection.
Keywords: oil and gas production, contaminated soil, utilization, strengthening of soil, organic binders, road construction.
https://www.inform.kz/ru/kazahstan-v-2017-godu-dobyl-72-9-mln-tonn-nefti_a3120243,

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Article published in number 4 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-4-185-191
Views: 21

Modification of a bioassay with enchitreides for ecotoxicological assessment of contaminated soil

A.P. Baranov, M.I. Lunev, L.P. Voronina
Section: Ecotoxicology
Interpretation of bioassay results of both mono-contamination and complex multifactorial ones is carried out on the basis of comparison with the data of chemical analysis. Quite often, chemical analysis data correlate poorly with toxic bioassay indicators, which depend on both the bioavailability of pollutants, and the entire set of conditions of the contaminated area. In addition, in case of contamination with a pollutant of unknown properties or complex, multi-component contamination, it is difficult to select the necessary chemical analyses and obtain a complete picture of chemical contamination. However, the nature and source of the toxic effect may remain unexplained. Bioassay (test – Enchytraeus albidus) was carried out in the laboratory experiments with solutions and water extracts from the compost of sewage sludge. Lab experiments studied the possibility for the use of the antidote-1 (1-methylnicotinamide iodide) to determine the presence of metaphos and antidote-2 (dimercaprol sodium) to in turn determine the presence of Cd. Test- organisms (E. albidus) used for ecological studies to determine the toxicity in test-samples by bioassay undergo adaptation by preliminary treatment with specific antidotes. It was determined that use of adapted test-organisms to evaluate the toxicity of sample that has substance sensitive to the particular antidote leads to the decrease of toxicity. Thus the use of antidotes for bioassay may close the gap to our understanding of etiology and causes of toxicity of the sample under study. Further development of the study requires meticulous approach not only because of the change to bioassay but due to requirements for recultivation procedures for contaminated samples as well.
Keywords: bioassay, Enchytraeidae, antidote, pollutant

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Article published in number 4 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-4-169-175
Views: 12

Geographical and ecological land zoning of onshore oil pipeline location by level of hazard to environment from emergency oil spills in Arctic region

A.S. Lokhov, M.G. Gubaidullin, V.B. Korobov, A.G. Tutygin
Section: Мониторинг природных и антропогенно нарушенных территорий
The level of environmental impact from emergency oil spills in the Arctic region is wide variety even for small areas due to considerable heterogeneity of factors affecting the fate of spilled oil. Authors suggest a point rating classification model for assessment the hazard level of oil spills by means of the sum of products of the factor indicators and their weight coefficients. This paper investigates next factors: oil spreading assessment; number of water bodies that can be polluted; surface slope. Calculations performed for “Yuzhnoye Khylchuyu – Varandey” pipeline in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Russian Federation. Oil spreading assessment is calculated with hydrodynamic model considering type of soil (in this case – various types of peat), soil permeability, soil humidity, oil viscosity, evaporation of oil and others. Number of water bodies is calculated by means of Earth satellite images, surface slope – by means of topographic map. The number of water bodies on this pipeline was 59, including 39 lakes and 20 rivers. Average surface slope for pipeline was low (1%), this is not so significant for hazard level assessment. Authors determined that level of potential risk to the environment is significantly different depending on factor influence. Paper suggests five-step verbal-numeric rating scale for assessment the hazard level and pipeline zoning was carried out on this basis.
Keywords: oil pipeline, onshore oil spills, zoning, Arctic region

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Article published in number 4 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-4-043-048
Views: 5

Cultivation of Spirulina platensis (Nordst.) Geitler on waste water of poultry farms

S.Yu. Gorbunova, I.N. Gudvilovich
Section: Ecologization of industry
The investigation of cyanobacteria Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis growth in the chicken manure extract (MCE) was carried out. The content of nitrogen and phosphorus in 1 liter of nutrient medium prepared on the basis of chicken manure extract is calculated. In this case, the protein and photosynthetic pigments contents in the cells of the S. platensis is significantly reduced by the 6th days and leads to the culture death. Increasing the volume fraction of the MCE in the nutrient medium has a significant impact on the pigments contents and total protein in the cyanobacteria biomass. Optimum concentrations of extract (20–30%), which provide a high rate of spirulina growth and the accumulation of biologically active substances in the obtained biomass, were determined. It was shown that 20–30% of MCE concentration allows to increase culture yield by 10–20% compared to control sample and to obtain the S. рlatensis biomass containing significant amounts of biologically active substances. It was found that the content of protein, chlorophyll a and C-phycocyanin in the S. рlatensis cells increased by 2.5–6 times at the linear stage of culture growth at the increase of the volume fraction of MCE in the nutrient medium by 5 to 30%. S. рlatensis biomass, produced from such cultivation process, meets the criteria of high-quality biomass contents of protein, chlorophyll a, carotenoids and C-phycocyanin (51, 1.1, 0.4 and 5.5% correspondingly). The approach proposed in the paper allows to reduce material costs for the traditional mineral media preparation for microalgae cultivation.
Keywords: Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis, microalgae, chicken manure, biologically active substances

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Article published in number 4 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-4-068-074
Views: 8

Algorithm for implementing the program of radioecological monitoring of the environment in the vicinity of nuclear and radiation-hazardous facilities

E.I. Karpenko, N.I. Sanzharova, A.V. Panov
Section: Методология и методы исследований. Модели и прогнозы
The main tasks and main stages for implementing the radioecological monitoring system in the vicinity of nuclear fuel cycle facilities are presented. The principles for performing the radioecological monitoring are determined. To improve the efficiency and quality of work in the implementation of projects on radioecological research of the territory, there is a need to develop algorithms for implementing programs of radiation-ecological monitoring and its application in the environmental monitoring system, including the assessment and forecast of changes in indicators of this state. The authors have developed the algorithm of investigations in the framework of environmental radioecological monitoring in the region where nuclear and radiation hazardous facilities are located. A set of independent algorithms has been elaborated for each stage of work, describing the order of actions during conducting radiation and environmental monitoring. The paper presents the conceptual outline for realizing the radioecological monitoring program. The elements of the effective work within the framework of contaminants control in the components of ecosystems and radiation safety assurance of humans and biota are identified. The authors have developed an approach, whereby the researcher has the opportunity to properly organize the sequence of actions to create a network of radioecological monitoring, performing field and cameral work.
Keywords: radioecological monitoring, nuclear and radiation-hazardous facilities, radionuclides, environment, algorithm

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Article published in number 4 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-4-030-034
Views: 6

Remote monitoring of overgrowth of higher aquatic vegetation in the water area of the eutrophied reservoir

Т.I. Kutyavina, V.V. Rutman, Т.Ya. Аshikhmina
Section: Research methods. Models and projects
The paper presents information on the distribution of thickets of coastal aquatic and higher aquatic plants in the water area of the Omutninsky reservoir, subject to eutrophication processes. During the route survey of the reservoir, 33 dominant species of aquatic and coastal aquatic plants were identified. Large thickets of higher plants were found in shallow areas in the upper reaches and in the central part of the reservoir along the coastline. Interpretation of satellite images from the Landsat-5 and Sentinel-2A satellites was carried out, the normalized vegetation index (NDVI) was calculated. According to the results of the NDVI calculation, the areas of overgrowth of the water area of the Omutninskoye reservoir with emergent vegetation were calculated. A decrease in the areas of overgrowth in the upper reaches of the reservoir was noted in the period from 2011 to 2019, which is most likely associated with the influence of the temperature factor.
Keywords: inland waters, eutrophication, higher aquatic plants, NDVI, remote sensing of the Earth

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Article published in number 3 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-3-036-040
Views: 34

Uncertainty and Multifunctionality: Legal Challenges and Opportunities for Green Infrastructure (GI)

Y.M. Gordeeva
Section: Social ecology
Nature and its vital contributions to people, which together embody biodiversity and ecosystem functions and services, are deteriorating from the changes in land and sea use, overexploitation of animals, plants and other organisms, pollution and climate change. [1] The anthropogenic changes in ecological systems have been so profound that scientists even warn that we have now entered a new geological period – Anthropocene [2]. As we continue degrading our natural environment in order to gain ecological, economic and social benefits, the utilization of “nature-based solutions (NBS)” remains an under-utilized option [3]. GI concept and the implementation of GI emerges as a policy response to address and reverse the current rather counterproductive practice. The European Commission defines GI as a “strategically planned network of natural and semi-natural areas with other environmental features, designed and managed to deliver a wide range of ecosystem services […]” [4]. Yet, designing and implementing GI policy has proved challenging: e.g. how to safeguard sound and effective decision-making in managing complex systems with multiple stakeholders at various temporal/spatial scales, under conditions of uncertainty, with multiple conflicting interests? These and other questions in relation to GI design and implementation were discussed in April, 2020 during the “Woodnet” project [5] international interdisciplinary webinar “Uncertainty and Multifunctionality: Legal Challenges and Opportunities for GI” (administered by the Catholic University of Louvain, Louvain – la – Neuve, Belgium). In the advent of a collective handbook and an international conference on the legal issues of GI design and implementation to be held in 2021, the present article deliberates on the pressing challenges, discussed during the webinar.
Keywords: Green Infrastructure, uncertainty, multifunctionality, connectivity conservation, precautionary principle, adaptive management, evidence-based approach, environmental law.
https://www.biodiversa.org/1026
Article published in number 3 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-3-217-223
Views: 48

Effects of acidifying manure effluent on its microbiological characteristics

L.V. Pilip, V.A. Kozvonin, N.V. Syrchina, E.P. Kolevatykh, T.Ya. Ashikhmina
Section: Agroecology
Modern industrial animal husbandry is a significant source of chemical and biological pollution of the environment. Animal manure and slurry present a particular environmental danger during their accumulation and storage until their disposal or application into the soil. The process of microbiological destruction of these wastes results in a wide range of pollutants being formed, including greenhouse gases, ammonia, toxic sulfur compounds, and others. One of the easiest ways to reduce microbiological activity is the acidification of manure effluent. As a result of experimental studies, it has been found that the treatment of pig slurry with a solution of waste sulfuric acid until reaching pH 5.3 leads to a decrease in the number of microorganisms in the treated wastes by 2.2 times on the 7th day and by 7.8 times on the 14th day of the experiment as compared to the control (non-acidified) samples. Acidification results in the elimination of Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus sp., as well as a sharp decrease in the number of Peptostreptococcus sp. and Peptoniphilus sp. in test samples. Implementing techniques for manure acidification on industrial pig farms will improve the sanitary, epidemiological and environmental situation in animal premises.
Keywords: pig manure, microbiology, livestock ecology, manure processing, sulfuric acid

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Article published in number 3 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-3-161-167
Views: 15

Approaches for establishing threshold concentrations of priority pollutants in urban ecosystem components

Y.A. Tunakova, S.V. Novikova, D.V. Ivanov, A.R. Shagidullin, V.S. Valiev, A.J. Morais
Section: Research methods. Models and projects
This study was conducted on the territory of the city of Kazan with the dominant aerogenic flow of metals from a significant number of stationary and mobile sources of pollution, causing specific and non-specific responses in the population. Use of modern mathematical methods, ways of assessment of a response of biological objects to anthropogenic influence, chemical analysis researches of content of metals allowed to allocate sources and to determine threshold concentration of metals in urboekosistema components Wednesdays, by the upper bound of acceptable concentration in biosubstrates of teenage children. As a result, we have proposed and tested a methodology for calculating threshold concentrations of essential and toxic metals in snow cover and soils of Kazan, which do not lead to an increase in their regional reference values in the blood and hair of adolescent children.
Keywords: metals, snow cover, soil cover, organism biosubstrates, threshold concentrations, regional reference values, neural network modeling
Article published in number 3 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-3-023-028
Views: 23

Agroecological justification for the use of complex micronutrient-enriched fertilizers in the cultivation of spring soft wheat

V.I. Lazarev, J.N. Minchenko, A.Ya. Bashkatov
Section: Agroecology
According to the studies conducted in 2017-2019, the use of complex micronutrient-enriched fertilizers such as Aquadon - Micro, MicroFeed Complex and Novofert on spring soft wheat crops on chernozem soils of the Kursk region has been proved to be highly effective and en-vironmentally desirable. Seed treatment with complex micronutrient-enriched fertilizers in combi-nation with two-time spraying of crops during the “Tillering” phase and the “Beginning of Erect Growth” phase has increased the yield of spring wheat by 0.57 - 0.75 ton / ha, or 14.7 - 19.4% , and the content of crude gluten in the grain by 1.8 - 2.0% compared with the control. The highest in-crease of economical indexes in cultivation of spring wheat has been achieved through the effective use of complex fertilizer Aquadon–Micro. Seed treatment (2.0 l / ton) and two–time spraying of crops during the “Tillering” phase (2.0 l / ha) and the “Beginning of Erect Growth” phase(2.0 l / ha) has increased the cost of gross output by 7500 rub / ha, the net income by 6,170.0 rub / ha and the profitability by 22.2%. It has also helped to reduce the cost price of 1 ton of grain by 626.86 rub. The economic efficiency of complex fertilizers Novofert and MicroFeed Complex applied in the same way has been proved to be slightly lower than the effectiveness of the Aquadon–Micro fertilizer: the cost of gross output has enhanced by 5700-5800 rub / ha, the net income by 4942– 4770 rub/ ha, the profitability by 18.9–17.9%. The cost price reduction of 1 ton of grain was approximately 541.62–513.93 rubles.
Keywords: micronutrient-enriched fertilizers, MicroFeed Complex, Aquadon–Micro, Novofert, spring soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), crop yield, crop capacity, gluten content, economic efficiency.
Article published in number 3 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-3-154-160
Views: 9

Optimization of field crop rotations as a factor of soil fertility preservation and greening of agriculture

L.M. Kozlova, E.N. Noskova, F.A. Popov
Section: Agroecology
One of the main conditions of ecological farming is the introduction of biologized field crop rotations. In a long-term stationary experiment (1982-2017) on the study of various types of field crop rotations in the conditions of the Kirov region, the biological activity of the soil (by the method of linen decomposition), soil toxicity (by the seedlings method), productivity of crop rotations were studied. It has been found that on sod-podzolic middle loamy soil the activity of cellulose-decomposing microorganisms depends on the weather conditions of the growing season, the type of crop rotation, the precursor, the presence of organic matter, the agro-physical properties of the soil. In specialized grain crop rotations, the activity of cellulose-decomposing microorganisms was significantly lower than in crop rotations with 50% saturation with leguminous crops, green-manure fallows, and application of organic fertilizers. Fiber degradation under legumes and tilled crops was evaluated on the D.G. Zvyagintsev scale as from "strong" to "very strong." Soil toxicity increased in grain crop rotations, exceeding 20%. Soil was not toxic (0-6%) in biologized crop rotations when applying organic fertilizers. The lowest percentage of non-grown seeds is observed in the soil of pure and green manure fallows. Crop rotation productivity depended on fertilizer systems and crop composition and aver-aged 3.96-5.69 thousand fodder units.
Keywords: crop rotation, rotation cropping system, biological activity, soil toxicity, organic fertilizers, agricultural crops
Article published in number 3 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-3-147-153
Views: 21

An influence of urbanization on the processes of biological invasions in Arctic (on example of Yamal Autonomous Region)

E.M. Koptseva, I.Yu. Popov, D.Yu. Vlasov, E.V. Pershina, E.E. Andronov, E.V. Abakumov
Section: Social ecology
Urbanized ecosystems of the Arctic environment are considered as the most important example of invasive species redistribution into inhabitats which are not typical for them. In this context, urbanized ecosystems has been investigated in terms of biological invasions and local natural communities transformation into antropogenic ones. It is shown, that transformation of the flora and micro fungi is caused mainly by transformation of hydro thermic regime under the changing of surface of soil cover, which is considered as frequent consequence of the urbanization (construction, mining). Urbanogenic floras are considered as relatively stable and competitive. Indexes of α- and β- biodiversity of microorganisms are very different in soils of technogenic and mature landscapes, which is caused by the presence of the invasive species. The diversity of microorganisms show tend to increase due to antropogenic and ornitogenic translocation, newly formed communities become comparatively stable and results in sanitary-hygienic risks, related to the pathogenesis. An intensification of the tourism, transport activity and increasing of urbanization results in intensive transformation of the local faunas. Urbanized territories increment and expansion results in extending of the area to margin terrestrial borders of Eurasia, this also has an effect in formation of the food chains and holistic changes in ecosystems.
Keywords: Arctic, invasions, flora, microorganisms, fauna
Article published in number 3 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-3-210-216
Views: 9

Checkout of methods for isolation and preparation of basidiomycete cultures for mycorrhization of soil

N.V. Bogacheva, N.V. Pozolotina, N.P. Savinykh, I.A. Konovalova
Section: Research methods. Models and projects
Cultivation of coniferous seedlings in artificial conditions is a promising direction for solving the problem of reforestation. One of the best agrotechnical methods for adapting plants to artificial conditions is mycorrhization of the soil. The formation of mycorrhiza, which is a symbiosis of the mycelium of the fungus and the roots of a higher plant, leads to an improvement in the physiological and biochemical state of plants, which contributes to their survival and growth. Objective of the work is working out methods of selection and preparation of culture of basidiomycetes for mycorrhization of soil. In the process of work, isolation and cultural-morphological assessment of mycelium from Tricholoma equestre, Lactarius rufus, Suillus bovinus basidiomycetes was performed . The homogenization regimes of the isolated fungal mycelium were worked out, which planned to cultivate the soil when growing seedlings of conifers in artificial conditions. The optimal mode was 8000 rpm for 2 min, which led to a significant increase in the content of viable mushroom mycelium in the suspension. The optimal range of content of mycelia suspensions of the studied fungi in beer wort for application to the soil was determined experimentally as 101 to 104 of viable propagules per 1 g of soil.
Keywords: allocation of the mycelium, mycorrhization of soil, seedlings of coniferous trees

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Article published in number 3 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-3-046-051
Views: 5

Monitoring of natural and natural-anthropogenic objects in the province of Vyatka-Kama Upland

M.G. Dvornikov, V.V. Shiryaev, V.G. Safonov, D.P. Strelnikov
Section: Monitoring of anthropogenically disturbed areas
The review summarizes the results of thirty years stationary studies of zonal natural and anthropogenically disturbed biogeocenoses (BGC) based on natural ecosystems and their components in the province of Vyatka-Kama Upland. The combination in the hierarchical series of natural, natural-anthropogenic and anthropogenic objects is the chorological basis of environmental monitoring. The analysis of the structure of regional ecosystems and the use of biological resources in changing climatic and anthropogenic conditions is carried out. Due to the identified parameters of the structural and functional organization of the BGC and their capacity, the trend for the conversion of taiga into mixed and rejuvenated forests has been established (in numerical values). The conversion process is accompanied by an increase in calcium to the south of the region and confirms changes in the biogeochemical cycle of the taiga type, which entails a decrease in the ability to restore and maintain the natural amount of water in the Kama basin and its aggregations and the climate as a whole. At the same time, the emergence, dynamic functioning of the BGC and the forecast for their development opens up attractive innovative and investment prospects for effective environmental management and development of the region.
Keywords: natural and anthropogenic objects, biological productivity, forecasting of ecological risks and safety
Article published in number 3 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-3-091-096
Views: 13

Ecological and toxicological assessment of bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil

I.A. Degtyareva, T.Yu. Motina, E.V. Babynin, A.M. Ezhkova, A.Ya. Davletshina
Section: Remediation and rehabilitation
The combined use of a consortium of microorganisms-destructors and sorbent in native and nanoscale form allows to ensure the rate of destruction of oil pollution at a higher level compared to the use of each component separately. Bentonite and nanobenthos not only adsorb hydrocarbons, and are a source of mineral nutrition for autochthonous microflora, improving the soil structure. Nanoantenna at least in 10 times the dose of making contributes to the efficiency of purification of polluted soil in comparison with bentonite in native form. Included in the consortium microorganisms-destructors (Achromobacter insolitus, Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Pseudomonas stutzeri) are actively integrated into the natural population, adapt and begin to effectively decompose hydrocarbons, using them as food and energy.
Keywords: soil, bioremediation, oil, microorganisms, sorbents
Article published in number 3 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-3-196-202
Views: 12

Lycopodiella inundata (L.) Holub (Lycopodiaceae) in the Komi Republic (Russian Federation)

L. V. Teteryuk, Yu. A. Bobrov, B. Yu. Teteryuk, T. I. Marchenko-Vagapova, Yu.V. Golubeva, V. A. Kanev, S. N. Plyusnin
Section: Population ecology
Lycopodiella inundata expands its areal on the European North-East of Russia. In the subzone of the middle taiga of the Komi Republic in 2017-2018, four local populations of this species were found, associated with anthropogenic ecotopes, poor and acidic sands, or peat, varying in moisture regime. Obligatory satellites of L. inundata in plant communities are Drosera rotundifolia L. and Juncus filiformis L., mosses of the genera Sphagnum L. and Polytrichum Hedw. Its local populations are small, beyond protection areas of the Komi Republic and so are endangered. The life-form of the Lycopodiella inundata sporophyte is a spore variance of perennial plant with annual shoot system. This species prefers vegetative multiplication through natural winter morphological disintegration. For determine the population in the beginning of shoots growth, ramets are recommended to be counted. The paleo-geographic analysis makes it possible to exclude the relic nature of the present locations of L. inundata in the European North and allows one to classify the species as an allochthonous element of the flora. In view of the fact that the species is rare and tends to decrease its habitats worldwide, we included L. inundata into new edition of the Red Data Book of the Komi Republic with protection status category 3 (Rare). All habitation places of the species are out of specially protected areas of the republic and so are threatened. Limiting factors for this stenotopic species in the Komi Republic are its narrow ecological amplitude, low competitiveness, instability to violations of the hydrological regime (bogging or draining) and overgrowth of biotopes due to natural succession processes.
Keywords: Lycopodiella inundata, North-East of the European part of Russia, the Komi Republic, flora, rare protected species

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Article published in number 3 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-3-111-118
Views: 11

Research and environmental assessment of complex yard compost

L.V. Boitsova, K.G. Moiseev, V.N. Pishchik, E.G. Zinchuk, Yu.V. Khomyakov
Section: Agroecology
The problem of environmentally safe disposal of a large amount of leaf litter generated every year in urban parks and squares is relevant. In this regard, the assessment of the toxicity of complex yard compost on the basis of leaf litter, as well as ground with addition of yard compost. In this paper, three types of substrates were studied: complex yard compost, soil-ground and native soil. Yard compost by 50% consisted of leaf litter. The soil-ground consisted of 40% of composting products of yard compost, 25% of soil-forming rock (sandy), 20% of greenhouse recoil, which included peat, 15% of building sand. The native soil (urban soil) was studied as a control. Soil toxicity control was carried out by chemical and biological methods (a bioindication, and a bioassay). The species diversity and abundance of the mesofauna in the studied substrates was studied. An increase in the number of representatives of Julida sp. and Geophilomorpha in complex compost, compared with native soil was found. The abundance of Eisenia fetida in the compost was 40 pieces per m2 in native soil; this species was not found. The number of Eiseniella tetraedra is not large and amounted to 7-12 pieces per m2 in compost, but exceeded their number in native soil by 3-4 times. Cucumis sativus, Solanum lycopersicum, Raphanus sativus, Lepidium sativum were selected as test objects. A phytotest was performed on seed germination of Raphanus sativus and Lepidium sativum. The species diversity of pathogenic fungi has been analyzed. The inhibition of seed germination in the studied substrates was noted. Chemical analysis showed that the concentration of Cd in the studied substrates exceeds approximately the permissible concentration by 7-10 times, Cu and Pb by 2-4 times. Hg was not found in these substrates. The studied complex compost is not recommended to grow vegetables without taking measures to reduce the overall toxicity. Compost and soil - ground on its basis can be used as a substrate for lawn and cultivation of ornamental crops.
Keywords: toxicity, complex compost, soil, bioindication, bioassay

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Article published in number 3 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-3-133-139
Views: 6

Ecological aspects of the immune system of reptiles

E.B. Romanova, E.I. Solomaykin
Section: Theoretical problems of ecology
We systematized the literature data on of reptile immune system and provided our own research on the immunohematological characteristics of venomous and non-venomous snakes at that review. The reptiles’ lymphomyeloid complex is characterized by heterogeneity. The protection against to a wide range of habitat antigens is provided by two forms of immune response: innate and adaptive immunity. The innate immunity in comparison with adaptive responses responds more quickly and effectively. Protection against infections is represented by antimicrobial peptides, the complement system, a set of nonspecific leukocytes, and the formation of an inflammatory reaction, with a set of cytokine-like components. The mechanisms of adaptive immunity are cellular and humoral factors actions. The reptiles have is a weakened reaction of transplant rejection. Humoral immune responses are carried out by B-lymphocytes. Reptiles have immunoglobulins, which structure and whom functions are discussed in that paper. The switching features of intracellular synthesis of immunoglobulins from one isotype to another. It was shown that the immune protection strategy is determined not only by the ontogenetic features of reptiles, but also by the input, size, and duration of exposure to antigens, by the range of external temperatures, by seasonality. The patterns of the immune response of venomous and non-venomous snakes to a complex of environmental factors were revealed. For the first time an immunohematological approach has been used to assess the status of the population of Elaphe dione in nature reserve. Biotopic and interspecific variability was found in the mechanisms of formation of the adaptive response at the population level.
Keywords: reptiles, immune system, innate immunity, adaptive immunity, immunohematological approach
http://ecopri.ru/journal/content_list.php?id=8768;
Article published in number 3 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-3-015-022
Views: 4

Metal and metalloid contents in lichens from specially protected conservation areas

А.F. Meysurova, A.A. Notov
Section: Chemistry of natural environments and objects
The aim of this work is to evaluate the heavy metal and metalloids contents in indicator lichens inside two nature reserves situated within the Tver region that has a complex infrastructure and large number of industrial zones. Inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectral analysis is used to test for the gross and average ratio of 17 metals and metalloids (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ge, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, Ti, V, Zn) in Hypogymnia physodes lichen samples. The average content of the most elements identified in samples from Zavidovo National Park (ZNP) is higher than in the samples from Central Forest State Nature Biosphere Reserve (CFSNBR). There are such metals as titanium, copper, arsenic, cobalt, molybdenum, and tin among them. Differences are the result of different levels and regimens of air moisture saturation, localization of working production plants, degree of anthropogenic transformation of the territory. Spatial distribution of areas with much higher metal concentrations on reserve territory is resulted apparently from variation in air humidity to large extent. In ZNP addiction between qualitative and quantitative metal impact is defined more clearly by level and character of artificial territory transformation. Moreover, in ZNP wide marshy and forest areas in valley on the Lob’ river were identified, which have conservation importance as they are characterized by lack or very low concentrations of many metals. So it would be useful to take advantage while zoning and correction of regimes.
Keywords: ICP-AES method, biomonitoring, heavy metals, epiphytic lichens, baseline monitoring, pollution, conservation area

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Article published in number 3 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-3-058-065
Views: 4

Sorption interaction of gold and its pathfinder elements with humic acids of peat-podzolic soils

V.A. Korshunova, E.D. Lodygin, M.V. Charykova, S.N. Chukov
Section: Chemistry of natural environments and objects
The aim of research is experimental modeling of gold, arsenic, copper, and lead ions interaction with humic acids. Importance of that study and choice of study subjects is coused by poor knowledge of the characteristics of the sorption interaction of these ions with humic acids. Arsenic, copper, and lead are, on the one hand, common pollutants accumulated in soils under anthropogenic impact, and on the other hand – pathfinder elements for gold deposits, which are used as indicators of gold mineralization in geochemical survey. The experiment was carried out in the range of heavy metals concentrations from 5 to 100 µg/cm3 in solution and at temperature of 298 K. The equilibrium concentrations of the elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The experimental adsorption isotherms are described with the empirical Freundlich equation and the Langmuir monomolecular adsorption model. It was shown that the Langmuir model adequately describes the adsorption isotherms of Cu2+ and Pb2+ cations in the used concentration range. The sorption equilibrium constant and the limit adsorption were calculated for these elements. The sorption of arsenic is better described with the Freundich equation. Apparently, it is characterized by complex character of sorption interactions associated with a possible polymolecular adsorption mechanism, as well as with the change of form of arsenic in solution. A simulation experiment of influence of iron(III) ions onto the sorption of gold ions was conducted, which is important for determination of gold’s migration forms in soils with presence of iron oxides and hydroxides. It was shown that the increase of iron concentration had almost no effect on the amount of sorbed gold ions in the studied concentration range.
Keywords: sorption, humic acids, arsenic, gold, copper, lead

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Article published in number 3 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-3-066-071
Views: 3

Urban protected areas in green infrastructure of Khabarovsk City

I.D. Debelaya, G.Yu. Morozova
Section: Social ecology
Urban specially protected natural areas (SPNAs) are an important element of the city’s green infrastructure, which is being formed to support its sustainable development. The aim of the work is to identify the main trends in the functioning of the SPNAs in Khabarovsk. Geobotanic, forest taxation, statistical, cartographic research methods are used. Using the example of the oldest city park, Dynamo, an assessment of ecosystem services was carried out. The total area of SPNAs is 1.5 % of the Khabarovsk area. The system of Khabarovsk SPNAs includes 28 objects of regional and local importance, which are differentiated into 7 categories: natural monuments of regional and local importance, park areas, recreational areas, protected natural objects, squares and natural and recreational complexes. The development of SPNAs in Khabarovsk is influenced by the rapid pace of urbanization, the overall unfavorable environmental situation, high natural and anthropogenic risks and high demands of residents to form a comfortable urban environment. The main problems of the formation of the urban SPNAs system are the lack of a single authority and stable funding; small total area of protected objects; uneven distribution within the city limits; the disparity of protected objects; low representation of natural landscapes, despite the short period of development of the territory; loss of the function of self-regulation of plant communities, loss of biodiversity; multifunctional use of the territory of protected objects. SPNAs are poorly integrated into the economy of the city. The prospects of increasing the total area of specially protected natural areas and expanding the range of their categories due to the reserved urban land are determined. Application of the results: improvement of urban development planning, municipal management.
Keywords: urban specially protected natural area, urban planning, green infrastructure, ecosystem services.
Article published in number 3 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-3-203-209
Views: 10

Environmental monitoring waters of Kumo-Manych depression

E.B. Dedova, V.I. Ivanova, G.N. Konieva
Section: Monitoring of anthropogenically disturbed areas
The reservoirs of the Kumo-Manych depression are of relict origin and function due to leaching of the sea sediments composing the depression by surface and ground waters. The article presents the results of long-term environmental monitoring of reservoirs of Manych group of lakes with high mineralization, which contributes to the formation of a specific biocenosis. The study of ecological features of water bodies under the conditions of limiting influence of salinity showed that a high degree of water salinity (80-200 g/l) contributes to the active development and reproduction of Artemia Salina. in lakes Big Yashaltinskoe and Jama. The main source of nutrition of the parthenogenetic population of Artemia are microphytes Dunaliella salina, Nitzschia, Navicula, Surirella, which have high plasticity and are able to withstand sudden changes in water mineralization. 24 species of diatoms and 1 species of green algae were found. The analysis of the results showed that the composition, dynamics of abundance and Genesis of biota are subject to fluctuations, depending on the cumulative effect of environmental factors. The strongest degree of mineralization of surface waters in the lakes of Manych group formed during the summer period when the value of hydrothermal factor of 0.3-0.4. In lakes the development of two-three generations of crustaceans Artemia salina, the average number of different age crustaceans for the period April – August in the lake Big Yashaltinskoe-23,07 – 61,14 thousand ind./m3, in lake Jama-10,05-23,15 thousand ind./m3. The dependence between the mineralization of water (Y) and the average body length of crustaceans (X) is approximated by the equation of the form: Y=7.88879+0.0109·x (r=0.64).
Keywords: mineralization of water, Kumo-Manych depression, hyperhaline reservoirs, artemia, algae.

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Article published in number 3 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-3-084-090
Views: 4

Dynamics of vegetation and soil properties of fallow ecosystems

M.L. Burdukovskii, P.A. Perepelkina, I.V. Kiseleva
Section: Monitoring of anthropogenically disturbed areas
Data on the vegetation cover transformation on the territory of Primorsky region depending on the fallow period are considered. Studies were conducted on abandoned agricultural fields (15, 20, 30, 35 and 60 years after abandonment). As a reference site, we used a cultivated field in the area and native forest samples. The experiment included 2 soil types: Gleyic Cambisols and Dystric Fluvisol. The study determined that undergrowth Quercus mongolica, which is representative of the native forest appears 15-20 years after the taking the field out of agricultural use. Middle-age fallow fields (20-30 years after abandonment) are characterized by the maximum species diversity. Fallow ecosystems of the Primorsky region are characterized by plant seed shortage and frequent fires. Reedgrass-cereals and wormwood sinusias are the most stable dominant under these conditions. An increase in soil acidity and reduction of humus content, mobile forms of potassium and phosphorus occurs at the stage of active renewal of tree species.
Keywords: arable land, succession, fallow lands, agrochemical characteristics

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Article published in number 3 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-3-078-083
Views: 5

Ecological differentiation of forest syntaxa in MSU’s Zvenigorod Biological Station

Braslavskaya T.Yu., Tikhonova E.V., Sukhova D.V., Ulanova N.G., Popova K.B., Cherednichenko O.V.
Section: Population ecology
In the fluvio-glacial woodland landscape of the Zvenigorod biological station (located within the mixed forest subzone, in the center of the Russian Plain), in order to identify ecological differences between syntaxa of coniferous and mixed forests referred to the classes Carpino–Fagetea and Vaccinio–Piceetea, 536 geobotanical relevées were analyzed those were collected in 2004–2016. Resulting from ecological-floristic classification (according to the Braun-Blanquet approach), 5 associations were established in this woodland (including 2 subassociations, 3 variants, particularly new xeromesophytic variant, named Vaccinium vitis-idaea, of zonal subass. Rhodobryo–Piceetum caricetosum pilosae and new sub-taiga variant named Asarum europaeum of south-taiga subass. Melico–Piceetum typicum) and 1 derivative community. Multidimensional ordination based on the similarity of floristic composition, phytoindication of the ecological regime using rank scales of H. Ellenberg, and analysis of the syntaxa localization in ecotopes at different positions in the river valley and with different soil characteristics (using a geographic information system based on large-scale maps). The results of ordination and phytoindication showed that floristic differences between forest classes are consistent with soil reaction and nitrogen content, and at the level of associations in the same class - with a moisture regime. Frequency analysis of the syntaxa distribution by ecotopes revealed that the forests of the zonal syntaxon (subass. Rhodobryo–Piceetum caricetosum pilosae var. typica) have a tendency to grow on well-humified soils without gleyzation, whereas the forest syntaxon of the more northern range (subass. Melico–Piceetum typicum var. Asarum europaeum) do on gleyed soils. The specific confinement connected with the granulometric soil composition has not been revealed for the studied forests. In the surveyed fluvio-glacial woodland landscape, xeromesophytic mixed forests dominate at the local watershed, those combine features of two classes, but basing on floristic criteria have to be referred to the nemoral class Carpino–Fagetea.
Keywords: hemiboreal forests, Braun-Blanquet classification approach, multidimensional ordination, fluvio-glacial landscape in the center of the Russian Plain

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Article published in number 3 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-3-105-110
Views: 6

Application of methods for processing and analysis of satellite images for the study of eutrophied reservoirs (review)

Т.I. Kutyavina, G.Ya. Kantor, Т.Ya. Аshikhmina, V.P. Savinykh
Section: Theoretical problems of ecology
The review discusses the existing approaches and algorithms used to assess the water quality of inland water bodies in various climatic zones, provides formulas for calculating the most commonly used spectral indices (Chl-a, MCI, NDVI, Turb). The possibilities of using data of remote sensing of the Earth from various sensors (Modis-Terra, Modis-Aqua, Landsat-5, Landsat 7, Landsat 8, Sentinel-2, Sentinel-3) to study the quality of water in inland waters are described. Many researchers note the great potential of the Sentinel-3 satellite for studying inland waters with complex optical conditions (high turbidity, color, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and total suspended matter). It is shown that the optical properties of inland waters differ depending on the trophic status of the reservoir, on the season of the year, the physicochemical composition of water, the species composition of phytoplankton and other factors. Currently, both traditional methods and new, improved algorithms are used to monitor the state of water bodies with complex optical conditions. Various methods of atmospheric corrections and calibrated spectral indices are used, classifications of reservoirs by the presence of phytoplankton particles, suspended particles of organic and inorganic matter, and CDOM are developed. It was noted that the concentration of chlorophyll a and the turbidity of the water are the most important biophysical parameters used to assess the quality of water and determine the ecological status of inland waters.
Keywords: inland waters, eutrophication, trophic status of a reservoir, phytoplankton, turbidity, transparency, remote sensing of the Earth
Article published in number 2 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-2-014-025
Views: 69

Septoria tritici and Stagonospora nodorum blotch of wheat: genetic control of host resistance (review)

A.V. Bakulina, A.V. Kharina, A.A. Shirokikh
Section: Theoretical problems of ecology
The review provides up-to-date information about the biology of fungi that cause Zymoseptoria tritici and Parastaganospora nodurum, the taxonomic status of these species, symptoms of Septoria tritici and staganospora nodorum blotch diseases, and the spread and harmfulness of these pathogens in our country. Considerable attention is paid to the genetic control of wheat resistance to Z. tritici and P. nodurum, summarized data on qualitative and quantitative stability, valuable wheat genotypes and campaigns to implement the accumulated data in wheat breeding to obtain resistant cultivars.
Keywords: wheat, Zymoseptoria tritici, Parastaganospora nodurum, resistance genes, quantitative trait loci, molecular markers

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Article published in number 2 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-2-026-035
Views: 33

Influence of polysaccharides from Hericium erinaceus BP 16 on phagocytic activity of human blood neutrophils

T.V. Polezhaeva, I.G. Shirokikh, M.I. Sergushkina, Y.I. Nazarova, A.A. Shirokikh, A.N. Khudyakov, O.О. Zaytseva, O.N. Solomina, I.G. Paturova
Section: Social ecology
An important condition for obtaining new pharmacological drugs with immunomodulatory effect is the search for active producers in natural habitats. The identification and isolation of new species and strains of fungi from the natural environment opens up prospects for the replenishment of collections of active producers and using them to develop new biotechnological products. The mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr.) Pers. has long been known as a source of polysaccharides with a wide spectrum of biological action. The purpose of this work is to assess the ability of polysaccharides from frozen and dried fruitbodies of the artificially cultivated mushroom H. erinaceus to influence the phagocytic activity of human neutrophils. From the fungus fruitbody selected in nature, which is similar in phenotypic characters to Hericium erinaceus, was isolated mycelial culture BP 16. Based on the analysis of the fragment including the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1), the 5.8S rRNA gene and ITS2 found close (99.68%) resemblance of the BP 16 strain to the H. erinaceus CBS 202.31 MH855186.1 strain which is deposited in the NCBI. The isolated strain (BP 16) during laboratory cultivation was distinguished by an increased ability to produce fruits. Four fractions of polysaccharides were obtained from frozen and dried fruitbodies of artificially cultivated BP 16 by extraction with a 5% solution of hot alkali. Depending on the method of pretreatment of fruitbodies (drying or freezing) and the aggregate state (sediment and supernatant), the polysaccharide fractions differed in combination and quantitative ratio in their composition of individual monosaccharides (glucose, galactose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, fucose and rhamnose), protein content and galacturonic acid. It was established by light microscopy that the polysaccharides of each fraction of H. erinaceus BP 16 (at a concentration of 1.2%) equally increase the phagocytic activity of neutrophils, and fraction 3 (the most enriched in xylose) has a similar effect at a concentration of 0.6%. Low toxicity, high biological compatibility and physiology activity of polysaccharides from H. erinaceus have undeniable advantages over other classes of chemicals. In the context of the search for new natural immunomodulators, further structural and functional study of H. erinaceus polysaccharides is very promising.
Keywords: Hericium erinaceus, ITS1_5.8S_ITS2, mushroom polysaccharides, monosaccharide composition, neutrophils, phagocytosis

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Article published in number 2 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-2-166-171
Views: 16

The estimation of total and a water-soluble fluorine content in common brands of large-leaf and packaged tea

O.I. Baykova, D.B. Petrenko, N.D. Sverdlova, N.V. Vasiliev
Section: Social ecology
The content of total and water-soluble fluoride in large-leaf tea and packaged tea sold in the Moscow region has been studied. Using the ionometric method, the content of total and water-soluble fluoride was determined in 18 samples of widespread tea brands. The contents of fluoride ions in infusions of tea, obtained by the classical method of infusion, were 1.1–4.5 mg / dm3, with an average value of 3.1 mg / dm3. Fluorine in the investigated samples of tea is mainly in water-soluble form. The share of water-soluble fluoride in large-leaf and packaged teas was 81 and 76%, respec-tively. The average values of fluorine concentrations in infusions of large-leaf and packaged teas were close and amounted to 3.3 and 2.8 mg / dm3, respectively. The total fluorine content in the studied samples varies in the range of 290–760 mg / kg and averages 409 mg / kg. Using the example of the «Maysky tea» was showed, it was shown that in the first 5 minutes from the beginning of brewing, about 75% of the maximum possible amount of fluoride extracted into the aqueous phase. The calculation of the hazard quotient and comparison of the amounts of fluoride entering the human body with recommended standards showed that daily consumption of 1 dm3 of tea provides on average 80% of the daily norm of fluoride, which helps to prevent caries and is characterized by a low probability of negative effects of fluoride on the body in the long term.
Keywords: water-soluble fluorine, total fluorine content, tea, ionometry, hazard quotient

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Article published in number 2 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-2-180-186
Views: 12

Early and remote effects of gamma irradiation and uranyl nitrate in the liver lipids of mice

А.G. Kudyasheva, N.G. Zagorskaya, L.N. Shishkina
Section: Ecotoxicology
A certain danger is possessed by uranium compounds due to the high ability to accumulate in organs and tissues and to induce the oxidative stress. The soluble uranyl nitrate causes the oxidative damage the different biologically important compounds, including lipids. The aim of this work was to study the quantitative changes of the lipid composition in liver of mice CBA (males) and interrelations between the different parameters of the lipid peroxidation (LPO) in response to chronic γ-radiation at the dose of 16 cGy and presence of uranyl nitrate in drinking water at the concentration of 0,002 g/L under the separate and combined action of these factors. Mice were divided by four groups: I - control; II – a solution of uranil nitrate consumption during 30 days; II – the chronic γ-irradiation at the total dose of 1,6 cGy during 30 days; IV – the combined action of these factors during 30 days. The decapitation of mice was performed by early (during 1 day after action) and remote (during 30 day after action) period. In early period the more substantial changes between the quantitative ratio of PL fractions was revealed in the mice group III, and under the combined action of factors the increase the minor fractions and the decrease of phosphatidylcholine in liver PL were obtained. The reliable changes of the scale and character of interrelations between shares of the PL separate fraction and/or the generalized parameters of PL composition were revealed in all experimental groups both early and remote periods after actions. This should be taken into account when evaluating the effects of physical and chemical factors on animals inhabiting in ecologically unfavorable situations.
Keywords: uranyl nitrate, gamma irradiation, mice, liver, phospholipids, regulation of metabolism

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Article published in number 2 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-2-157-165
Views: 10

Ecophysiology of Heracleum sosnowskyi plant respiration in the north

I.V. Dalke, R.V. Malyshev, S.P. Maslova
Section: Population ecology
Giant hogweeds are included in the invasive species blacklist and significantly affect the structure and diversity of plant and soil communities. The aim of the study was of the to reveal the giant hogweed (Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden.) plants adaptive capacity by investigation of seedlings and buds respiration rate. All measurements were performed in typical H. sosnowskyi population in the middle taiga subzone (North-east Russia, N 61.646063, E 50.759277). Plant seedlings begin to appear under the snow cover, in March (in the condition of study area), when the average air temperature is still negative (а multi-year average -7 °C). The seedlings (with radicles) respiration rate at 20 °C collected under the snow cover in March was near 0.7 mg CO2 / g dry weight h. The seedlings with the first true leaf had a significantly higher respiration rate (about 2 mg CO2/g dry weight h at 20 °C). We determined the shift in the temperature optimum for plant growth at the early stages of development in accordance with changes of environmental temperature conditions. The seedlings with first true leaf had respiration rate exponential phase at higher temperature (range 20–35 °C) than that of seedlings collected under snow (5–20 °C). The water-ice phase transition in the seedlings tissues was observed at the temperature minus 8 °C. Thus, seedlings are resistant to low temperatures in early spring. The buds of H. sosnowskyi plant formed by autumn on caudex, had a high rate of respiration of about 5 mg CO2/g dry weight h. Analysis of the rate respiration – temperature dependence revealed a high efficiency of buds respiration at low and moderate temperatures (5-15 °C). It may be associated with the morphogenetic processes in the bud tissues in the autumn-winter period when the soil freezes to minus 2 °C. It was shown that the young H. sosnowskyi tissues metabolism activity was in accordance with the soil and air temperature regime. This accordance allows the plants to adapt to the low temperatures in winter and provides a high growth rate in early spring.
Keywords: Heracleum sosnowskyi, seedlings, buds, temperature, respiration, resistant
http://proborshevik.ru/

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Article published in number 2 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-2-077-082
Views: 8

Importance of cellular immunity factors in application of the environmentally safe split-conjugated anti-brucellosis vaccine in combination with immunomodulators

D. Abdessemed, V.A. Agoltsov, S.Yu. Veselovsky, O.M. Popovа, E.S. Krasnikova, A.M. Semyvolos, D.A. Devrishov
Section: Social ecology
This work presents the results of studies on split-conjugated vaccine against animal brucellosis, which is a promising drug for preventing this zoonosis. Using serological studies 14 days after immunization, the complement-binding antibodies were not detected, in the agglutination and rose-bengal reaction, all samples were positive. The highest values in the agglutination reaction (up to 400 IU) were observed in blood serum samples of calves which received polypeptide C. In rose bengal samples of calves’ blood serum that were injected with polypeptide C, a positive result was observed in four cases out of six. In blood serum samples of calves, which received phosprenyl, a positive result was observed in two samples. In samples from calves of the control group (saline), 50% of the samples gave a positive result. The results of serological studies conducted 90 days after vaccination, indicate the absence of antibodies in rose-bengal samples, complement fixation reaction and agglutination reaction. Tests revealed that the tested vaccine produces in animals both humoral and cellular immunity, and being inactivated (killed) does not pose any danger to the environment in the spread of brucellosis.
Keywords: brucellosis, split-conjugated vaccine against animal brucellosis, phosprenyl, polypeptide C.
Article published in number 2 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-2-172-179
Views: 3

Spread of landfill leachate into groundwater

A. Longobardi, A.N. Elizaryev, E.S. Nasyrova, E.N. Elizaryeva, L.U. Kiyashko
Section: Research methods. Models and projects
Many landfills were built a few decades ago and do not meet modern requirements. In this regard, leaks in landfills occur, that have a negative impact on the environment and especially on water objects. The aim of the work is to determine the infiltration rate of landfill filtrate taking into account the natural and climatic conditions on the example of the landfill "Novye Cherkassy" (Ufa, Russia). The HELP program is used to simulate the leachate infiltration through landfill existing layers. To simulate the movement of a toxic liquid seeping through the waste layer into the soil profile, the HYDRUS program is used. Results of 10 years hydrologic evaluation by HELP program showed that the filtrate is formed 341 m3/day. Comparison of the obtained result with the other authors works showed that the increased filtrate value is due to the landfill age (old landfill - 56 years) and the lack of protective measures for prevention filtrate infiltration into the soil. The seasonality in the leachate formation at the landfill is revealed. There was no leachate in the winter (negative temperature) and volley receipt in the spring, caused by snowmelt (positive temperature). In the summer months, evapotranspiration was about 77% of the total precipitation, while infiltration did not exceed 7%. In the autumn months evapotranspiration was only 30-40 %, while infiltration increased to 16%. The calculations showed that during landfill operation toxic mass has spread over 7 km. To prevent further environmental impact, is to close the landfill or remediate it.
Keywords: landfill, solid municipal waste, leachate, pollution, groundwater, HELP, HYDRUS
Article published in number 2 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-2-036-043
Views: 14

Determination of the trophic status of the water reservoir and spatial distribution of aquatic vegetation by integral indicators

Kutyavina T. I., Rutman V. V., Ashikhmina T. Y.
Section: Research methods. Models and projects
Determination of the trophic status of a reservoir is necessary for making decisions on the use of a water body for industrial production and domestic purposes. The calculation of the trophic state index (ITS) of a reservoir based on measuring the value of the hydrogen index and the content of dissolved oxygen in water allows us to evaluate the trophic state of a water body, regardless of its type and region of study. According to the results of the physicochemical analysis of water for 2011–2019, the dependence of pH on the degree of oxygen saturation of water was established for one of the largest reservoirs in the Kirov region (Omutninsky reservoir) which is subjected to eutrophication. Based on the dependence found, the ITS index of the reservoir was calculated. Over 9 years of observations, ITS increased from 7.8 to 8.1 units, which indicates the transition of the Omutninsk reservoir from the mesotrophic to the eutrophic type. Using the Earth remote sensing methods for the reservoir, areas of mass development of phytoplankton and higher aquatic plants have been identified. Field observations in these areas revealed thickets of Equisetum fluviatile L., Scirpus lacustris L., Persicaria amphibia (L.) S. F. Gray, Rotamogeton lucens L. The data obtained by calculating the turbidity index and the concentration index of chlorophyll a in water are consistent with field data observations and can be further used in environmental monitoring of the Omutninsk reservoir and other reservoirs in the region.
Keywords: eutrophication, algae “bloom”, dissolved oxygen, index of trophical state, Earth remote sensing, Sentinel-2, turbidity index, chlorophyll а concentration index

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Article published in number 1 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-1-042-046
Views: 22

Accumulation of heavy metals and arsenic in Cladonia rangiferina in the European north of Russia

V.V. Elsakov, I.G. Zakhozhiy, A.S. Shuyskiy
Section: Chemistry of natural environments and objects
Lichens can accumulate different pollutants and serve as a source of that element’s migration in trophic chains. The content of heavy metals (HM) (Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni, Co, Mn, Fe, Hg) and As was estimated in samples of Cladonia rangiferina L. taken in the European North of Russia. Sampling areas included the territory of the western part of the Kola Peninsula, Kanin Peninsula, Timan, Malozemelskaya, Bolshezemelskaya and Yamal Peninsula tundras and the taiga zone of the Komi Republic. The content of HM and As in lichens thalli for native territories and diapasons of their variability in the zone of influence of industrial impacts facilities are established. The average content of main toxic elements in the lichen from the intact territories of the European North-East was in the range of 0.5–1.8 mg/kg for Pb; 1.0–2.7 mg/kg for Ni; 0.1–0.7 mg/kg for Co; 0.1–0.5 mg/kg for As and about 0.1 mg/kg for Cd. The content of Hg in lichen samples in the study area varied from 9.0 to 51.0 μg/kg. The distance from industrial pollutant emission sources (mainly ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy) and proximity to technological sites and mineral dumping of engineering infrastructure were the most significant factors determining the level of TM accumulation. The average content of HM and As in the thalli from the impact zones of the copper-nickel processing plant (Kola Peninsula) was: Ni – 65.2 mg/kg; Cu – 44.4 mg/kg; Co – 2.3 mg/kg; As – 0.7 mg/kg. This is 1.4 – 22 times higher than the sanitary standards level given in the regulatory documents for grass feed of farm animals. Local areas with an increased concentration of several HMs were identified in the communities of the tundra and forest zones of the European Northeast. Significant deviations of the HM content in thalli were related with dust mineral particles deposits (on the surface and the intercellular space of thalli) of coming from emissions of industrial facilities and transport infrastructure. Elemental analysis of dust particles showed that Fe, Al, and Si compounds predominate in their composition. Some mineral particles are characterized by a relatively high content of Ca, Ti, and Ni.
Keywords: lichens, Cladonia rangiferina, European north of Russia, heavy metals

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Article published in number 1 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-1-097-103
Views: 61

Electrochemical utilization of disperse copper-iron waste

Yu.P. Khranilov, A.V. Zakharov, V.L. Kovalenko, V.A. Kotok
Section: Ecologization of industry
The possibility of processing contaminated copper powder with an iron content of 1.6-12.2% by the electrochemical refining method has been studied. This powder is formed during the processing of copper-containing salt waste of galvanic production by exchange reaction and does not find the application. It is shown that during electro-refining of the contaminated copper powder in the sulfate electrolyte, high-purity cathode copper corresponding to the M0k grade can be obtained. Technological recommendations for the implementation of the process are proposed, in particular, a method of depassivating a titanium current lead to a copper powder. It was found that along with the anodic dissolution of copper and iron from the powder, the iron component is chemically dissolved due to the copper exchange reaction. In experiments with model solutions, the effect of Fe (III) ions in the electrolyte on the rate of chemical and electrochemical reactions was studied. It was found that the negative effect of Fe (III) ions on the cathode deposition of copper can be reduced with an additive NaF into the electrolyte and increasing the cathode current density.
Keywords: Electrochemical copper refining of, processing of copper powder waste

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Article published in number 1 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-1-136-143
Views: 23

Geomorphological aspects of protection of coast settlements in high latitudes

V.V. Afanasiev, E.I. Ignatov
Section: Social ecology
The problems related to the protection of settlements located on the coast, mainly on Holocene sand – pebble accumulative formations (barrier islands and spits) of the Okhotsk, Chukchi and Bering seas are considered. Approaches to solving the problem on the shores of Alaska, Chukotka, Kamchatka, Western Priokhotye and Sakhalin are compared. The evolution of coastal protection solutions on the Arctic and subarctic coasts is shown. It is concluded that the justification of the design solutions does not always correspond to the level of modern knowledge about the dynamics of the shores. At the same time, the basis for determining long-term trends of erosion of problem areas of the coast is the interpolation of the long-term average data obtained at the analysis of remote sensing materials. With reference to the problem of protecting the coast, the main trends of erosion of coastal plains and dynamics of Holocene accumulative forms are considered. Specific features of geomorphological processes on the Arctic and subarctic coasts were noted. During the period of intensive industrial development of the coast of Chuckchi, Bering and Okhotsk seas the settlements, that are the most suffering from the erosion of the shores Shishmaref, Kivalina, Unalakleet, have been created. These settlements are located directly at the distal ends of the grids of the system of the lagoon strait. Accordingly, coastal protection solutions should be based on the analysis of migration of the strait, the possibility of changes in the direction of growth, form and morphometric parameters of the distal ends of the grids, modification of the tidal prism. It should be noted that these areas of the coast have enough sediment for any engineering solutions in this direction. It is also necessary to pay attention to considerable deterioration of wave-damping properties of beach deposits at their freezing.
Keywords: coastal erosion, freezing beach, Arctic coast, Subarctic sea, Shishmaref, Kivalina.

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Article published in number 1 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-1-167-172
Views: 9

Sorption of heavy metals by melanin pigments of wood-destroying fungi

N.V. Sushinskaya, V.P. Kurchenko
Section: Chemistry of natural environments and objects
The object of the study was the melanin pigments obtained from various types of wood-destroying fungi. Using the potentiometric titration lead acetate it was found that binding efficiency of Pb2+ decreases in the series of melanins from the Phellinus robustus (P. Karst.) Bourdotet Galzin; Phellinus igniarius (L.) Quel.; Fomitopsis pinicola (Sw.) P. Karst.; Ganoderma applanatum (Pers.) Pat.; Fomes fomentarius (L.) J.J. Kickx; Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) - chaga and varies from 0.170 to 0.103 mg Pb2+ / 1 mg melanin. The interaction of the studied melanins with Pb2+, Cd2+, Cu2+, Zn2+ ions in the equivalence point leads to aggregation of the complexes and their deposition in the sediment. Aggregated chelate complexes of Cu2+ ions; Pb2+; Cd2+; Zn2+ with chaga melanin dissolves in the presence the chelating agent EDTA. Moreover, EDTA concentration necessary for dissolving the above complexes decreases from 4,5 • 10-4 to 1,8 • 10-4 mol / L. According to thermogravimetry the activation energy of the Pb2+ melanin complex was 357 kJ/mol. Their mechanical mixture had the activation energy of 80–82 kJ/mol, which indicates stabilization of this chelate complex. It was shown that molecule of melanin from chaga contains 25 binding sites of various metals. The results of EPR spectroscopy of chelate complexes of melanins with Pb2+ led to an increase in the number of paramagnetic centers [PMC] from 1017 spin/g to 6.5 • 1018 spin/g, which indicates the participation of free radical monomers of the phenoxyl and benzosemiquinone nature of melanins in the interaction. In the process of intragastric administration to mice of copper chloride at a dose of 200 mg/kg (LD50) and melanin from chaga at a dose of 360 mg/kg of weight, animal survival increased by 100%, and with the introduction of cadmium chloride at a dose of 94 mg / kg (LD50) and melanin (1000 mg/kg) survival rate reached by 80%. The results of sorption of heavy metals create the prerequisites for practical use of melanins from wood-destroying fungi as enterosorbents.
Keywords: wood-destroying fungi, melanin, heavy metals, complexation, toxicity
https://www.scopus.com/authid/detail.uri?authorId=6603704011

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Article published in number 4 for 2019
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-4-083-087
Views: 86

Signal regulation of activity of protective proteins in potato plants in vitro with the defeat potato late blight

L.G. Yarullina, A.V. Sorokan, G.F. Burkhanova, V.O. Tsvetkov
Section: Agroecology
A comparative assessment of the influence of various signal molecules – salicylic (SA) and jasmonic (JA) acids, chitooligosaccharides (COS), metabolites of Bacillus subtilis bacteria (MB) on the degree of infestation of the leaves and the activity of protective proteins in the plants of Solanum tuberosum L. infected with oomycete Phytophthora infestans Mont. de Bary is carried out. Studies were carried out on test-tube plants of potato of susceptible variety Early rose. It is revealed that processing plants SA, JA, COS and MB reduces the degree of infestation of potato leaves by P. infestans, but at varying degrees. The best protective effect provided the JA and the B. subtilis 26D bacterial strain. Treatment with SA, JA, COS and B. subtilis increased the level of H2O2 in potato plants. COS and B. subtilis 11VD had earlier stimulating effect on the production of hydrogen peroxide (24 h after infection). The maximum stimulating effect on the production of H2O2 in the case with treatment with SA and B. subtilis 26D at 48 hours after inoculation was revealed. SA and JA had a stimulating effect on the transcriptional activity of amylase inhibitor and proteinase inhibitor genes in uninfected potato plants and especially in infected ones. The possible mechanisms of increasing the resistance of potatoes to the pathogen of late blight by environmentally safe compounds are discussed. Very promising for potato plants is the creation and use of environmentally friendly drugs, the protective effect of which against P. infestans is based on the stimulation of H2O2 production and activation of hydrolase inhibitor gene expression in infected tissues.
Keywords: Solanum tuberosum, Phytophthora infestans, signal molecules, PR-proteins, ecologically safe crop production

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Article published in number 4 for 2019
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-4-136-141
Views: 33

Projection of carbon sequestration in riparian reforestation

D.G. Zamolodchikov, V.V. Kaganov, O.N. Lipka
Section: Population ecology
The projection of carbon effects from partial reforestation of delta of river Ili (Kazakhstan) in frame of project on restoration of riparian forests and reintroduction of Caspian tiger is developed. Typical values of carbon sequestration by biomass of stands are calculated for tree species, native at studied area (Populus diversifolia Schrenk, Elaeagnus oxycarpa Schltdl., Salix songarica Andersson, S. wilhelmsiana M. Bieb.). The P. diversivolia stands are subdivided to good and normal conditions, S. songarica and S. wilhelmsiana are combined to Salix. sp. group. The peculiarities of growth of carbon in biomass differ in high extent between different tree species. The rate of carbon accumulation during starting 5 years after planting is close for P. diversifolia at good conditions (0.71 tC/ (ha • year)) and E. oxycarpa (0.69 tC/ (ha • year)). The same values are lower for P. diversifolia at normal conditions (0.32 tC/ (ha • year)) and Salix sp. (0.06 tC/ (ha • year)). P. diversifolia at good conditions after 30 years has 54.05 t C/ha in biomass, at normal conditions – 43.71 тС/ha, then Salix sp. (31.10 t C/ha) and E. oxycarpa (12.44 t C/ha) follow. The carbon sequestration is projected for 30 years with reforestation, performed at area 200 thous. of ha. This area is subdivided by tree species as follow: P. diversifolia at good conditions – 15%; P. diversifolia at normal conditions – 15%; E. oxycarpa – 60%; Salix sp. – 10%. The total area will be completely planted during 12 years with equal annual rates 8.3%, correspondent to 16677 ha per years. The annual sequestration is increased from 2 thous. t C/year at first year of project to maximal 264 thous. t C/year at 16th year of project rolling, then is decreased to 101 thous. tC/year at 30th year. Total accumulation of carbon by stand biomass during 30 years is 4.63 mln. tC (16.98 mln. t CO2). The carbon accumulation is important component of ecosystem services, which can be restored due to the project implementation.
Keywords: reforestation, riparian forests, phytomass, carbon sequestration, projection.
https://wwf.ru/resources/news/lesa/ile-balkhash-tugayam-byt-/

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Article published in number 4 for 2019
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-4-095-101
Views: 38

In vitro adaptive responses of Fragaria ananassa Duch. plantlets induced by the mechanocomposite based on amorphous silica and flavonoids of green tea

E.V. Ambros, O.V. Kotsupy, E.A. Karpova, E.G. Trofimova, Y.G. Zaytseva, T.I. Novikova
Section: Ecologization of industry
For the first time, morphological and physiological characteristics of Fragaria × ananassa microclones of two cultivars (Alpha and Solnechnaya polyanka) under the influence of rice husks-amorphous silica- and green-tea-flavonoid-based mechanocomposite (2.5; 5.0 and 10.0 mg/L in the medium) during the rooting stage in in vitro conditions were studied. The advantage of mechanochemical technology of raw materials is the obtaining of biologically active compounds without using any chemical solvents with the least impact on the environment. The growth-stimulating effect of all tested mechanocomposite concentrations on the development of the plantlets root system was revealed. Root length, root number per microshoot, and the wet and dry weight of the roots were significantly increased by 1.5, 1.4, 1.6 and 2.5 times, respectively. Moreover, the treatment resulted in increase of leaf number per microshoot, leaf area, and wet and dry weight of aerial parts appropriately by 1.3, 1.3, 1.2 and 1.9 times. Concentrations of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls a and b, and carotenoids), and their ratios (chlorophyll a/b, chlorophyll (a+b)/carotenoids) indicated a high physiological state of the plantlets at mechanocomposite concentrations of 2.5 and 5 mg/L. At a concentration of 10 mg/l, chlorophylls a and b in the leaves of the plantlets of both cultivars and the ratio chlorophyll (a+b)/carotenoids in the leaves of the plantlets of cultivar Alpha decreased to the control level and below, which indicated stress level of this mechanocomposite concentration. The concentrations of 2.5 and 5.0 mg/L are optimal for adaptation of plantlets with high physiological state to ex vitro environment. In the composition of phenolic compounds, ellagic, gallic, p-coumaric, ferulic, and cinnamic acids, and their derivatives, were found. The mechanocomposite contributed to an increase in the content of most phenolic compounds in both cultivars. The contents of some constituents had not significantly changed or decreased (including ellagic acid in both cultivars). The results may be used for the development of production systems for a healthy planting material using biotechnological approaches and recommended for commercial strawberry micropropagation.
Keywords: mechanocomposite, silica, micropropagation, adaptation, cultivated strawberry, phenolic compounds, ellagic acid

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Article published in number 4 for 2019
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-4-116-122
Views: 36

Degradative activity of fungi towards oil hydrocarbons under high temperature

N.N. Pozdnyakova, S.А. Balandina, О.V. Turkovskaya
Section: Monitoring of anthropogenically disturbed areas
The pollution of the environment with oil and oil products is one from the serious problems of the present time. The degradative activity of fungi contributes an important part in the self-cleaning of the natural ecosystems and is the basis of the development of environmental biotechnologies (mycoremediation). The selection of the fungi that can utilize pollutants and survive in adverse environmental conditions is the most important stage of the development of such technologies. We showed the ability to degrade of the oil hydrocarbons by 10 strains of basidiomycetes (genera Agaricus, Bjerkandera, Pleurotus, Schizophyllum, Stropharia, Trametes), and 4 strains of ascomycetes (genera Cladosporium, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Lecanicillium) at high temperature. The all studied fungi metabolized oil both in the rich medium and as the sole carbon source. The most active degraders were the basidiomycetes P. ostreatus, S. commune, and T. versicolor. Ascomycetes, with the exception of G. candidum, utilized oil by more than 80%. All oil fractions, including hard PAHs and resins, are available in the rich medium. Their decrease reached 82-97% by P. ostreatus Florida, S. commune, and T. versicolor DSM, and was 60-88% by ascomycetes L. aphanocladii and F. oxysporum. All the studied fungi, with the exception of P. ostreatus and F. oxysporum, used mainly alkane-naphthene fractions and the low molecular weight aromatic compounds during the utilization of oil as the sole carbon source. We found the production of ligninolytic enzymes (which catalyze the key stapes of the degradation of aromatic compounds) and the emulsifying compounds (which increase the bioavailability of oil). It can be considered as adaptation of the fungi to the oil pollution. The highest activities of ligninolytic enzymes (laccase and Mn-peroxidase) were detected in P. ostreatus Florida which is the most active degrader of the aromatic compounds. Ascomycetes, with the exception of G. candidum, produced only Mn-peroxidase. Basidiomycetes P. ostreatus Florida, S. commune, T. versicolor DSM11269 and ascomycetes F. oxysporum and L. aphanocladii were selected for the further studies and the development of the mycoremediation technologies.
Keywords: fungi, oil, degradation, ligninolytic enzymes, emulsifying activity, mycoremediation
http://ibppm.ru/

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Article published in number 4 for 2019
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-4-069-075
Views: 31

Effect of salt stress on the expression of genes of K+/Na+ -transporters HKT, SOD and Nfn in Triticum durum and Triticum aestivum

L.I. Fedoreyeva
Section: Agroecology
The problem of determining the potential of salt tolerance of wheat is one of the most pressing in the selection practice for areas with primary and secondary salinity. One of the ways to overcome the negative impact of the salinity factor is the use of saline-tolerant breeding lines and wheat genotypes. Expression of HKT transporter genes is important for characterizing the salt tolerance of wheat. In genotypes of durum and aestivum wheat Orenburgskaya 10 and Orenburgskaya 22 under salt stress, an increase in the expression of the K+/Na+ genes of transporters of the HKT1 and HKT2 families is observed by 3-4 times. The expression level of SOD and Nfn increases by 2-4 times, which indicates the high adaptive properties of these wheat genotypes to salt stress. Probably, the expression of the HKT, SOD and Nfn genes are interconnected. An increase in the level of expression of the NKT, SOD and Nfn families in roots and leaves under salt stress conditions are associated with the rapid recovery of the K+/Na+ ion balance and the removal of toxic Na+ and ROS ions, i.e. protective function.
Keywords: wheat, salt stress, K+/ Na+ transporters, oxidative stress, gene expression
Article published in number 4 for 2019
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-4-123-129
Views: 25

Approaches for evaluation and quality management of urban ecosystem components using neural network modeling methods

Y.A. Tunakova, S.V. Novikova, A.R. Shagidullin, V.S. Valiev, A.J. Morais
Section: Research methods. Models and projects
The methodology of evaluation and quality management of components of the urban ecosystem, based on the use of new information methods, substantiation of marker biological objects and methods for assessing their response to anthropogenic impact, and ways of data arrays folding used for evaluation has been developed. The presented methodology takes into account the processes of receipt, accumulation and response of biological objects to the effects of marker substances. The approach for the simultaneous recording and analysis of heterogeneous and different-sized data having different degrees of influence on the state of the studied urban ecosystem components using the cluster analysis method is presented. The territory of the urban ecosystem was zoned using the neural self-organizing networks of Kohonen, implemented in the author’s model of neural network filtering. A method for determining the probabilities of exceeding the threshold values of concentrations of marker substances-metals in the studied components of the urban ecosystem is proposed. We estimated the probability that in the territory to which a particular observation belongs, an excess of a given threshold will be marked by at least one of the studied indicators. As thresholds for these events, we have taken the medians of continuous series of observations of metal concentrations. As a result, we calculated the probabilities of exceeding half of the studied parameters of the specified thresholds in each zone. The facts of exceeding the thresholds (events) established in this way were recorded in the totality of observations selected in the form of clusters formed by neural network classification. At the same time the spatial distribution of selected observations with specific address bindings forms the corresponding territorial zones. Recommendations on the use of the obtained results for operational and planned quality management of the urban ecosystem components at the local level are given.
Keywords: urban ecosystem, risk assessment, response of the human body, biosubstrates, neural network technologies, metals
Article published in number 4 for 2019
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-4-031-036
Views: 34

Distribution of microfungi in the permafrost peat soil of the flat-hilly bog of the forest-tundra

Yu.A. Vinogradova, E.M. Lapteva, V.A. Kovaleva, E.M. Perminova
Section: Population ecology
The micromycetes complex was studied in the permafrost affected peat soil of the forest-tundra peatland (lower course of the Pechora river, forest tundra). Taxonomical list of microscopic fungi contains 42 species (including two forms of sterile mycelium). Division Zygomycota contains eight species (19%) from genera Mucor, Mortierellа, and Umbelopsis; division Ascomycota – 32 species (76%). Penicillium genus contains the highest number of species (21). The other genera – Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Pseudogymnoascus, Chrysosporium, Cephalosporium, Fusarium and Trichoderma are presented by single species. The highest number of fungi species was found in the upper part of the active layer (depth 0-20 cm) – 38 species (H=2.53), the lowest – in the lower part of the active layer (20-55 cm) – 11 species (H=0.90) and permafrost layer (55-115 cm) – 9 species (Н=1.31). The number of micromycetes varied depending on the used media and temperature of cultivation from single units to hundreds of thousands of colony forming units (CFU) per one gram of substrate. The highest number (51-84 thousands CFU per g of soil) of microscopic fungi was found in the upper part of the active layer (depth 0-4 cm). In the lower part of active layer, high number of micromycetes (60-104 thousands CFU per g of soil) was found only at rich by hydrocarbons media (worth agar, Sabouraud’s medium). In the permafrost layer, this number was lower by 1-2 orders of magnitude (0.2-3.7 thousands CFU per g of soil). Psychrotolerant species growing at temperatures 4-25°С are the basis of the micromycetes complex in the seasonally thawing and permafrost layers in the soil of the frost peat mound. According to the species abundance, the structure of micromycetes complex is presented by rare species – 60%, abundant species count 12-29%. Penicillium simplicissimum (23.6-48.3%), Pseudogymnoascus pannorum (12.0%), and Mycelia sterilia (light colored) (19.9%) were the most abundant in the active layer; Penicillium implicatum (32.3%) and Penicillium simplicissimum (19.4%) and Mycelia sterilia (light colored) (17.7%) – in the permafrost layers.
Keywords: peatland, peatbogs, permafrost, microbial biomass, microscopic fungi, structure, diversity

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Article published in number 4 for 2019
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-4-110-115
Views: 21

The use of satellite images to determine the boundaries of water bodies and study the processes of eutrophication

Т.I. Kutyavina, V.V. Rutman, Т.Ya. Аshikhmina, V.P. Savinykh
Section: Research methods. Models and projects
The purpose of the work is to select the most informative spectral indices for determining the boundaries of reservoirs and diagnosing the processes of eutrophication of water bodies in the Kirov region. Five satellite images obtained from the Landsat 5 satellite were decrypted. The water color index, turbidity index, chlorophyll concentration index а, normalized vegetation index (NDVI) and normalized index of water refractive index (NDWI) for four reservoirs in the Kirov region were determined: Belokholunitskoye, Omutninskoye, Bol’shoye Kirsinskoye and Chernokholunitskoye. To confirm and correct the data of deciphering the images, we used the results of bathymetric surveys, algological and chemical analyzes of water from the reservoirs of the Kirov region, obtained during ground-based field observations in water bodies. To build index maps, we used the QGIS software product, versions 2.18 and 3.8. Scales for indices were selected empirically, highlighting areas with similar indices. The minimum and maximum values of the index in the reservoirs were taken as the boundaries of the scale. It is noted that with high turbidity (more than 8 units of turbidity by formazine) and high water color (from 42 to 398 degrees of color), the most informative indicators for identifying the boundaries of water bodies are the NDVI and NDWI indices. On satellite images taken in the spring, water color indices, NDVI and NDWI are lower than in the summer. In the Omutninsk reservoir, an increase in the turbidity index during the mass development of phytoplankton was noted. The ability to assess and compare the degree of development of phytoplankton, its spatial distribution over the water area of the Kirov region reservoirs using the turbidity indices and the concentration of chlorophyll а in water is shown. When analyzing index charts, it was noted that the maximum values of the chlorophyll concentration index а correspond to areas of the water area occupied by thickets of higher aquatic plants (Omutninskoe reservoir) and shallow areas with delayed water exchange (Omutninskoye, Belokholunitskoye reservoirs).
Keywords: eutrophication, remote sensing of the Earth, Landsat 5, normalized difference vegetation index, normalized difference water index, color index, turbidity index, chlorophyll concentration index а, algae “bloom”

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Article published in number 3 for 2019
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-3-028-033
Views: 92

Ecotoxicological characteristics of oil-contaminated soils (sludges) after their reagent treatment

O.A. Kulikova, V.A. Terekhova, E.A. Mazlova, Yu.A. Nishkevich, K.A. Kydralieva
Section: Ecotoxicology
The article presents the results of an experimental processing of the ground oil sludges from the territory of the Variogan oil field (Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug – Yugra, Tyumen Region), using surface-active reagent for decreasing. toxicity. The efficiency of the chemical reagent treatment of the oil sludge samples (OS), 7.92–18.67 wt% oil contented, was characterized. The treatment was carried out at a mass ratio of oil sludge: reagent = 1: 10 for 30 minutes at 60 °C and 120 rpm. The effect of the oil sludges treatment by the BOK-6 reagent, analyzed in a battery of biotest systems, showed a decrease in the toxicity level of the samples. This tendency is evidenced by a decrease in the No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC) of aqueous extracts from the treated samples in biotests with crustacea Daphnia magna and infusoria Paramecium caudatum, as well as a decrease of negative phytoeffect caused by treated samples versus untreated. In the process of phytoassay with the applicative method (upon contact of seeds with a solid mass of samples), the observed sensitivity of Raphanus sativus, Avena sativa, Sinapis alba seeds was higher than with the eluate (interaction with water extract) testing method. In general, the conducted studies showed that the physicochemical treatment methods with surfactants solutions contribute to the neutralization of oil sludges, reducing the content of petroleum products.
Keywords: remediation, soil, oil sludge, oil pollution, surfactants, ecotoxicity, biotesting

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Article published in number 3 for 2019
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-3-120-126
Views: 62

Environmental aspects in the production of mayonnaise

E.I. Rakhimova, А.S. Sirotkin
Section: Ecologization of industry
Wastewater from the production of mayonnaise is water from washing equipment and contains fats and oils as a dominant impurity in an average concentration of 0.8 to 3% (mass.). It was noted that in the process of disposal, acid and alkaline wastewater undergoes an ultrafiltration process, and the separated fats are fed to the soapstock, formed at the stage of alkaline refining during processing and production of sunflower oil and containing water, soap, absorbed neutral fat, excess alkali. Further use of soapstock in soap making with the production of natural products is relevant.It has been experimentally shown that in the production of mayonnaise, a comprehensive 3-stage washing of technological equipment and pipelines, consisting of an alkaline, acid washing and disinfecting solution treatment, with the inclusion of additional treatment with hot steam at a temperature of 110 о C and an overpressure of 0.7 bar for 15 min allows you to increase the production cycle between equipment washes, reduce the amount of industrial wastewater, and also reduce their pollution by fats and oils by 3-4 times.It was noted that the frequency of washing, including the processing of equipment and pipelines assembled with hot steam, should be implemented 1 time in 5 days, which allows to reduce the amount of wastewater generated by 33% and to reduce costs for these technological operations. In addition, it has been shown that the additional processing of equipment with hot steam during its complex washing ensures the microbiological safety of the finished product over the shelf life.
Keywords: microbiological safety, wastewater, sharp steam, mayonnaise, lactic acid bacteria, acidity

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Article published in number 3 for 2019
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-3-095-100
Views: 29

The Response of Soil Cyanobacteria Nostoc paludosum to the Effect of Copper(II) Sulfate in the Presence of the Restored Glutathione

A.I. Fokina, E.I. Lyalina, L.V. Trefilova, Т.Ya. Аshikhmina
Section: Ecotoxicology
The effect of CuSO4 solutions with Cu2+ ion concentrations equal to 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mg/dm3 with the addition of reduced glutathione (GSH) and without it to soil cyanobacteria (CB) of Nostoc paludosum 18 was studied. The duration of exposure of the culture with solutions was 72 hours. During the experiment, the formation of biofilms of the CB from the homogenate was observed, as an indicator of the recovery of the initial population; measured the concentration of dissolved O2 in suspensions of the CB; determined the proportion of CB cells capable of forming formazan from 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride as an indicator of the viability of the culture. Under the action of CuSO4, the culture of the CB violated the ability to form biofilms in solutions with concentrations of Cu2+ 1 mg/dm3 or more without the addition of GSH and at Cu2+ concentrations equal to 3 or more mg/dm3 in the presence of tripeptide. By changing the concentration of dissolved O2, it was not possible to diagnose the toxicity of the solution with a concentration of 1 mg Cu2+ /dm3 throughout the experiment. In a solution with a concentration of 2 mg Cu2+ /dm3, the average degree of toxicity was established after three days of exposure. The medium and low degrees of toxicity were detected in solutions with Cu2+ concentrations of 3–5 mg/dm3 after one day of exposure. With an increase in the concentration of Cu2+, the dehydrogenase activity of the CB decreased by 50% or more compared to the control. Solutions with GSH are less toxic than similar solutions without the addition of GSH. The most acceptable test function for the action of copper(II) ions with their concentrations in the solution exceeding the MPC is the dehydrogenase activity of the N. paludosum CB with a titer of 2•107 cells. /cm3.
Keywords: cyanobacteria, copper (II) ions, glutathione, toxicity

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Article published in number 3 for 2019
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-3-101-108
Views: 24

Heavy metals in soil–plant system in biogeocenoses of the Bolshezemelskaya Tundra

G.Ya. El`kina, S.V. Deneva, E.M. Lapteva
Section: Мониторинг природных и антропогенно нарушенных территорий
Biological cycle, content, and stocks of heavy metals in plant organic matter are an interesting study topic for both ecological description of biogeocenoses and ecological monitoring. The biocenosis includes three plant communities as dwarf shrub-mossy (65.6), dwarf shrub-lichen-mossy (17.9), and dwarf shrub-lichen (16.5% of total area) communities. Soils are Histic Turbic Cryosols under dwarf shrub-mossy community and Histic Cryosols under lichens. Weight fraction of elements in samples was measured by the method of atomic-emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma SPECTROARCOS. Soil samples for total ratio of elements were treated by the microwave frequency mineralizer Minotavr 2 (Russia, Lumex Ltd). Mobile forms were carried out of soil samples with the help of 1N ammonium acetate buffer solution (AAB) with pH 4.8 for exchange forms, and an outflow in acid digest (1M НСl extract) for acid-soluble forms. Heavy metals in plants were assessed after they had been decomposed using nitric acid-hydrogen peroxide mixture in the microwave frequency mineralizer Minotavr 1 for the method of spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (PND F 16.1:2.3:3.11-98). Copper and zinc have a high, cadmium – mean, and cobalt, nickel, lead – low frequency rate of biological cycle. Frequency rate of cycle for the majority of elements in lichen communities is high in contrast to leafy moss communities. Mosses slow down cycle of elements and hold them in dead material for long time. Composition of elements in soils under communities normally is the same as that in plants. Organic soil horizon of tundra biocenoses should be considered as a surface soil-geochemical barrier with a slow elemental cycle. Mineral soil part has high concentrations of zinc and low – of cadmium. Besides, concentrations of copper, zinc, nickel, and cadmium is similar to worldwide mean values but concentrations of cobalt and lead slightly exceed them. Differences in profile distribution of elements relate to physical-chemical properties of elements, complex redox conditions of soils due to permafrost and cryoturbation processes. Also, they depend on composition of plant communities.
Keywords: Heavy metals, biogeochemical cycle, Bolshezemelskaya tundra, biogeocenosis, biomass

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Article published in number 3 for 2019
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-3-041-047
Views: 45

Application of ground-based research methods for the diagnostics of pollution and eutrophication of water reservoirs of the Kirov region

Т.I. Kutyavina, Т.Ya. Аshikhmina, L.V. Kondakova
Section: Методология и методы исследований. Модели и прогнозы
The status of the four largest reservoirs of the Kirov region was assessed using a set of methods for physicochemical, bioindicative and microbiological analyzes. The combinatorial index of water pollution (CIWP), the specific combinatorial index of water pollution (SCIWP), and water quality classes are defined. It has been established that in terms of chemical indices CIWP decreases in the series: Bol’shoye Kirsinskoye → Omutninskoye → Chernokholunitskoye → Belokholunitskoye reservoirs. It has been shown that ammonium nitrogen and organic substances make the largest contribution to the pollution of reservoirs. The maximum permissible concentrations for reservoirs of cultural and domestic use (MPCc-d.) for total iron (from 2 to 9.5 MPCc-d.) are exceeded in all objects of study, in the Bol’shoye Kirsinskoye reservoir – on bichromate oxidation (COD) (1.6–1.7 MPCc-d.). In the Omutninsky reservoir, indicator plants for the presence of organic pollution were found – Typha latifolia L. and Рotamogeton natans L., which is consistent with the COD value (53 mgO/dm3). It is established the positive reaction of Lemna minor L., L. trisulca L., Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid. to the increased content of ammonium nitrogen in the place of sewage discharge into the Omutninsky reservoir, where the ammonium content was 2.1 times higher compared to other parts of the reservoir. Based on the microbiological analysis of the water of the Omutninsky reservoir, the mesosaprobic zone of the reservoir (central and dam sections) was detected, as evidenced by the ratio of biological oxygen consumption during 5 days to permanganate oxidation (an average of 27%).
Keywords: reservoir, water pollution index, saprobity, eutrophication, phytoindication

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Article published in number 2 for 2019
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-2-044-052
Views: 47

Methodological techniques for identifying plant communities based on Earth remote sensing data and field research

T.А. Adamovich, E.А. Domnina, A.S. Timonov, V.V. Rutman, T.Ya. Ashikhmina
Section: Методология и методы исследований. Модели и прогнозы
The possibilities of using multispectral data of remote sensing of the Earth and field research to highlight plant communities using the example of the Pizhemsky State Nature Reserve (SNR) of the Kirov region are shown. The Pizhemsky SNR is defined as a complex (landscape) reserve. It is especially valuable for maintaining the integrity, protection and restoration of aquatic biogeocenoses, preserving in the natural state of the unique natural objects of the region. Selection of plant communities in the Pizhemsky reserve with the use of remote sensing data was carried out in several stages: pre-field cameral, field expeditionary and office generalizing. The pre-field cameral stage included the selection of satellite images from the Landsat 7 and Sentinel 2 satellites and their interpretation to isolate areas of vegetation that are homogeneous in interpretation. At this stage, several areas that were homogeneous in terms of certain features (color, microtexture of the pattern, phototones, etc.) were identified, caused by various natural objects and plant communities of the region. In the field expeditionary stage, work was carried out to identify vegetation types on the ground. The characteristic of plant communities was carried out according to generally accepted geobotanical techniques. The peculiarities of the coenotic composition of forests in the reserve were studied. The composition of the plant communities of the Pizhemsky SNR reflects the characteristic zonal features of the vegetation of the studied region and is associated with certain landscape elements. Based on the analysis of the available cartographic material and satellite images, it has been established floodplain meadows occupy more than 60% of the study area, forests – about 20%. In order to identify plant communities, the most characteristic and most accessible direct interpretation features (phototone, shape, structure) were selected. In addition, we used the synthesis of standard combinations of “artificial colors” channels from the Landsat 7 and Sentinel 2 satellites, which made it possible to identify grassy communities, deciduous and coniferous forests. The completed classification with training provided important information on the distribution of the majority of plant communities typical for the region. The NDVI vegetation index made it possible to isolate pine, deciduous forests and meadow phytocenoses, as well as to recognize water bodies and open soils.
Keywords: state nature reserve “Pizhemsky”, satellite imagery, interpretation, NDVI, plant communities

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Article published in number 2 for 2019
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-2-039-043
Views: 33

Electrochemical obtaining of nickel hydroxide from nickel plating waste water for application in the alkali secondary cells

V.L. Kovalenko, V.A. Kotok, V.V. Malyshev
Section: Ecologization of industry
The rinsing and wastewater of the plating industry, containing the heavy metal cations, are the source of environmental pollution. Nickel cushions have a strong biological hazard. At the same time, up to 30% of nickel compounds spent on nickel plating are irretrievably lost to the rinsing water. Purification of the rinsing and wastewater from heavy metal cations is expansive. It’s economical effective to develop the methods of local treatment of plating rinsing water with the recovery of the heavy metals in the easy utilizing forms. The hydroxide is the most perspective for nickel, which, if it has high electrochemical activity, can be used for alkaline secondary cell production. The method of electrochemical synthesis of the nickel hydroxide in the slit diaphragm electrolyzer from the rinsing water of bright nickel plating has been proposed. The treatment of rinsing water of the bright nickel plating for surfactants recovery has been made. The samples of nickel hydroxide, obtained from treated and untreated rinsing water, have been studied by XRD, voltammogram and charge-discharge cycling in the secondary cell regime. The comparative analysis shows that even the nickel hydroxide sample, obtained from untreated rinsing water, can be used as an active substance of the positive electrode of alkaline secondary cells. This sample’s specific capacity is 142 mА•h/g with cost is 4 $/kg (in comparison with 182 mА•h/g and 18-22 $/kg for industrial sample). It was detected that the nickel hydroxide sample, obtained from the rinsing water of bright nickel plating after purification from surfactant by bubble-film extraction, has the highest parameters. In this case specific capacity is 194 mА•h/g compared 182 mА•h/g for the industrial sample produced «Boсhemiе» (Czechia).
Keywords: nickel hydroxide, rinsing water, bright nickel plating, slit diaphragm electrolyzer, alkaline secondary cell

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Article published in number 2 for 2019
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-2-108-112
Views: 10

Environmental safety of consumer products: legal and regulatory issues

D.G. Domrachev, А.А. Kirillovykh, V.N. Pugach, Y.M. Gordeeva
Section: Social ecology
Modern problems of ensuring ecological safety of consumer products in the Russian Federation are considered, and also measures for improvement of the mechanism of regulation of quality and ecological safety in the sphere of consumption are offered. The methodological basis of the research is the analytical method, which allows to consider the practice of regulation of the environmental safety of products, the formal legal method, which allows to reveal the systemic connections in legal regulation, regulatory features of legal acts, law enforcement practice in Russia and abroad. The directions of public administration in the field of environmental safety in terms of improving the legislation in the field of environmental requirements for production are analyzed. The criteria for greener products are reviewed, the need to raise awareness among consumers about the product’s properties is identified. Practical problems and directions of further development of legislation on environmental safety of products are determined. The problem in the regulation of quality and safety of products is the presence of a large number of evaluation concepts that carry the initial risk in the regulation of relations between sellers and consumers. The social significance of food, its key role in ensuring human activity causes an increased interest on the part of the state. Product safety management is carried out by the state within the framework of technical regulation. Exceeding the maximum permissible levels of product safety indicators makes it dangerous for consumption. The world food industry uses a system of hazard analysis according to established criteria. Through the system of hazard analysis at critical points, a technology for the safety of the products was created. In a free market, the legislature has significantly reduced the degree of public danger for violations in the field of environmental safety of products. The model of legal regulation of product safety issues is based on mandatory technical regulations as framework for regulatory documents. According to the authors, the legislation should be developed in the direction of regulation of environmental protection from the effects of hazardous products. For environmentally hazardous products, all production processes should be regulated, including product operation, transportation, storage, disposal, i.e. at all stages of the life cycle. In solving this problem, it is important to ensure the optimal combination
Keywords: environmental safety, product quality, legal regulation
Article published in number 2 for 2019
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-2-131-136
Views: 49

Biosorption of heavy metals by micromycetes: specificity of the process, mechanisms, kinetics

Skugoreva S.G., Kantor G.Ya., Domracheva L.I.
Section: Theoretical problems of ecology
One of the ways to remove heavy metal (HM) compounds from the environment is biosorption. Most studies on biosorption are carried out on microorganisms, among which micromycetes occupy leading positions. They have a high degree of adaptation and resistance to the action of HM, are able to accumulate and transform HM compounds, show high sorption activity in relation to them. A feature of the cell wall of micromycetes is the predominance of polysaccharides (in particular, chitin), and the presence of melanins. Fungi biomolecules have different functional groups in their composition, the donor atoms of which (binding sites) cause binding to the HM ions. The nature of the binding can be explained from the standpoint of the Pearson acid-base principle (concept of HSAB – hard and soft acids and bases). The article provides an overview of the literature data on the sorption capacity of micromycetes of various classes, genera and species to various HM. Fundamental to understanding the process of biosorption is knowledge about the mechanism of the process. Based on cell metabolism, biosorption mechanisms can be classified into metabolism-independent and metabolism-dependent. Based on the location of biosorption, the following are distinguished: 1) intracellular accumulation; 2) extracellular accumulation and sedimentation; 3) sorption and precipitation on the cell surface. The mechanisms belonging to the first two groups are dependent on metabolism and are due to the processes of complex formation, precipitation, and ion exchange; and the last group of mechanisms is also adsorption (physical and chemical sorption). The article discusses the basics of the mechanisms, their causes, features and examples of micromycetes, in which this mechanism prevails. One of the most important characteristics of the HM sorption by biological objects is the dependence of the sorption rate on the process parameters, which is described by the kinetic sorption equation. The article discusses the most common models for the description of bisorption: the pseudo-first and pseudo-second order model, the Elovich equation, and the parabolic diffusion model.
Keywords: micromycetes, heavy metal ions, biosorption, mechanisms of biosorption, kinetics of biosorption

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Article published in number 2 for 2019
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-2-014-031
Views: 35

Problems of state regulation of the organization of protection zones for hunting resources

I.A. Grebnev
Section: Social ecology
The subject of the research is the legislation regulating the organization of zones of protection of hunting resources. On the basis of theoretical assumptions, analysis of normative-legal acts, the author identifies areas and proposes concrete measures to improve legislation and law enforcement practice in the field of territorial protection of hunting resources (wild animals being objects of hunting). Work was carried out on the basis of a systematic approach using formal-logical and comparative legal research methods. The author comes to the conclusion about the absence of Federal legislation defining zones of protection of hunting resources, their inventory, and regulatory uncertainty of their legal status. Therefore, at the level of constituent entities of the Russian Federation there is a wide practice of organization of natural-territorial complexes as zones of protection of hunting resources, self-determination of the regions of their legal regime that does not always meet the requirements of Federal law and is based on a single evidence-based paradigm. The study identified a conflict of norms of the Federal faunistic legislation, the effect of having a different understanding of the order of creation of such territories. In particular, it is shown on concrete examples that the zone of protection of hunting resources can be established by decisions of the Supreme officials of constituent entities of the Russian Federation, higher Executive bodies of state power of subjects of the Russian Federation, competent Executive authorities of special competence of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, long-term hunting users (business entities, which hunting resources made available for a period of 20 to 49 years). Based on the analysis of legal acts in the field of protection and use of objects of the animal world, it is concluded that only decisions on the organization of these territories accepted by the Federal executive bodies or the highest executive bodies of subjects of the Russian Federation are valid. Defects of legal matter do not contribute to ensuring the sustainability and rational use of hunting resources, which is a violation of public environmental interests in order to improve legal regulation in this field. It is offered to define the list of protection zones of hunting resources in the branch normative-legal acts, their legal status, fix the organization of zones of protection of hunting resources as suggested in the articl
Keywords: zone of protection of hunting resources, biotechnical measures, hunting, biological diversity
Article published in number 1 for 2019
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-1-122-128
Views: 80

“Smart” state regulation in the sphere of environmental protection and nature management

M.A. Kostenko, O.V. Popova, M. Lutovac
Section: Social ecology
The main purpose of spreading the concept of “smart” state regulation to the environment area is natural protection for future generations. A special place in the solution of problems of environmental sustainability, environmental protection and nature management belongs to legal means, and norm-setting in this area should be outstripping in nature. Important legal acts have already been adopted to address environmental problems, the central one being the development of the list of “best available technologies”, and their implementation will make a significant step in achieving sanitary standards of harmful environmental impact indicators. At the same time, the change of Russia’s main environmental indexes show an increase in the negative impact on the environment and this growth will continue in parallel with the development of the economy, which requires the development of new measures of influence based on the ideas of the concept of “smart” state regulation. The concept of “smart” state regulation in the sphere of environmental protection and nature management is aimed at the introduction of integrated assessment procedures of decisions and allows purposeful influencing the economic activities of legal entities and individual entrepreneurs, to build as a matter of fact the individual trajectory of legal regulation of their activities in this area. Authors are encouraged to use the Assessment of the Negative Environmental Impact (ANEI) and the Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) in preparing regulatory and law enforcement decisions. This allows “flexibly” to influence environmental decisions, more rational use of legal means and synchronize legal regulation with tasks in the field of environmental protection and nature management. It also helps to form an eco-consciousness in the business community.
Keywords: policy of “smart” state regulation, legislation, best available techniques, assessment of the negative environmental impact, regulatory impact assessment, eco-consciousness
Article published in number 1 for 2019
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-1-116-121
Views: 59

Ethnoecology of the Slavic World: application significance on the Eurasian space

I.Yu. Trushkova, T.Ya. Ashikhmina, L.V. Kondakova
Section: Social ecology
Ecology is a science dealing with relations of living organisms with the environment and the ways of sustaining the harmonious balance in the world. Ecological approach determines the attitude of the people to the environment, it is the basis of their worldview, their behavior and culture. Ecologically oriented economy management and human behavior mean tendency of the mankind to nature preserving and keeping their environment healthy. Using ethnocultural experience helps to save financial, human, and natural resources, contributes to ecologization of industry and agriculture, and to spread ecological culture among the population. It was stated that ethnocultural inheritance of the Slavs contains a whole set of economic and everyday-life domestic rules of dealing with the environment, with the nature. “Ecological inclusion” of people in the natural environment helped to avoid stress, strain, conflicts in the society and conflicts of the society with the nature. Ecological experience of the Slavs is to be used in the process of ecologization of agricultural production and everyday life, as well as in development of ecological education and enlightening.
Keywords: ethnoculture of the Slavs, sustainable nature management, ecology of the living space, ecology of clothing, art-therapy, ethnoecological education
Article published in number 1 for 2019
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-1-111-115
Views: 47

Microbial transformation of organic matter of sod-podzolic soils in the Pre-Urals under conditions of different use and application of mineral fertilizers

N.E. Zavyalova, I.G. Shirokikh, A.I. Kosolapova, A.A. Shirokikh
Section: Agroecology
Microbiological parameters and character of transformation of humic substances of sod-podzolic soil at the end of five rotations of eight-full crop rotation in long-term stationary field experiment (1978–2017) are investigated. The direction of microbiological processes due to the effect of long-term application of mineral fertilizers in increasing doses – 30 to 150 kg/ha of NPK was determined. A comparison of the arable soil with its virgin analogs (mixed forest and natural meadow) as well as with the planting of goatling (Galegae orientalis L.). It was found that the different use of sod-podzolic soil led to a change in the direction of soil microbial processes. Plowing the soil reduced the content of total humus and increased the number and variety of actinomycetes involved in the mineralization of semi-decomposed plant residues, i. e. detritus. In the variants with application of mineral fertilizers for cereal crops in doses 90–150 kg/ ha of NPK it was observed the preservation of the original content of humus and a decrease of the index of pedotrophy compared to virgin counterparts and arable soil without fertilizers or treated with fertilizer in low doses. With the long-term cultivation of perennial leguminous culture without applying fertilizers, a microbial community is formed in the soil which is close in terms of quantitative and qualitative indicators to the microbial community of virgin soil analogs and its humus state is stabilized.
Keywords: ecological and trophic groups, microorganisms, crop rotation, virgin soil analogs, Galegae orientalis L., mineral fertilizers, humus

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Article published in number 1 for 2019
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-1-102-110
Views: 54

Optimization of the microbiological composition of the biological product for cultivation of Lotus corniculatus

L.I. Domracheva, D.V. Kozylbayeva, A.L. Kovina, L.V. Trefilova, Yu.N. Zykova, M.N. Gripas, V.A. Izotova
Section: Agroecology
In a field experiment the effectiveness of presowing treatment of seeds of Lotus corniculatus by mono- and multicomponent microbial associations has been investigated. The associations were based on the nodule bacteria (NB) of Rhizobium loti, cyanobacteria (CB) Fischerella muscicola and actinobacteria (AB) Streptomyces hygroscopicus A4. Evaluation of effectiveness was carried out by the analysis of morphometric parameters of the aerial part and the plants biomass, as well as the intensity of the tubercles formation. The results obtained during two years of studying the effect of different microbes-introducents on the formation of the crop of Lotus corniculatus undoubtedly showed that the most effective option was the treatment of seeds with a three-component association based on KB, CB and AB. The biomass yield in this variant, both in the first year and in the second year of vegetation, was higher by 80.0% compared with the control, while the nodulation intensity was also higher by 37.6% in the variant with three-component bacterization of seeds. The results of quantitative accounting of microorganisms showed that certain changes occur in the composition of microbial complexes. Thus, in some variants, sharp fluctuations in the number of ammonifiers and actinomycetes are noted. Least of all microbial introduction affected the number of nitrogen fixers. All these changes can be caused by the influence of introduced microbes on the native microflora, and are probably associated with the volumes of isolated root exometabolites, which, in turn, are affected by the species composition of inoculant microbes. It is shown that the introduction of microorganisms into the soil with seeds stimulates the development of agronomically useful native soil microbiota. CB and AB can be attributed to the set of promising biological agents for the creation of a complex preparation designed to increase the productivity and yield of Lotus corniculatus.
Keywords: Lotus corniculatus, microbial associations, seed inoculation, rhizosphere microflora
Article published in number 1 for 2019
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-1-094-101
Views: 45

The possibility of reducing the toxicity of gaseous emissions of power plants by the effect of an electrostatic field on the organic fuel combustion zone

I.A. Zyryanov, A.P. Pozolotin, A.G. Budin, E.V. Kantor
Section: Ecologization of industry
Electric power generation based on combustion of organic fuel is one of the largest sources of air pollution by toxic substances, including products of incomplete combustion. To reduce the negative impact of power plants on the environment, various methods are used to optimize the regimes for burning fuel and cleaning the emissions of combustion products into the atmosphere. One of the promising ways to regulate the combustion of fuels in order to reduce emissions is the effect of the electrostatic field on the combustion zone. This article presents the results of experimental studies in which the influence of the electrostatic field on the combustion of various types of gaseous, liquid and solid organic fuels in various configurations and directions of the electric field was studied. The change in temperature and completeness of combustion in a diffusion flame can be explained as follows: the electric field causes a shift of active charged particles to those torch regions where their presence was previously impossible. The field directed along the flow of fuel leads to a slight increase in the length of the reaction zone, and also causes the displacement of charged particles to the flame front, where they are oxidized. This leads to a change in the mechanism of chemical reactions, which in turn increases the temperature and completeness of fuel combustion. The field directed against the flow of fuel reduces the length of the reaction zone, with the result that the fuel does not have time to react completely. This leads to a decrease in temperature and combustion. So, it is shown that the influence of the electric field on the combustion zone can both reduce and raise the temperature of the flame, which can be used to optimize the combustion regimes with the aim of both improving energy efficiency and reducing the negative impact on the environment.
Keywords: energy, organic fuel, combustion, electric field, toxicity of combustion products

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Article published in number 1 for 2019
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-1-088-093
Views: 22

Development and optimization of biological treatment of quarry waters from mineral nitrogen in the Arctic

L.A. Ivanova, V.A. Myazin, M.V. Korneykova, N.V. Fokina, V.V. Redkina, G.A. Evdokimova
Section: Ecologization of industry
The new concept of bioremediation of anthropogenic water bodies and quarry wastewaters treatment by phytoextraction and phytotransformation in the Arctic conditions is presented. This technology is based on transformating the man-caused water reservoirs into nature-like marsh ecosystems. At the first stage, a new patented method for advanced waste treatment using floating bioplato was developed and implemented. After implementing the bioplato, the concentration of ammonium ions in water decreased by 53–90%, nitrate nitrogen reduced by 15–20%. At the second stage, the floating bioplato technology was modified into the highly efficient purificating marsh ecosystem, which allowed to cover the waterbody territory to the greatest possible extent. The technology is based on the creation of phytomats enabling in the accelerated mode to form plant blocks of three different types. They are aimed both at local grassing down, and at swamping deep and shallow areas of sediment ponds. In forming phytomats, two soil substitutional substrates (thermovermiculite, wood sawdust) and regionally-optimized assortment of 24 plant species are used. The proposed technology does not require energy, chemicals and soil components which are scarce in the region. The predominance of natural ecosystem processes in the formed phytocenoses allows to achieve maximum efficiency, and the use of available materials contributes to minimizing the costs of creating and maintaining the system. The introduction of this technology and formation of the artificial phytocenosis with the area of about 30% of the man-caused reservoirs territory made it possible to increase the efficiency of wastewater treating from mineral nitrogen compounds by 22%.
Keywords: phytoremediation, sewage quarry, sediment pond, mineral nitrogen compounds, phytocenosis, phytomats
Article published in number 1 for 2019
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-1-082-087
Views: 23

The use of multicomponent adsorption filters in water purification systems and luminescent control of ecotoxicant content

E.I. Tikhomirova, O.A. Plotnikova, O.V. Atamanova, M.V. Istrashkina, A.V. Koshelev, A.L. Podolsky
Section: Ecologization of industry
The paper presents the results of innovative design development for multicomponent adsorption filters with sliding cartridges or with a metal-graphite electrode system. The proposed filters allow providing water purification by 98–99% simultaneously from various polluting organic substances, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The filtering media of these filters include bentonite modified by various methods. To study the effectiveness of adsorption filters as a rapid method, qualitative spot test analysis (sensu Feigl) was used. To control the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous media and to ensure effective sewage treatment of natural contaminated waters, a luminescent solid-substrate method was applied. This method permits combining the preceding sorption concentration of substances on a cellulose matrix, modified with a surfactant, and analyzing directly in the solid phase of the sorbent. Optimal characteristics of luminescent control of ecotoxicant content before and after water purification were determined. Laboratory studies on water treatment efficiency using multicomponent adsorption filter with retractable cartridges of a model solution including a complex of polluting organic substances (pyrene, chrysene, benzpyrene, resorcinol) allowed identifying optimal filtering media represented by activated silica gel; bentonite, modified with carbon nanotubes and glycerol after heat treatment at 650 оC; bentonite after heat treatment at 650 оC; bentonite, modified with carbon nanotubes after heat treatment at 550 оC. Laboratory studies of water purification efficiency by multicomponent adsorption filter with metallographic electrode system of a model solution, including pyrene, chrysene, benzpyrene, resorcinol, m-aminophenol, o-toluidine, permitted to identify the most efficient filtering media comprising of synthetic zeolite; bentonite modified with carbon nanotubes and glycerol after heat treatment at 550 оC with a gradual temperature increase; organobentonite; bentonite modified with carbon nanotubes and glycerol after heat treatment at 550 оC; activated silica gel; bentonite after heat treatment at 800 оC. The proposed effective sorption water purification systems based on a multicomponent filtering media with luminescent control of ecotoxicant content in resulting solution can be recommended for successful introduction at industrial enterprises, producing wastewaters, as well as at water treatment plants.
Keywords: water quality control, water treatment, luminescent analysis, solid-substrate luminescence, adsorption filter, filtering media

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Article published in number 1 for 2019
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-1-073-081
Views: 13

Distribution, number and protection of the Falconiformes in Nenets Autonomous district

O.Y. Mineev, Y.N. Mineev, S.K. Kochanov
Section: Population ecology
The study on biodiversity and territorial distribution of order Falconiformes was conducted from 1973 to 2018 in tundra of Nenets Autonomous district. There are analyzing data on distribution and abundance of 18 species of birds of prey. On the surveyed area it is collected an information about type of staying of such genuses as: Pandion (1 species), Pernis (1 species), Circus (4 species), Accipiter (2 species), Buteo (2 species), Aquila (1 species), Haliaeetus (1 species), and Falco (6 species). It is determined authentic breeding of 11 species: Osprey, Northern Goshawk, Pallid Harrier, Hen Harrier, Rough-legged Buzzard, Golden Eagle, White-tailed Eagle, Gyrfalcon, Peregrine Falcon, Merlin and Common Kestrel. Hypothetically 3 species are breeding too. The category of passage birds is presented by Honey Buzzard, Pallid Harrier, Monatgu’s Harrier, Marsh harrier, Sparrow Hawk and Eurasian Hobby. To preserve natural habitats it is proposed a number of areas of high importance for habitats and mass reproduction of birds of prey. The most perspective are basisn of the rivers Belaya, Velt, Neruta, Bolshaya Rogovaya, Bolshaya Oyu, Sojma, Sula, and the lakes Urduizskie, Indigskie and Vasutkini.
Keywords: falconiformes, Nenets authonomous district, distribution, number, conservation

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Article published in number 1 for 2019
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-1-065-072
Views: 15

The dynamics of the elements of fitness of experimental populations of Drosophila under conditions of chronic low-intensity exposure

I.N. Yuraneva, V.G. Zainullin
Section: Population ecology
One of the main issues of radiobiology is the study not only of the sensitivity of cellular structures and individual systems of the body under chronic irradiation, but also the study of genetic variability of populations. Chronic exposure increases mutations in the population and stabilizes the number of mutations after several generations. It is shown that as a result of low-dose exposure to natural populations, the genetic load has been growing for many generations until the level of mutation load stabilizes. The study of the dynamics of genetic variability of populations, which is characterized by indicators of adaptation of individuals (fertility, viability) to environmental conditions and mutation load (dominant lethal mutations) allows not only to assess the sensitivity of populations to the effects of adverse factors, but also to determine the mechanisms of maintaining homeosis populations in changing conditions. The effects of low-dose chronic radiation on experimental populations of Drosophila derived from wild-type lines that differ in the content of mobile genetic elements are studied. It is shown that chronic irradiation (0.25 mGy/h, Ra-226) for 30 generations leads to destabilization of the genome, manifested in changes in the indicators of adaptability and mutability of populations, namely, in a significant increase in the level of embryonic mortality, reducing the level of viability, increasing the frequency of dominant lethals, reducing fertility in irradiated populations.
Keywords: Drosophila melanogaster, experimental populations, chronic low irradiation

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Article published in number 1 for 2019
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-1-060-064
Views: 13

Red Book of vascular plants along oil pipelines in Yaroslavl Region

L.P. Kapelkina, T.E. Teplyakova
Section: Population ecology
Oil-pipe line exploiting is connected inevitably with an influence upon natural biotopes. The route of our investigation of technogenic biotopes passed along 30 km of oil-pipeline protection zone. There were found 11 vascular plant species from 173 of Yaroslavl Region Red Book: Carex sylvatica Huds., Dactylorhiza baltica (Klinge) Orlova, Dactylorhiza fuchsii (Druce) Soó, D. incarnata (L.) Soó, D. maculata (L.) Soó, Glyceria lithuanica (Gorski) Gorski, Listera ovata (L.) R.Br., Neottia nidus-avis (L.) Rich., Ophioglossum vulgatum L., Veratrum lobelianum Bernh., Platanthera bifolia (L.) Rich, in addition Dactylorhiza baltica also is the species of Russian Federation Red Book. The important information including status of Red Book plant species, category of protection, biotopes and living state is given in the article together with the indispensable protective measures fot its preservation and the necessity of periodical plant monitoring. Some Red Book plant populations are scanty or even found in a single number. The most of them are corresponding with satisfactory living states. Species of Dactylorhiza are more prevailing in pipeline protection zone than other Red Book plants. This phenomenon is connected with auspicious conditions of lighting and moistening in meadow and marsh-meadow biotopes that are formed after felling trees and shrubs. Within protection zone with Red Book plants felling is expedient in autumnal period after ripening and seeds fall. During reconstruction of oil-pipeline transplantation of Red Book plants is higly recommended to the nearest appropriate biotope not included in the area of reconstructive work, but optimally to the protected areas.
Keywords: vascular plants, Red Book, technogenic biotopes, biodiversity, oil-pipeline safe-zone
Article published in number 1 for 2019
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-1-054-059
Views: 14

Red Book of vascular plants along oil pipelines in Yaroslavl Region

E.A. Snegin, A.S. Barkhatov
Section: Population ecology
On the basis of morphometric, phenetic and molecular genetic methods, the population structure of the Pelophylax ridibundus inhabiting the urbanized environment of Belgorod and its environs (Russia) was studied. The obtained results confirmed the previously stated assumptions, according to which under the conditions of anthropogenic load the color morph “striata” dominates (the proportion of individuals on impact territories was 70 to 93%). In relatively pure biotopes, the color morph “maculate” prevailed (58–67%). The morphometric characteristics revealed a significant differentiation of populations, caused by heterogeneity in the urban environment. For most morphometric indices, ANOVA showed significant differences between groups (p < 0.05), which is probably a consequence of the heterogeneity of the urban environment, especially in terms of contamination and food supply. But the index of genetic differentiation (Fst) at allozyme loci averaged 0.264, and the level of gene flow between populations (Nm) ranged from 0.107 to 32 individuals per generation. This indicates an obvious panmixia among the populations of P. ridibundus in the study area. Occasionally nonspecific allozyme loci were noted, indicating the hybrid origin of the individuals (hybrids between P. ridibundus and P. lessonae). The high of genetic diversity indices (He = 0.394±0.061, I = 0.629±0.100) and the low inbreeding values in populations (IF = -0.112±0.075) indicate an increased viability of the amphibian groups studied in the study area, which is a consequence of the adaptations of populations of P. ridibundus to inhabitation in urban conditions.
Keywords: marsh frog, population, urban environment

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Article published in number 1 for 2019
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-1-047-053
Views: 17

Content of heavy metals in urban surface water bodies

E.G. Riabova
Section: Population ecology
Today urban territories became the main habitat for people, but together with the rising level of economic and social advantages, they also have some ecological problems. And one of them is the pollution of urban water bodies with different toxicants, such as heavy metals. In this study, the analysis of surface water bodies carried out to containing of some heavy metals, such as: Pb, Fe, Mn, Sr, Zn, Cd and Cu, as well as comparison of obtained results with the results of previous research in 2006. During the research it was found that the main heavy metal contaminating town water bodies is cadmium (Cd), which average concentration is thirtyfold higher then allowed statutory level of contaminants for water bodies to amenity needs. Maximal concentration of Cd is 37 MPCan (maximum permissible concentration in water bodies to amenity needs) was evidenced in the pond inside the industrial area. The other heavy metals found in water bodies and benthic sediments in concentrations 2–5 MPCan were Pb, Fe and Mn. The results were compared with the previous research data in 2006, and it should be noticed, that during the eleven years concentrations of Pb and Mn lowered a bit, but they are still higher than MPCan. At the same time, concentrations of Fe and Cd have slightly increased. In regards to heavy metals’ concentrations in sediments, their dynamics changed a little. Basing to the obtained data, the specific combinatorial water pollution index (SCWPI) was calculated. This index characterizes water pollution rate, and for water bodies in Dzerzhinsky town SCWPI was 11 points, which indicates that surface waters in the town could be classified as “strongly polluted waters”.
Keywords: surface water bodies, heavy metals, benthic sediments, specific combinatorial water pollution index, Dzerzhinsky town

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Article published in number 1 for 2019
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-1-036-040
Views: 26

Content of toxic elements in water and macroalgae of the Argun River (Russia) basin water courses

A.P. Kuklin, G.Ts. Tsybekmitova
Section: Chemistry of natural environments and objects
The Argun River, as a transboundary stream flow between Russia and China, is an indicator of the existing pollution in its catchment area. The estimated content of 12 toxic elements in water and in macro-algae of eight tributaries of the Russian part of the basin of the Argun and in the Argun (seven sections), showed the greatest pollution of the waters of the river Srednyaya Borzya. The content of toxic elements in the water of the Srednyaya Borzya, below the gold washing areas, is (mkg/dm3): Mn – 171, Fe – 4994, Cu – 66, Zn – 102, As – 7, Mo – 3, Hg – 0.02, Pb – 13, which is several times higher than maximum permissible concentration of these metals. The high content of Fe and Mn among heavy metals in the rivers of the basin is connected with the specific features of the rocks in the study area. The marked toxic elements can be transported with solid runoff over long distances, settle in bottom sediments, thereby subjecting stream flows to secondary pollution. For most of the stream flows, it was exceeded the number of toxic elements in Cladophora fracta from the basin of the river Argun, relative to the background concentrations, typical for the water bodies of Zabaikalsky Krai. The greatest differences were recorded in samples of algae from the reserve reservoir of Krasnokamensk (Zn, As, Ni), in the river Srednyaya Borzya (Mo, Cd, Pb), in the river Kalga (Mn, Co, Mo). In the reservoir of Krasnokamensk in wintertime, water is pumped from the river Argun, which has the highest mineralization in this period. The obtained results can be used in monitoring of water pollution by toxic elements and for making managerial decisions.
Keywords: minerals, pollution, surface water, monitoring, Cladophora fracta

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Article published in number 1 for 2019
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-1-030-035
Views: 11

Environmental aspects of sulfate turpentine refining (review)

Е.S. Izmest`ev, S.А. Rubtsova, А.V. Kutchin
Section: Theoretical problems of ecology
The burning of sulfate turpentine, formed as a by-product of pulp and paper mills during the kraft pulping process, causes irreparable environmental damage, as it contains a large number of toxic sulfur-containing compounds generating sulfur dioxide when being combusted. It is for this reason that the search for methods of removing sulfur compounds from the sulfate turpentine, which can make the purified product a valuable source of terpene compounds suitable for industrial processing, is being actively pursued. The problem of complex refinement and rational utilization of turpentine is mainly to establish a waste-free use of feedstock for obtaining useful products. However, the lack of selectivity in the conversion of terpenes which are the main components of turpentine, and the complexity of their separation hinder the development of effective methods for refining turpentine. In this regard, the refined turpentine is used mainly as a solvent for varnishes and paints. At the same time, it is a valuable biofuel, capable, with proper approach, of partially replacing fuels produced from mineral oil. Terpenes from turpentine and their derivatives are widely used in the organic synthesis of biologically active substances, antioxidants, pesticides, herbicides, in the perfume industry for producing fragrances (linalool, geraniol, nerol, citronellol), and also for obtaining compounds with a pronounced insecticidal , repellent, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic and other types of biological activity. Sulfur-containing compounds can achieve widespread use in organic synthesis to manufacture solvents, ion-exchange resins, dyes, in the synthesis of detergents and reagents for the chemical industry (sulfochlorides, thiosulfonates, sulfoxides).
Keywords: sulfate turpentine, α- and β-pinenes, sulfur compounds, terpenes, terpenoids

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Article published in number 1 for 2019
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-1-012-022
Views: 7

Multivariate statistical analysis of ecological communities (review)

V.K. Shitikov, Т.D. Zinchenko
Section: Theoretical problems of ecology
The modern approach to the study of communities’ ecology involves the integration and joint processing of large arrays of observations. This usually involves a variety of indicators (population, phenotypic, genetic, environmental, chemical, landscape and geographical) which are characterized by significant temporal and spatial variability. The purpose of the analysis is to identify significant statistical relationships of the taxonomic structure with the characteristics of biotopes and environmental factors. It is based on multivariate methods that allow optimal projection of data with a large number of variables into low-dimensional spaces. The article focuses on the evolution of algorithms for multivariate analysis, starting with the classic unconstrained ordination based on principal components (PCA) up to modern integrated symmetric methods used in omics technologies. A class of algorithms, such as metric (PCoA) and non-metric (NMDS) multidimensional scaling, based on the calculation of distance matrices, is distinguished and the advantages and disadvantages of their use are considered. The dependence of the results of redundancy analysis (RDA) and canonical correspondence analysis (ССA) on the distribution law of the empirical data is discussed and recommendations for their preliminary transformation are given. It is shown the role of such symmetric methods as the two-block algorithm of partial least squares (2B-PLS) and the co-inertia analysis (CIA), which allow to establish by decomposition on axes of multidimensional covariations what species from different complexes of observations are most associated among themselves. Procrustean analysis (PCIA) can be widely used to identify changes in the species composition of the study region before and after some event (e.g., anthropogenic impact). Generalized Procrustean algorithms and canonical analysis (GPA, RGCCA, DIABLO) allow you to work with a large number of tables and explore the dynamics of community structure for several sequential periods of time or to form a consensus configuration by the best way. References to numerous examples of the use of ordination methods in domestic and foreign literature are given. The main prospects and directions of development of multidimensional methods in relation to the ecology of communities are shown.
Keywords: multivariate ordination, principal component analysis, correspondence analysis, non-metric scaling, canonical analysis, two-block algorithms, Procrustean analysis, co-inertia analysis
Article published in number 1 for 2019
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-1-005-011
Views: 20

Algological analysis of soil state in the vicinity of the plant “Maradykovskiy” after it finished functioning

L.V. Kondakova, К.А. Bezdenezhnykh, Т.Ya. Аshikhmina
Section: Monitoring of anthropogenically disturbed areas
The article presents the analysis of monitoring research of soil algoflora of forest and meadow ecosystems in the vicinity of the plant “Maradykovskiy” for the period before the start of its operating and till after stopping its functioning. Specious diversity of forest phytocoenoses algoflora before the start of its functioning accounted for 71 species. After the plant stopped functioning there were found out just 60 species. In meadow phytocoenoses the number is 123 and 95 species accordingly. The number of microphototrophs varies in forest ecosystems from 59.3 to 280.5 thousand cells per 1 g of air-dry soil. Green algae prevail in number (41.3 to 263.3 thousand cells per 1 g of soil). At the monitoring sites of meadow phytocoenoses the index of algoflora varies from 71.6 to 447.1 thousand cells per 1 g, green algae prevailing. The structure of algoflora of the monitoring sites is presented by the soil algae groups Chlorophyta, Bacillariophyta, Ochrophyta, as for species diversity, green algae prevail. Cyanobacteria (CB) are represented in coniferous forest ecosystems by a small number of species, they are rare there, and in meadow ecosystems they account for 29% species. Specious diversity of yellow-green algae and CB also decreased during the period of the plant’s functioning, still it is likely to increase after the plant stopped functioning.
Keywords: algoflora, soil algae, cyanobacteria, soil algae life forms, number of cells, biomonitoring
Article published in number 1 for 2019
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-1-023-029
Views: 36

Pectic polysaccharides of callus tissue of the stem of Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden

Gordina E.N., Zlobin A.A., Martinson E.A., Litvinets S.G.
Section: Chemistry of natural environments and objects
The uncontrolled growth of Sosnovsky’s hogweed (Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden.) in the central regions of the Russian Federation is a pressing problem, because areas occupied by this plant significantly increase each year. The methods used for the destruction of Sosnovsky’s hogweed (mowing, the use of herbicides, the use of geotextile, etc.) are not effective enough, because the hogweed seeds remain viable for a long time, and its roots penetrate deep into the soil. These methods do not involve the use of Sosnovsky’s hogweed biomass, which can serve as a source of physiologically active substances, including pectin polysaccharides, whose content in the plant is 10 to 17%. In addition, the structure and properties of water-soluble glycans of the Sosnovsky’s hogweed are not fully understood.Cultures of plant cells and tissues are a model object for the synthesis of phytopolysaccharides, therefore we used the callus tissue of the Sosnovsky’s hogweed stem to obtain water-soluble polysaccharides. We used partial acid and enzymatic hydrolysis, ultrafiltration, ion-exchange chromatography, and methylation, in order to study the composition and structure of water-soluble polysaccharides of the Sosnovsky’s hogweed callus tissue. We have found that water-soluble glycans from Sosnovsky’s hogweed callus are reserve polysaccharides – arabinans, galactans and/or arabinogalactans content of uronic acids with up to 24%, and pectic polysaccharides – linear gomogalakturonan (ramnogalakturonan) and ramnogalakturonan-I, with a galacturonic acid content of 70.5–73.9%. We obtained the results of methylation which suggest that the carbohydrate chains of the reserve polysaccharides are formed by 1,5-linked L-arabinofuranose residues 1,6-and 1,3,6-linked D-galactopyranose residues, 1,4- and 1,4,6-linked residues of D-glucopyranose and 1,3,6-linked residues of D-mannopyranose, and terminal residues of D-xylopyranose and D-glucopyranose are located at the non-reducing ends of their carbohydrate chains. The carbohydrate side chains of pectin polysaccharides include 1,5-linked L-arabinofuranose residues, 1,6-and 1,3,6-linked D-galactopyranose residues, 1,4-linked D-glucopyranose residues, 1,4- linked D-xylopyranose residues, 1,3,6-linked D-mannopyranose residues, as well as 1-linked D-glucopyranose and D-xylopyranose residues.
Keywords: Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden., callus tissue, water-soluble polysaccharides, pectin polysaccharides, monosaccharide residues, ion exchange chromatography, chromato-mass spectrometry, methylation
Article published in number 1 for 2019
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-1-041-046
Views: 14

Combined calculation schemes in mathematical modelsthe fractionation of grain

V.A. Sysuev, A.V. Aleshkin, Y.V. Sychugov, A.Y. Isupov
Section: Research methods. Models and projects
Agricultural ecology offers new methods and approaches to the implementation of production processes that will reduce the harmful effects on the environment. The article describes approaches to the formation of a combined calculation scheme of the process of grain materials fractionation by air flow in a horizontal channel. The main idea of the method is a consistent clarification of the mutual influence of grain and air flows in the calculation of the field of air velocities and trajectories of dispersed particles. The mathematical model of air flow motion is based on the finite element solution of the Laplace equations for a plane potential flow with variable porosity. Differential equations of motion of dispersed particles were solved numerically, using the method of average acceleration, with iterations at each step and taking into account the distribution of the air velocity field in the channel.The combined calculation scheme is constructed from several iterations with a step-by-step approach to the simulated process of pneumoseparation. At the first stage, the finite element model of the air flow is constructed without taking into account the influence of the flow of grain material. In the second stage the differential equation of grain material particles motion are solved. According to the solutions of these equations, the zone of greater or lesser porosity is determined. The next step is to recalculate the air flow rates in the channel taking into account the porosity of the various finite elements. The result of solving the differential equations of motion of dispersed particles varies depending on the air flow velocities. Thus there is a consistent approach to the description of the process of interaction of grain and air flow.According to the proposed algorithm the computer program in C# language has been developed. It provides the ability to graphically and numerically control the results of the calculation. The program interface contains three screens with tabular data and layout of finite elements, which, after calculations, is applied to the vector of air flow velocity and trajectories of particles with desired aerodynamic properties. Examples of calculation are presented. According to their results, a change in the value and distribution of air flow velocities at the inlet to the channel is proposed, the positions of the fraction receivers in the lower part of the horizontal pneumatic separation channel are determined.
Keywords: grain heap, flattened grain, finite element model, Laplace equation, porosity, pneumatic separation, fractionation
Article published in number 4 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-4-024-030
Views: 8

Prokaryotic test models for environmental ecotoxicological research: prospects and classification

N.V. Dudchik, S. I. Sychik, V. V. Shevlyakov
Section: Theoretical problems of ecology
Biological modeling in system ecology is an effective technology for assessing the biological effects of environmental factors. We provided the conceptual justification for the development of prokaryotic laboratory-analytical models, assessed the advantages and limitations of their experimental use. The classification of prokaryotic test models according to the level of the structural and ecological organization, the properties of the test object (cells, communities, populations, microbiocenosis) and a set of test reactions (bioindicators and biomarkers) is proposed. The definitions of the test model as a unified system including a test organism, a biomarker / bioindicator system, a test procedure in accordance with guidelines of good laboratory practice (GLP), a criteria apparatus for qualitative / quantitative assessment of environmental factors are given. The concepts of subpopulation and suprapopulation test models based on the properties of microbial communities as integral biological units regulating vital activity parameters depending on external factors are substantiated. Have been shown that microorganisms are relevant test objects for the development of innovative methods for assessing the impact of the physical, chemical and biological environmental factors on organism, which is based on the structural and ecological organization and the variety of metabolic, dynamic, morphological, molecular-genetic and other properties of microorganisms, integrity microbial culture as a system, cyclical development of populations of microorganisms in environment as well as their complex interaction with environmental factors.
Keywords: microbiotests, prokaryotic test-models, classification, biomarkers, bioindicators, associations of microorganisms

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Article published in number 4 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-4-005-012
Views: 75

Impact of forest fire on soil properties (review)

A. A. Dymov, E. V. Abakumov, I. N. Bezkorovaynaya, A. S. Prokushkin, Ya. V. Kuzyakov, E. Yu. Milanovsky
Section: Theoretical problems of ecology
We examined changes in the morphological, physicochemical properties and features of the organic matter of forest soils impacted by wildfires on the territory of Russia. Morphological signs of pyrogenesis (pyrogenic horizon formation, partial charring of litter and illuviation of organic compounds) are most evident detected in the first decade after a fire. Ground fires in lichen pine forests, formed on Albic Podzols lead to complete burning of litter. Low intensity ground fires in sphagnum pine forests, developing on Histic Podzols, contribute to partial burning of litter (charring). Fires change the hydrothermal regime of soils, which is most clearly demonstrated for soils formed on permafrost soils / cryosols. Fires lead to hydrophobization of the upper mineral horizons, estimated from the contact angle of wetting. Resistant products of pyrogenesis (charcoals, soot) are retained in soils for several centuries. The most common changes in the physical and chemical properties of soils after fires are a decrease in acidity by 1–2 units of pH, an increase of saturation with base saturation. Fires increase aromaticity of soil organic matter. After fires, the content of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in soils increases, and the concentrations of water-soluble organic compounds decrease. Restoration of soil properties to the prefire state takes a decade to several centuries. The introduction of a universal subtype “pyrogenic” is proposed in describing the morphological characteristics of forest soils.
Keywords: fires, forest soils, soil organic matter, secondary successions, black carbon

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Article published in number 4 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-4-013-023
Views: 87

Soil formation on technogenic lake sediments

E. V. Dabakh
Section: Monitoring of anthropogenically disturbed areas
The article is devoted to soils of the technogenic landscape (Technosols according to WRB) formed on contaminated man-caused lake sediments that have come on the daylight area after a change in the hydrological regime and the stopping of contaminated sewage into the lake. The investigated territory is located in the Vyatka Valley in the tailing pits of chemical enterprises in Kirovo-Chepetsk (Kirov Region, Russia). The thickness of the soil profile is limited by a dense gypsum crust lying at a depth of 30 cm and contributing to waterlogging of soils. Unlike the surrounding acidic alluvial soils, they are characterized by an alkaline reaction, contrast of the upper and lower parts of the young soil. The participation of the alluvial process and moisture-loving vegetation in the formation of the profile leads to a change in the composition and properties of the soil, especially the upper horizons. In comparison with the bottom sediments and the lower layers of soils in the upper horizons, the share of the aluminosilicate component in the mineralogical and chemical compositions is higher, the alkalinity is lower, and the pollution level sharply decreases. According to biological indices, the decayed litter and humus horizon are close to the humus horizons of surrounding alluvial soils. The soil and vegetation cover formed on technogenic lake sediments in the floodplain prevents active erosion of the underlying undeveloped contaminated sediments during the flood time and the dissolution of gypsum crusts, which inhibit the mobility of contaminated technogenic deposits.
Keywords: soil formation, technogenic sediments, gypsum crust, chemical soil contamination
Article published in number 4 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-4-024-033
Views: 58

Influence of heavy metals content in water of small rivers used for irrigation of maize of Armenian population

А. R. Sukiasyan
Section: Monitoring of anthropogenically disturbed areas
Ecological safety of small rivers for the population of the region, their role in the formation of biota is largely determined by the chemical composition of water. The intensity of climatic and anthropogenic factors changes, the chemical composition and, as a consequence, the quality of water can be vary significantly. In this regard, the conduct of monitoring studies of the water composition of these sources is very relevant. The features of migration of a number of heavy metals (HM) in the water-soil-plant triad were studied using the example of an annual herbaceous cultural plant – sugar corn (Zea mays L.) growing on the coastal areas of the Shnogh River. As a control plant corn inbred line B73 was used. With a specially equipped air-conditioning system the drought was modeled in climatic room by changing the optimum soil water content in the experimental vases. In the control vases, the optimum soil water content was 54%, in the case of a mild drought – 43%, wherein the wilting of leaves of the plant was not visually observed. During the modeling of severe drought, the optimum soil water content was 34%, and leaf wilting was observed during the day. The content of HM in samples of river water, coastal soil and plant grains were carried out using a portable analyzer “Thermo Scientific™ Niton™ XRF Portable Analyzerˮ. An analysis of the kinetic data of plant growth under simulated drought conditions was carried out. Kinetic parameters of plant growth in three conditions of simulated drought were determined. A correlation was established between the growth rate of biological samples and the drought. The kinetic parameters of plant growth under simulated drought conditions were established. A correlation was found between the water potential and osmotic pressure in the three-day shoots of the fifth maize sheet under conditions of drought. The physiological response of plant growth according to the degree of drought and indicators of water potential and osmotic pressure were considered. A certain spatial dynamics of distribution of some HM in the water-soil-plant triad is revealed. The obtained experimental material will makes it possible to carry out a complex of measures to monitor the degree of contamination of river water which used for irrigation purposes taking into account soil and climatic conditions of growth.
Keywords: plant, drought, growth kinetics, water potential, osmotic pressure, heavy metals
Article published in number 4 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-4-034-039
Views: 49

Assessment of the state of soils in specially protected natural reservations of the Kirov region

T. A. Adamovich, E. V. Tovstik, E. S. Soloveva, T. Ya. Ashikhmina, G. I. Berezin, A. M. Prokashev, V. P. Savinykh
Section: Monitoring of anthropogenically disturbed areas
Проведена оценка состояния особо охраняемых природных территорий (ООПТ) регионального – заказник «Пижемский» и федерального значения – заповедник «Нургуш», распложенных в Кировской области. Преобладающим типом почв исследуемых ООПТ является аллювиальные дерновые почвы, с сильно- и слабокислой реакцией среды. Содержание органического вещества в почвах территории заказника «Пижемский» варьирует от 3,1 до 4,7% для луговых и от 1,2 до 7,3% для лесных фитоценозов. Для территории заповедника «Нургуш» содержание органического вещества в почвах лесных фитоценозов изменяется в интервале от 2,0 до 6,7%. Содержание нитратного азота в почвах исследуемых ООПТ соответствует среднему уровню обеспеченности почв азотом. Для исследуемых территорий отмечено снижение содержания аммонийного азота вниз по почвенному профилю. Содержание в почвах тяжёлых металлов (Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu, Pb, Cd) находится на стабильном уровне в пределах экологической нормы. Во всех изучаемых почвенных образцах основное содержание из металлов составили марганец и железо, как для подвижной, так и для валовой формы. Максимальное содержание подвижных форм марганца и железа установлено в образцах почв верхних горизонтов. Незначительные количества меди, свинца и кадмия свидетельствуют об отсутствии техногенного загрязнения почвы на этих участках. Среди валовых форм тяжёлых металлов отмечено преобладание железа в пробах почвы из верхнего и нижнего горизонтов. Максимальное содержание валовой формы железа было отмечено в образцах с территории заповедника «Нургуш».
Keywords: agrochemical properties, the “Pizhemsky” zakaznik, the “Nurgush” nature reserve, the Kirov Region, soils, phytocenosis, heavy metals

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Article published in number 4 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-4-040-045
Views: 41

Phytoabsorption of radium-226 from technogenically contaminated soils by the example of Chamaenerion angustifolium, Lathirus pratensis and L. vernus

L. M. Shaposhnikova
Section: Monitoring of anthropogenically disturbed areas
The absorption of radium-226 by Chamaenerion angustifolium, Lathirus pratensis and L. vernus from podzolic soil contaminated with solid radioactive dumps (site 1) and alluvial sod soil contaminated with radioactive water (site 2) has been studied. The concentration of radium was 0.18-63.4 Bq/g of ashed weight (AW) in soil of site 1 and 0.05–21.4 Bq/g of AW in soil of site 2. The univariate analysis of variance did not reveal interspecific differences in the accumulation of the radionuclide by plants. However, the content of radium in plants selected from the area with dumps was higher than in the area contaminated with radioactive waters. Thus, the concentration of radium was 1.08–11.67 and 0.64–8.86 Bq/g of AW for C. angustifolium and L. vernus growing in the site 1 and 0.04–3.35 and 0.04–3.78 Bq/g of AW for C. angustifolium and L. pratensis sampled at site 2. The content of mobile (watersoluble and exchangeable) forms of radium in the soils of both sites was significantly indistinguishable. The obtained results showed that the concentration of radium in the studied plant species depends most on its total content in the soil and, to a lesser extent, on the content of its mobile forms. Multiple regression analysis showed that the total content of radium in contaminated soils depends to the greatest extent on the content of organic matter and phosphorus in them. The content of radium mobile forms is associated with the content of organic matter, as well as exchangeable cations of calcium and magnesium. The correlation between radium content in the plants and these alkali-earth elements was not confirmed. Among the most significant factors which affected radium adsorption by plants was the content of organic matter, phosphorus, potassium, the ratio of physical sand and physical clay.
Keywords: radium-226, biological absorption, radium forms, mobility factors
Article published in number 4 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-4-046-053
Views: 21

The use of glauconite for stabilization and improvement of ammonium nitrate agrochemical properties

Yu. N. Terentyev, N. V. Syrchina, N. N. Bogatyryova, T. Ya. Ashihmina, A. V. Sazanov, M. L. Sazanova, V. A. Kozvonin, A. A. Burkov, V. P. Savinykh
Section: Ecologization of industry
The development of new forms of nitrogen-containing mineral fertilizers comporting with world safety standards is currently quite a relevant problem. Existing forms of combined fertilizers including ammonium nitrate and carbonates have a number of disadvantages (hygroscopicity, caking, partial ammonium nitrogen decline). Therefore active search of new components with certain advantages is conducted. At the same time, their inclusion into the fertilizers’ composition should ensure a high level of plants’ nitrogen assimilation, exclude environmental pollution and comport with Green Chemistry principles; low cost and the possibility of large-tonnage output in Russian Federation is also of great importance. The quartz-glauconitic sandstone from Beloozero deposit (Lysogorsky district, Saratov region) is considered as such a component. Its chemical composition is determined by the mass-spectroscopy with inductively coupled plasma and atomic emission spectroscopy with inductively coupled plasma. The technique of glauconite introduction into the combined mineral fertilizer with ammonium nitrate was tested. The ammonium nitrate and glauconite ratios are selected to ensure the fertilizer thermostability and meet the European Union (EU) standards. The evaluation was carried out by thermogravimetry and differential-thermal analysis. The properties of the obtained fertilizer were tested by bioassay. It was definitely proved that the obtained fertilizer has a favorable effect on the seeds germination and seedlings development. Thus, granulated composition containing 80% of AN and 20% of glauconite allows to decrease the nitrogen content in the fertilizer finished form to 27–28%, which provides the fire-safety and explosion-safety required level, eliminates the risk of pellets caking during storage, promotes an increase in fertilizer’s agrochemical efficiency and allows to decrease the fertilizer’s application rates and, consequently, to reduce the environmental burden.
Keywords: ammonium nitrate, glauconite, explosion-safety, phytotoxicity, bioassay
Article published in number 4 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-4-054-060
Views: 60

Biodegradation of polymeric composite materials by microscopic fungi

E. Kh. Sakaeva, Yu. V. Kulikova, L. V. Rudakova
Section: Ecologization of industry
The objects of research were polymer composite materials (PCM) based on various reinforced materials and binders: fiberglass, organoplastics and carbon plastics. The program of experimental studies included three stages. At the first stage, studies were conducted to identify groups of microorganisms involved in the biodegradation of PCM. The second stage of the research is devoted to determining the generic and species belonging to microorganisms obtained in the first stage. At the third stage, the efficiency of the process of biological destruction of PCM by isolated groups of microorganisms was evaluated. Determination of groups of microorganisms involved in biodestruction was carried out by seeding on liquid nutrient substrates. Fungi resistance was determined in accordance with GOST 9.049-91. The main groups of microorganisms developing on the surface of composites are representatives of the genus Peni� cillium (P. chrysogenum, P. funiculosum, P. cyclopium) and the genus Aspergillus (A. niger, A. terreus, A. oryzae). The evaluation of the fungi resistance showed that the PCM are non-resistance, so the growth of the fungi is estimated at 4‒ to 5 points. The epoxy matrix is the least fungi resistant, whereas the phenol-formaldehyde matrix more resistant to fungal destructors. The results of the study shows the advisability of biodegradation technology with microscopic fungi using for the utilization of polymeric composite materials based on epoxy and phenol-formaldehyde resins reinforced with glass, carbon or organic fibers.
Keywords: biodegradation, mold fungi, fungi resistance, polymeric composite materials

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Article published in number 4 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-4-061-068
Views: 23

Study of migration and transformation of greasing and cooling fluids in the soil of urbanized area

L. M. Shuklina, G. M. Batrakova, T. N. Nurislamova
Section: Ecologization of industry
Relevance of the work is determined by the requirements of ecological safety in the industrial and civil construction in areas with identified technogenic soils’ pollution. The paper considers the use of chromatography-mass spectrometry in a study of polluted soil in order to identify transformation products under natural conditions of multicomponent formulas of lubricating fluids. The identification and search by mass spectra of the component composition of the industrial oil transformation products was carried out, a marker compound is proposed. The possibility of structure and element composition identification on the basis of registration of mass spectra of chemical compounds is shown. The search for characteristic ions of organic compounds was carried out using a bank of the mass-spectral data library. The characteristic ions (basic and sustaining) describing the structure of chemical compounds and the chromatographic retention time are determined. To assess the migration of the marker compound, a quantitative determination of the marker compound was made by capillary gas chromatography in air and polluted soils samples. Soil samples at the bottom of the vessel, samples of oil-retaining tissue and filtrate from the pallet were examined. The results of the research are aimed at justifying the method for assessing the contamination of industrial sites with lubricating fluids, taking into account the transformation of the organic pollutant and recommendations for the recultivation of polluted technozems.
Keywords: lubricating fluids, marker, volatile organic compound, toluene, chromatography-mass spectrometry study, characteristic ions, mass spectrum, soil, technozem

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Article published in number 4 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-4-069-077
Views: 19

Production of environmentally friendly building materials with use of pulp and paper sludge

E. S. Shirinkina
Section: Ecologization of industry
The paper presents the research in the field of using pulp and paper sludge as a resource in the production of environmentally- friendly building materials. During the analysis of scientific and technical information, it was found out that pulp and paper sludge, containing cellulose fiber and secondary sludge, can be used as an additive in the production of composite materials, insulation boards, light aggregates for concretes and combustible additives for production of ceramic bricks. In the laboratory, the possibility of obtaining a ceramic brick with addition of pulp and paper sludge in an amount of 4 and 8% by weight was researched. It was found that when pulp and paper sludge is introduced into the ceramic mass, the density of the bricks samples decreases, linear air shrinkage decreases to 2.7% (for samples with pulp and paper sludge addition in quantity of 4% mass), and 9.1% (for samples with pulp and paper sludge addition in quantity of 8% mass) in comparison with control samples without pulp and paper sludge addition, fire shrinkage decreases from 5.1% to 3.65% and 2.06% for samples with pulp and paper sludge content 4% and 8% mass respectively. Compressive strength of researched samples with pulp and paper sludge content significantly increases (to 90.2%) in comparison with the control samples, which is due to the release of additional thermal energy during the combustion of the pulp and paper sludge in the ceramic mass while the brick firing process. It has also been established that the bending strength of researched samples is reduced in comparison with the control samples, but with an increase of firing temperature to 1070 оC, an increase in bending strength has also been achieved. A comparative analysis of the obtained data on the strength of ceramic brick samples with the requirements of National State Standard showed that when the pulp and paper sludge is introduced into the ceramic mass in an amount of 4–8% by weight, as a combustible additive, it is possible to obtain solid ceramic brick suitable for building.
Keywords: pulp and paper sludge, secondary sludge, primary sludge, cellulose fiber, combustible additive
Article published in number 4 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-4-078-085
Views: 23

Biomonitoring capabilities of microorganisms when assessing the degree of toxicity of synthetic surfactants

L. V. Kondakova, L. I. Domracheva, V. S. Simakova
Section: Ecotoxicology
High sensitivity of the two species of cyanobacteria (Nostoc paludosum and Fischerella muscicola) as test-organisms by means of stating their hydrogenase activity with the tetrazolium-topographical method was proved; presence of formazan in cyanobacteria living cells served as a marker. It was stated that decrease in specious composition of algae and cyanobacteria can serve as a bioindication sign of synthetic surface-active substances in the environment. Formazan accumulation decreased considerably under the influence of car wash of three trade-marks. When cyanobacteria cultures are incubated in solutions of car shampoos with a recommended dose concentration, the number of viable cells drops sharply. Bioassay with the help of bacilli was carried out by means of bacterial suspension inoculation on nutrient agar with preliminary added sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). The toxicity criterion consisted in decreasing number of the grown bacilli colonies in experimental variants. It is shown that the degree of toxicity of SLS can be tested using bacteria of the genus Bacillus, judging from decrease of the percent of soil-balls encrusting with bacteria of the genus Azotobacter. The representatives of Xanthophyta and Eustigmatophyta were the most sensitive to soil pollution with SLS. The number of algae species was the most in the control variant and in the variant with 0.5 recommended dose of SLS. The results showing negative influence of the tested synthetic surface-active substances on microorganisms with different systematic characteristics proved the fact that it is necessary to carefully use car wash and to avoid car wash getting into soil.
Keywords: synthetic surface-active substances (SSAS), car wash, bioassay, bioindication, cyanobacteria, Bacillus, algoflora, Azotobacter
Article published in number 4 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-4-086-089
Views: 15

Applying songbird population dynamics models to conservation biology needs

A. L. Podolsky
Section: Population ecology
Proper understanding of the reproductive biology traits and population dynamics patterns of declining songbird species is crucial for ensuring their effective protection and recovery. Metapopulation dynamics may cause the extinction of local populations in some landscape patches regardless of the habitat quality and undertaken conservation measures. At the same time, the source-sink type of the population dynamics could saturate lower quality habitat patches with dispersing individuals from the population sources. Hence, poorer quality habitats presumed to yield population sinks could eventually maintain population sources. Consequently, an effective recovery strategy for declining species should include high quality suitable habitats along with some poorer quality patches in the regional network of protected natural areas. I developed the mathematical model for songbird reproductive strategy based on the case study of my three-year field research conducted on the Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla L.) in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (U.S.A.). Breeding Bird Survey detected multiannual negative population trends in this species in pristine landscapes of the Southern Appalachians, whereas its growing populations were found in some of the adjacent areas strongly affected by human activities. I modified basic Pulliam’s (1988) model of population growth rates for this species by including assumptions about annual female survival and annual fecundity. I also applied productivity data from 110 active nests to determine an average successful brood size and nesting success. Finally, I added probabilistic variables accounting for renesting rates after unsuccessful breeding attempt and double-brooding rates to the model while assuming equal sex ratio among the breeding individuals. Computer simulations based on actual data and assumed range of values of the model variables yielded population growth rates well below 1, thus confirming the declining status of the national park populations. Therefore, the best pristine habitats in the study area were not ecologically significant sources, and in fact they were ecological traps for this species. Such unpredictable population dynamics in high quality habitats vs. low quality patches could be caused by the “paradox of predation”: high quality landscapes of the national park attracted, in addition to birds, a variety of mammalian and reptilian nest predators. Most of these predators were absent or scarce in low quality
Keywords: annual fecundity, annual survival, renesting rate, double-brooding rate, population growth rate, Seiurus aurocapilla
Article published in number 4 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-4-092-100
Views: 13

About the promotion of natural restoration of Pinus sylvestris L.

N. P. Savinykh, E. V. Lelekova, M. N. Shakleina
Section: Population ecology
The research was carried out in the pine forest of the specially protected natural areas “Medvedsky Bor” in the Nolinsky District of the Kirov Region. One can meet there both typical boron and boreal plant species and some representatives of broad-leaved forests and steppes. We researched the composition of vegetation and flora, as well as the state of Pinus sylvestris L. of the overgrown strip that had been formed after the gradual next-but-one belt logging, with contribution to renewal (mineralization) and care (clarification-logging with removal of non-target species). Green-moss and reed vegetation associations prevail there, as it was stated. Vascular plants are analyzed in relation both to humidity and the spectrum of ecologo-coenotic groups. Predominance of mesophilic and xeromesophilic groups was stated, which indicates moisture degree sufficient for seed germination of the xeromesophilic P. sylvestris species. Boreal, boron, as well as non-moral and steppe species prevail, which confirms conservation of biodiversity in these forests. The pine undergrowth was analyzed as for its number, vitality; vegetation influence on these indicators was stated. It was found out, per hectare there are 21 thousand young pine plants aged from 4 to16 years. This 84 times exceeds the required number of trees in the mature community (250 trees per hectare). The vitality of the pine undergrowth is estimated according to the original method, taking into account the age of the plants, their height, the length of last annual increment and the mean annual increment, deviation of lateral shoots from the major axis, presence of re-crowning and yellowed leaves. It is established that there are 17 600 young plants with a high degree of vitality per hectare. It 4.4 times exceeds the plants number required for artificial restoration of pine forests (4000 trees per hectare). These are the trees which can form pine forests with a high appraisal index in the future.
Keywords: reforestation, logging, mineralization, undergrowth, real vitality, forest care, biodiversity
Article published in number 4 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-4-101-106
Views: 15

The change in soil actinobiote under the influence of Heracleum sosnowskyi invasion

E. V. Tovstik, I. G. Shirokikh, E. S. Solovеva, A. A. Shirokikh, T. Ya. Ashikhmina, V. P. Savinykh
Section: Population ecology
Certain plant species, as well as phytocenosis, can significantly influence the structure and diversity of soil microbiocenosis. Actinomycetes are an integral component of a soil microbiocenosis that carries out important environmental functions, inter alia, with the transformation of organic matter. This study was carried out to reveal differences in the structure of soil actinomycetes complexes between sites overgrown with the Heracleum Sosnowskyi Manden and non-invasive (control) plots. An increase in genus and species diversity of actinomycetes in invaded soils was noted, compared with control, in particular, the representatives of the genus Streptosporangium were found exclusively on hogweed-occupied plots. The appearance of Streptosporangium in the structure of soils actinomycete complexes under hogweed may indicate that hogweed root exudates contain compounds attractive for this mycelial prokaryotes genus. On the same plots, an increase in the proportion of colored streptomycetes representing the section and series of Cinereus Chromogenes was noted, whereas in the control soils streptomycetin complex, the non-producing pigments were dominated by representatives of the section and series of Cinereus Achromogenes. In the areas of mass growth of Heracleum Sosnowskyi, in comparison with the control plots, a lower carbon content in the soil was noted, which, in addition to the changes in the structure of actinomycete complexes, confirms the fact of intensive organic matter mineralization in soils under the hogweed. Despite the considerable above-ground biomass, at the end of vegetation the removal of nutrients is not replenished by the hogweed plant litter.
Keywords: Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden., soil, invasion, actinomycetes, total number, species diversity, structure of the complex
Article published in number 4 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-4-105-109
Views: 15

Preliminary data about algae and cyanobacteria of volcanic soils on Kuril islands

K. V. Ilchibaeva, D. F. Kunsbaeva, R. Z. Allaguvatova, A. I. Fazlutdinova, O. V. Polokhin, L. A. Sibirina, A. A. Gontcharov, P. Singh, L. A. Gaysina
Section: Population ecology
Fifty-five species from five phyla (Cyanobacteria – 8, Chlorophyta – 29 (Chlorophyceae – 14, Trebouxiophyaceae – 11), Bacillariophyta – 19, Streptophyta – 1, Ochrophyta – 2 (Xanthophyceae – 1, Eustigmatophyceae – 1)) were revealed during the study on biodiversity of cyanobacteria and algae from terrestrial habitats of Urup, Paramushir, Iturup, and Simushir (Kuril Islands). Algal flora of Iturup Islands was the most divers with 25 species, 23 species were found on Urup, 17 on Simushir, and 14 on Paramushir Islands. Number of species per sample decreased from Urup (3.6) to Simushir (2.1), Paramushir (2.0) and Iturup (1.9). Five species, cf. Mychonastes homosphaera, Chlorella vulgaris, Dic� tyococcus varians, Bracteacoccus minor, and Desmodesmus abundans were encountered on each of the island. In the same time species composition of cyanobacteria and algae on each island was specific and reflected ecological peculiarities of the habitats. The most notable feature of algal and cyanobacterial flora of studied islands was prevalence of cosmopolitan species tolerant to toxic volcanic substrates. Besides, this territory was characterized by high diversity of amphibian diatom algae. For understanding biodiversity of terrestrial algae and cyanobacteria of Kuril islands further moleculargenetic research are necessary.
Keywords: Kuril-Kamchatka Trench, volcanic soils, eruption, resistance, spatial-ecological patterns, cf. Mychonastes homosphaera, Chlorella vulgaris, amphibian diatom algae

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Article published in number 4 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-4-110-017
Views: 20

The partial replacement of antibiotics with biologically active substances at treatment of cows’ mastitis

M. A. Aziamov
Section: Social ecology
The World Health Organization (WHO) is informing about the antibiotic resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus increasing problem. These bacteria are changing their genomic composition under the influence of antibiotics and are rapidly spreading in the environment, threatening human health and food security in a number of countries. WHO requires reducing the use of antibiotics in cows’ mastitis by 50%. Staphylococcus aureus is the prevailing kind of cows’ mastitis pathogen in Western Europe and Russia. The staphylococcal mastitis caused by multiresistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus is registered in almost 90% of large farms and complexes where antibiotics are used. The possibility of partial replacement of antibiotics with biologically active substances at treatment of clinical mastitis in cows was evaluated. It is established that Interferon bovine recombinant, Polysaccharide of Hericium erinaceus fungus (PS of H. еrinaceus) and Dialderon after 10 days of treatment of clinical mastitis in cows increased the amount of cured individuals, respectively, by 30, 20 and 20% in comparison with antibiotic therapy. Biologically active substances normalized the number of somatic cells in milk to physiological level. The studied substances reduced the levels of interleukin-2 (Il-2) and interleukin-8 (Il-8), prostaglandins E2, normalized erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and phagocytic activity in the blood of experimental animals. The somatic cells number in the milk of experimental groups cows are decreased to physiological norm after 10 days of treatment. Milk after treatment of cows was fit for food consumption 72 hours earlier than with antibiotic therapy.
Keywords: antibiotic therapy, Dialderon, Interferon recombinant, clinical mastitis, Polysaccharid of Hericium erinaceus fungus
Article published in number 4 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-4-118-125
Views: 8

Assessment of titanium dioxide nanoparticle effects on living organisms

V. I. Polonskiy, A. A. Asanova
Section: Theoretical problems of ecology
Nanoparticles causing an unprecedented type of industrial pollution directly affect on all objects of the environment and therefore on all types of living organisms. So, these risks have to be evaluated. This review analyzes the world literature about effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on living organisms of various habitats. Currently, ecotoxicity issues of engineered nanoparticles are studied using bioassays with cell cultures and test organisms. The most commonly used test objects for toxicity assessment of nanoparticles are unicellular algae, water crustaceans, plants, mammalian and human cells. It has been established that the most sensitive organisms to titanium dioxide nanoparticles are unicellular algae and water crustaceans, EC 50 values were observed at a concentration of 1 mg/L. This suggests that aquatic ecosystem is one of the most vulnerable objects of the environment to nanoparticles. The high sensitivity of these organisms places them on a par with very promising biotest assays for quality monitoring of the environment which is contaminated with silver nanoparticles. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles have both positive and negative or neutral effects upon plants and these effects depend on concentration. The assays with mammalian and human cells show a negative effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles at concentration above 100 mg/L or have no effect at all. The size-depended toxicity analyses revealed that the less nanoparticles size was the greater toxic effect was. In the final analysis, the responses of living organisms of various habitats to the presence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in the environment are insufficiently investigated. There is insufficient data in world literature about size-dependent toxicity of these nanoparticles to various organisms. These issues require further study.
Keywords: titanium dioxide nanoparticles, biotest, plants, algae, crustaceans, cells, size-dependent toxicity of nanoparticles
Article published in number 3 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-3-005-011
Views: 43

Comparative analysis of the effectiveness of the use of sorbents of different nature with respect to copper(II) ions

S. G. Skugoreva, G. Ya. Kantor, L. I. Domracheva, T. I. Kutyavina
Section: Research methods. Models and projects
A comparative analysis of the efficiency of sorbents of various types (activated carbon, zeolite, peat, fungi Fusarium culmorum , cyanobacteria Nostoc paludosum K ü tz, grass Hordeum distichum L.) with respect to copper(II) ions was car - ried out. Potentiometric method for measuring the potential of an ion-selective electrode sensitive to concentration of copper(II) ions in the solution was used. The sorption curves were recorded in real time with the help of specially devel - oped original software for the ionomer. To describe the kinetics of sorption, mathematical models (pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models, second-order modified model, and Elovich’s model) were used to identify the contribution of the chemical stage to the sorption process. It was found that the sorption process of most sorbents is well described by a pseudo-second order model or a modi - fied pseudo-second order, according to which the sorbate and the sorbent functional group interact with each other at a 1:1 ratio. The parameters of the equation of the pseudo-second-order model are calculated: the kinetic coefficient ( k 2 ) determining the sorption rate, and the equilibrium (limiting) specific mass of the sorbate ( a e ), which corresponds to the sorption capacity of the sorbent. Series of sorbents have been ranked by decreasing the rate of sorption and sorption capacity. The comparison of the kinetic curves shows that sorbents of inorganic nature, zeolite and activated carbon have the least sorption effectiveness. The sorption potential of microorganisms and peat can be characterized as average. The most effective sorbents of heavy metal ions were samples of barley plants, which possessed the highest sorption rate and high sorption capacity. The use of microbial-plant associations as sorbents of heavy metals may be promising. It is necessary to select microorganisms and plants to create various associations for study the kinetics of sorption with the aim of optimizing sorption effectiveness.
Keywords: copper ions (II), sorption, sorption rate, sorption capacity, pseudo-second order model, activated carbon, zeolite, peat, Fusarium culmorum, Nostoc paludosum , Hordeum distichum

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Article published in number 3 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-3-012-018
Views: 36

Modern trends in the development of bioassay methodologyof aquatic environments

A. S. Olkova
Section: Research methods. Models and projects
Bioassay is now an integral part of the “Effect-directed analysis” (EDA). We analyzed current research in the field of biodiagnostics and environmental monitoring programs, which used bioassay methods. The modern bioassay methodol - ogy is developing in the following areas: the development and implementation of new bioassay methods, the development of special bioassay devices, the detection of new informative test-functions based on the accounting of sublethal effects in laboratory organisms, the evaluation and interpretation of the results of toxicological analysis of environmental components. We propose three directions for evaluation and optimizing bioassay approaches and methods. First, we propose an algorithm for selecting protocols of bioassay. This algorithm is based on the ranking of sensitivity of bioassay methods to the most important pollutants in the territory of research. This approach will allow using only the most informative and sensitive bioassay protocols in the further researches. The second direction in optimization of bioassay methods is strict standardiza - tion of maintenance conditions of test-organisms. We recommend verification of the influence of abiotic and biotic factors on the test culture during the entire life cycle of individuals of a biological species. Life expectancy and ability of individuals to reproduce are universal criteria of health for many animals. The third part of our work is the development of a system of test-functions for laboratory animals consistently evaluated during a toxicological experiment. This approach allows tak - ing into account the different effects (lethal, sublethal, chronic and delayed) in the process of testing various substances or aquatic environments. We tested this system of bioassay using Daphnia magna . The system of test-functions includes 14 response effects, which we took into account in three generations of crustaceans. The earliest responses of D. magna are estimated from changes in motor activity and trophic activity of crustaceans. Delayed effects are diagnosed by changes in fertility in the F 2 and F 3 generations, as well as the emergence of abortive eggs. Implementation of the proposed directions of bioassay optimization will allow taking into account the multiplicity of obtaining objective results of ecotoxicological analyses. Researchers can consistently use three parts of evaluation and optimizing of bioassay approaches at the planning stage of enviro
Keywords: bioassay, bioassay methodology, methods of bioassay, test-function, laboratory test-organism
Article published in number 3 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-3-019-026
Views: 23

Reducing the environmental threat of motor vehiclesby converting engines for operating on natural gas

V. Romanyuk, V. A. Likhanov, O. P. Lopatin
Section: Research methods. Models and projects
The article explains the necessity of using natural gas (NG) for motor vehicle diesel engines, which makes it possible to reduce their environmental threat and to save motor oil fuel. The composition of the NG used and its physic-chemical properties are presented in the article. In order to determine and to optimize the amount of the NG supplied for motor diesel engines, the authors of the article have tested them on the electro-brake testing bench SAK-N670, which has a balanced pendulum and the weighing machine “Rapido”. At the same time, the toxicity level of the exhaust gases (EG) was determined using an automatic gas analysis system “ASGA-T”, and the smoke intensity of the exhaust gas was estimated using an optical-electric reflectometer “Bosch EFAW-68A”. It has been experimentally established that for the NG using in the tested motor vehicles diesel engines, it is necessary to maintain the following ratio of components: gas should be 80%, diesel fuel filling should be 20%. When converting diesel engine 4F 11.0/2.5 installed on trucks and tractors of urban public utilities to NG, and while the simultaneous use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in it at a rate of 20% (EGR is applied to eliminate the increased nitrogen oxides as a result of using NG), the content of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) in EG is reduced by 30.0–30.1%, carbon soot is reduced by 82.0–88.7%; carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is decreased by 31.6–35.6%. When converting a diesel engine 4FC 11.0/12.5 installed on city passenger buses to NG, in the EG a decrease in NO x content by 5.5–35.1% occurs; carbon soot decreases by 88.2–92.0%; carbon monoxide (CO) decreases by up to 21.6%. The conversion of these motor diesel engines to work on NG, in addition to improving the environmental performance of their EG indicators, also helps to save oil motor fuel in the amount of 80%.
Keywords: natural gas, exhaust gases, diesel, ecology of city

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Article published in number 3 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-3-027-032
Views: 27

Military activity influence on some metals content in the Saur-Mogila soil, Donbas

A. S. Alemasova, Y. I. Penkova, A. S. Pivovarova, R. V. Ostapenko
Section: Monitoring of anthropogenically disturbed areas
Soil samples were collected from funnels after artillery shelling (summer 2014) on burial mound Saur-Mogila (Donbas, Ukraine) as well as from urban garden soil near motorway in the Donetsk central district in order to determine the concentration of 11 toxic metals total content, acid-soluble forms and mobile forms. The concentrations of toxic met - als Cd, Pb, Sr, Mo, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Ga, Mn, Tl were compared with maximum permitted concentration and background level. The results quality was controlled by standard addition method. The mean concentrations of Cd (2 samples) and Co (one sample) exceeded the guidelines while the other metals did not exceed. The level of Zn, Cu, Mn, Pb, Ni, Cd total and mobile forms in funnels soils was 2–7 times lower than in polluted urban garden soil. The sources of toxic metals in Donetsk garden soil may be from traffic and industrial emission. The total pollution index (Z c ) is much lower than the “permissible” category. The index of metals mobility (S n ) indicates their insignificant mobility with the exception of lead acid-soluble forms. The obtained results testify to the need for further systematic monitoring of the soils of battlefield in Donbas. These results refuted the hypothesis as for soil toxic metals content influence on observable state of vegetation in “Donetskiy Kryazh” landscape park near Saur-Mogila burial mound.
Keywords: toxic metals, total content, mobile forms, soils, funnels from artillery shelling, urban lawn soil
Article published in number 3 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-3-033-039
Views: 22

Comparative analysis of artesian water quality

T. N. Ashurbekova, N. G. Isaeva, A. N. Murzaeva, E. M. Musinova, Z. G. Gadzhimusaeva, R. А. Abduragimov
Section: Monitoring of anthropogenically disturbed areas
Water quality is an essential part of a human life. The availability of high-quality drinking water is one of the main issues in Russia. One of the most important directions of economic and social development of the Chechen Republic is to provide the population with clean drinking water. The paper presents the results of research of drinking water quality in artesian wells in the Chechen Republic. Artesian well water in stanitsa of Chervlyonnaya in Shelkovskoy District, stanitsa of Naurskaya in Naursky District and stanitsa of Petropavlovskaya in Groznensky District of the Chechen Republic contains heavy metals, such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and arsenic (As). The presence of heavy metals in the above-mentioned artesian wells can be attributed to the geological structure of the territory of the Chechen Republic situated on the rocks of Jurassic and Paleogene age. As confirmed by measurements, samples of water were found to have cadmium levels above the maximum permissible concentration (water taken from wells in stanitsa of Chervlyonnaya – 5 times, stanitsa of Naurskaya – 7 times and stanitsa of Petropavlovskaya – 9 times). The content of lead in all the samples exceeded the MPC by 4–5 times. The samples also contained arsenic at levels that exceeded the maximum permissible concentration by 4.8 times in stanitsa of Chervlyonnaya, by 1.5 times in stanitsa of Naurskaya and by 6.2 times in stanitsa of Petropavlovskaya. Arsenic, lead and cadmium are toxic elements and long-term exposure to them is known to cause cancer. Multi-year studies of public health in the Chechen Republic show increase of cancer rates among the population.
Keywords: artesian water, heavy metals, lead, cadmium, arsenic, maximum permissible concentration, oncologic diseases
Article published in number 3 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-3-040-047
Views: 31

Development of plankton communities in the anthropogenic hydrothermal conditions

N. A. Tashlykova, E. Yu. Afonina
Section: Monitoring of anthropogenically disturbed areas
An electric power plant induced increase in water temperature substantially affects aqueous medium. Any hydraulic facility zones to be artificially heated and used by power plants may be considered as peculiar “anthropogenic hydrothermal systems”. Interrelation properties of specific abiotic and biotic parameters of such extreme ecosystems shall be studied at large for understanding hydraulic facility ecosystem biological efficiency and trophic status alteration factors. This paper applies to analysis of relations between hydrothermal zone environment factors and basic characteristics of the plankton population in the Kharanorskaya State District Power Station (Trans-Baikal Territory) cooling reservoir. The population of planktonic animals and plants were studied at a thermal zone of the cooling reservoir by using standard hydrobiologic methods for the period of February to October, 2013. Hydrochemical samples were processed at the industrial sanitary laboratory of INTER RAO-Electroenergy JSC, Kharanorskaya SDPS branch using common techniques. It was found that phytoplankton contained 40 taxonomic groups of algae and 25 invertebrate species of animal plankton. Chlorophyta, Bacillariophyta and Crysophyta dominated in algocenosis amounted to 80% of the total taxonomic groups. As for Rotifera, it dominated in animal plankton cenosis amounted to 40% of the total species. It is demonstrated that the dominated complex varies seasonally. Quantity of phytoplankton and animal plankton has been specified. The algal species diversity has drastically reduced and quality of inver - tebrate animals has fallen down within the period when water was maximally warmed up since temperature values jumped up and oxygen content come down. With some aquatic organisms (i.e. algae and invertebrate animals) taken as an example, it was found that the offset and extension of organism growth periods induce a primary reaction to particular thermal load increase factors. Inverse temperature correlation was identified at surface and natural water layers to have specific abiotic parameters in relation to clear water and nitrate levels in water. As provided by biotic plankton sampling statistical data, it was found that temperature, cation and anion water composition, as well as suspended solid concentration are the main factors that affect growth of organisms in the anthropogenic water reservoir of the hydraulic facilities.
Keywords: phytoplankton, zooplankton, abundance, biomass, anthropogenic hydrothermal, principal component analysis, cooling reservoir of Kharanorskaya electric power station

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Article published in number 3 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-3-048-054
Views: 17

Migration of pollutants and contamination of groundwater when mining iron ore

Yu. A. Babushkina, N. N. Nazarenko
Section: Monitoring of anthropogenically disturbed areas
The article considers the problem of migration of chemical pollutants into the aquatic environment of iron ore mining area on the example of JSC “Sokolovsko-Sarbaiskoye Ore-dressing Production Association” (Kazakhstan). The materi - als of the study where samples of groundwater selected at the plant for the extraction of magnetite ore, on the border of the sanitary protection zone and beyond. Sampling of water was carried out in accordance with Russian State Standard GOST 31861-2012 in the period 2012–2016 years. Analysis of samples was carried out by an accredited laboratory on such factors as pH, dry matter, suspended mat - ter, calcium, magnesium, sulfates, chlorides, phosphates, bicarbonates, nitrates, nitrites, ammonia nitrogen, total iron, oil, aluminum, lead, zinc, nickel, cobalt, manganese and boron. The results shows that the magnitude of the concentration of sulfates, chlorides, nitrates, dryness, nitrites, ammonia nitrogen, boron, manganese in underground water directly in the production area exceed their maximum permissible values. The critical points of impurities were identified such as a lower sump of quarry, upper sump pit and drainage ditch with the highest rates of sulfates, chlorides, nitrates, dryness, nitrites, ammonia nitrogen, boron, calcium, magnesium and bicarbonates. The main trends of groundwater pollution in the area of the location of the iron ore mining enterprise are revealed. For the vast majority of pollutants, sharp annual fluctuations of indicators are not observed, the level of pollution is stable, and there is no tendency to reduce the level of groundwater pollution. At the same time, no excess of pollutants was detected outside the sanitary protection zone of the enterprise. This indicates that migration of pollutants beyond the sanitary protection zone of the enterprise is not observed
Keywords: migration of chemical pollutants, mining enterprise, iron ore, technogenic pollution, groundwater

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Article published in number 3 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-3-055-061
Views: 15

Ecology and structure of Goodyera repens (L.) R. Br. (Orchidaceae) coenopopulations in the Northern Urals

I. A. Kirillova, S. V. Degteva, Y. A. Dubrovskiy, A. B. Novakovskiy
Section: Population ecology
Data on ecology, phytocoenological preferences and population structure of the species Goodyera repens (L.) R. Br. of Orchidacea family in the Northern Urals are considered. Investigations were carried out during 2000–2016 in the three protected areas: Pechoro-Ilychsky reserve, Un’insky complex sanctuary and Yugyd Va national park. 23 coenopopulations were studied. 72 releves with G. repens were used to study phytocoenotical preferences and eco - logical parameters of the species. The species has wide phytocoenotical range establishing various forest formations and forest types – green moss, herb and sphagnum, being more often in the communities of association Piceetum myrtilloso-hylocomiosum . The species establishes mainly ecotopes with medium humidity and weakly acid poor soils, and refers to the semi-shadow group of plants according to Ellenberg’s scale. The studied coenopopulations are small and full up to 500 individual shoots. Spatial structure of G. repens coenopopulations was determined by occurrence of well-developed isolated clusters resulted from prevailing vegetative reproduction of the model species. In the Komi Republic, such clusters ranging from 1 to 3–6 m 2 size consist of several tens or hundreds of individual plants with an average density from 9 to 224 shoots per m 2 . All the coenopopulations under study were full and their ontogenetic spectra were similar with the prevalence of immature or adult vegetative shoots. Average ontogenetic spectrum of all the coenopopulations under study was as follows: juvenile shoots – 8.7%, immature – 39.8%, adult vegetative – 37.7%, generative – 13.8%. It corresponds to the basic spectrum of the species that is the evidence of the stable population’s state. We suggest that G. repens is well adapted to the Northern Urals where there are many suitable ecotopes in the large arrays of intact forests.
Keywords: Goodyera repens (L.) R. Br., orchids, coenopopulation structure, the Northern Urals

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Article published in number 3 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-3-062-068
Views: 22

Anthropogenic adaptation of reproductive biology of conditional-synanthropic birds

L. Kuchar, Е. S. Ivanov, А. V. Baranovskiy, D. V. Vinogradov, Ja. Leśny, А.V. Schur
Section: Population ecology
The article is devoted to studying mechanisms of synanthropization and ecological segregation of birds in an - thropogenic landscapes. The paper presents data on the adaptability of the anthropogenic specifics of nesting behavior of the spotted flycatcher, a conditional-synanthropic bird species. This species is generally liable synanthropization, however, it does not occur in the most urbanized parts of the cities, preferring moderately modified habitats. It is shown that anthropogenic landscape contributes to the formation of new forms of birds’ behavior, which are a response to the environment. But not all of these forms are adaptive and some are peculiar ecological traps. Such peculiarities of behavior do not increase, but even decrease the reproductive success of birds, which is not always easy to establish, because as a whole the results of the synanthropic population breeding may be higher than in the wild, due to different intensity of the influence of the limiting factors of the environment. Data on the analysis of nesting and reproductive success of wild and synanthropic populations are presented. It is pointed out that the spotted flycatcher has specific main reproductive parameters in the anthropogenic landscape, which is the result of the reaction of birds to the features of synanthropic ecosystems and the unequal effect of the same environmental factors on them in natural and anthropogenic biocenoses. It manifests itself primarily in changing the time of the reproductive period and the widespread use of anthropogenic bases for nests fastening. There is also a higher reproductive success in the anthropogenic landscape, which we associate with more favorable microclimate and the ratio of specialized and non-specialized predators (prevalence of the latter), different than in nature.
Keywords: adaptation, birds’ segregation, ecosysems, nesting, ecology, spotted flycatcher, population
Article published in number 3 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-3-069-077
Views: 13

Specific character of soil “blooming” in agricultural and urbanized territories

L. V. Kondakova, L. I. Domracheva, I. A. Kondakova
Section: Population ecology
Specious content and quantity characteristics of microorganiams which lead to soil “blooming” in natural, anthro - pogenic, and urbanized ecosystems are shown in the article. In natural ecosystems algae and cyanobacteria communities develop in gradual succession stages, from unicellular green algae and Xanthophyta, filamentous green algae and non- heterocyst cyanobacteria to heterocyst cyanobacteria. Agricultural soil “blooming” has some peculiarities, irrespective of the place, season, soil type, dominating groupings. Among the “blooming” dominants cyanobacteria and green algae of the geni Cylindrospermum, Nostoc, Anabaena, Klebsormidium etc prevail. In agro-coenoses there is a direct connection between doses and terms of fertilizer treatment and the stage of development of the surface growth. Urban soils suffer from more intensive and diverse impact, as compared with agricultural and natural ecosystems soils. The specious content of phototrphs shows that in late summer surface biofilms represent many-species communities with different species of cyanobacteria and diatoms dominating. Cell density in “blooming” films is very high, it varies from 18 to 47 million cells per cm 2 . Various city pollutants provide diversity of phototrophic groups.
Keywords: Specific character of soil “blooming” in agricultural and urbanized territories

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Article published in number 3 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-3-078-085
Views: 15

Biodegradation of vegetable waste and obtaining fruit bodies in cultivation of Hericium erinaceus

A. А. Shirokikh, Yu. A. Zlobina, I. G. Shirokikh
Section: Agroecology
Development of technologies for biodegradation of plant wastes in order to obtain new useful products can not only reduce pollution of the environment, but also provide a raw material base for biotechnology. The possibility of using the basilial xylotrophic fungus Hericium erinaceus as a destructor of plant wastes with simultaneous production of economically valuable secondary products was studied. As a nutrient substrate for the production of fruiting bodies of the fungus, mixtures of straw, oak sawdust and oat grain were used in various proportions. The productivity of the raw compacted substrate was calculated as the ratio of the mass of fruiting bodies of fungi obtained from one vessel to the initial mass of the substrate. The intensity of decomposition of the substrate was judged by the decrease in its biomass during the period of cultivation of the fungus. It is shown that in order to achieve a high degree of biodegradation of cellulose and lignin-containing waste and to obtain the maximum harvest of fungi, it is necessary to include a readily hydrolysable grain component in an amount of not less than 30% by volume in the nutrient substrate. By varying the concentration of the grain, it is possible to regulate the growth rate of the mycelium, the yield of the fruiting bodies and the degree of biodegradation of the substrate.
Keywords: Hericium erinaceus , lignocellulosic waste, artificial cultivation, nutrient substrate, yield of fruit bodies, productivity of substrate, degree of decomposition

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Article published in number 3 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-3-086-092
Views: 9

Method for processing lignin-containing wastes from the paper industry to produce sorbents for wastewater treatmen

Y. I. Vaysman, I. S. Glushankova, E. S. Shirinkina, S. F. Davletova
Section: Ecologization of industry
Pulp and paper mill requires large amount of resources and energy. Technological processes of pulp and paper mill are associated with high water consumption (10–20 m 3 per ton of final product) and high consumption of wood raw materials and electricity (1080–1100 kg of raw materials and 300–350 kWh of electricity per ton of final product). The most environmentally hazardous objects in pulp and paper mills are cellulose production, which is followed by the formation of liquid waste – waste liquors containing lignosulfonates, the treatment of lignosulfonates is a compli - cated technological problem. Lignosulfonates are practically not subjected to biological degradation and the extraction of liquor together with industrial wastewater into biological treatment facilities leads to a significant reduction in the efficiency of water purification and increase contamination of hydrosphere objects. Despite the possibility of using liquid lignosulfonates as surfactants, reagents for the preparation of drilling muds, a binder in the production of wood chipboards, fiberboards, the scale of their use is limited due to the volatility of the composition and structure of the waste. The disposal of waste at landfill sites leads to long negative impacts on environmental objects, incineration of waste will be followed by emissions of toxic substances and it would be necessary to use expensive waste gas purification technologies. One of the directions of lignosulfonates treatment is their thermal destruction with the production of carbon sor - bents, which allows not only treating waste, but also obtaining cheap sorption materials for wastewater and gas emissions treatment. The paper presents the results of thermochemical pyrolysis process researches of lignosulfonates formed during the production of cellulose from birch chips, the results of obtaining carbon sorbents, determining the main factors affecting the yield of the sorbent, its physicochemical and sorption properties: the pyrolysis temperature, the processing time, the ratio of lignosulfonate: hydroxide potassium. Determination of the sorbents porous structure parameters and the specific surface was carried out on the basis of an analysis of nitrogen adsorption isotherms at a temperature of 77 K (-196 о C) obtained from the Quantum Hydrocarbon Analyzer NOVA 1200e and calculated using the metod BET (Brunauer, Em - mett and Teller) of the polymolecular adsorption theory and the Dubinin-Radushkevich eq
Keywords: lignosulfonates, carbon sorbents, porous structure, sorption activity, ion-exchange capacity, chromium ions
Article published in number 3 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-3-093-099
Views: 8

Modified sorbents based on soda production sludge for extracting ions of heavy metals from aqueous solutions waste water

I. S. Glushankova, E. V. Kalinina, E. N. Demina
Section: Ecologization of industry
The purification of industrial and surface wastewater from heavy metal ions (HMI) to requirements for the discharge of treated wastewater into natural waters is one of the most complicated environmental and technological problems. For the deep purification of waste water from the HMI, the use of cheap sorbents obtained from production waste is the most promising. One of the many-tonnage wastes of technology of inorganic substances is the sludge formed in the production of soda by the ammonia Solvay,s method. Currently, sludge is stored in sludge accumulators and is a long-term source of pollution of environmental objects. Scientific developments in the utilization of slimes with the production of building materials, etc., have not found wide practical use, which is due to the heterogeneity of the granulometric and chemical composition of the waste. Carried out X-ray phase analysis and studies of the physicochemical and chemical properties of waste samples showed that its main components are calcium carbonate (calcite) and calcium hydroxide (portlandite). It is known that the natural mineral limestone efficiently extracts HMI from aqueous solutions with the formation of less soluble basic salts, carbonates, and hydroxy carbonates of HM. It has been established that sludge samples have high sorption activity when copper(II) and zinc ions are extracted from low concentrated solutions (sorption capacity for copper ions is 35.0 mg/g, sorption capacity for zinc ions is 40 mg/g). To increase the operational properties, a method has been developed for the production of a modified granular sorbent based on the sludge of soda production, consisting in treating with sodium silicate. The effect of a dose of sodium silicate in the sorbent composition on the mechanical strength and sorption properties of the obtained samples was studied. It has been established that the introduction of 8,6% SiO2 into the sludge leads to an increase in the mechanical strength by 50–80%, and does not have a significant effect on the sorption activity of the material. The kinetic and sorption regularities of extraction of copper(II) ions and zinc on modified sorbents are revealed. Based on the analysis of the adsorption isotherms obtained, the adsorption equilibrium constants and maximum adsorption values (Amax (Cu2+) = 50.8 mg/g; Amax (Zn2+) = 97.1 mg/g) were determined. Obtained sorption materials can be recommended for wastewater treatment from HMI.
Keywords: heavy metals ions, soda production sludge, calcium carbonate, sorbents, sorption capacity
Article published in number 3 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-3-100-108
Views: 13

Production of environmentally safe building materials on the basis of the waste foundry sand

Ya. I. Vaisman K. G. Pugin, L. V. Rudakova, I. S. Glushankova, K. Y. Tyuryukhanov
Section: Ecologization of industry
The object of the research was the waste foundry sand of one of the typical steelmaking enterprises. Estimation of pollutant emissions from the composition of waste foundry sand has shown their low emission and biological activity, which allowed to develop a technology for its utilization with obtaining environmentally safe construction material. The granulometric composition of the waste foundry sand was determined with an average grain size of 0.38 mm. Based on the results of the analysis of buffer extracts, the content of heavy metals in the samples of waste foundry sand in mobile form was determined. Heavy metals (lead, zinc, chromium, nickel, manganese), as well as phenol and formaldehyde, were chosen as the indicators. Samples of waste foundry sand contain formaldehyde in mobile form exceeding the limits for soil. It has been proposed to use formaldehyde-containing sand in a dense and hydrophobic structure, such as asphalt concrete, to reduce the formaldehyde emission. Investigations of the physical and mechanical properties of waste foundry sand showed that it is suitable for use as a mineral aggregate in the production of asphalt concrete mixtures. The conducted studies of asphalt concrete samples in the composition, which as a fine mineral filler used waste foundry sand, showed that it meets the requirements of Russian standard GOST 9128-2013. Physico-mechanical characteristics of the asphalt-concrete mixture correspond to asphalt concrete of B type I grade. The proposed recycling technology is possible without significant capital investment in most steel mills. The implementation of this technology will reduce the industrial impact on the environment in the locations of the steel plant.
Keywords: sand waste, recycling, asphalt, industrial waste, construction materials
Article published in number 3 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-3-109-115
Views: 11

Population and biological preconditions for the cattle retroviruses` expansion

D. Abdessemed, E. S. Krasnikova, V. A. Agoltsov, A. V. Krasnikov
Section: Social ecology
This research was aimed at studying of population and biological aspects of cattle retroviruses’ expansion, such as breed and age of animals, form of head ownership, retroviruses biology. Bovine leukemia virus ( BLV ) and bovine immuno - deficiency virus ( BIV ) are retroviruses which cause chronic incurable diseases of cattle. These agents have a phylogenetic relationship with similar pathogens in humans. There is a possible danger of viral entry to humans through the consump - tion of infected foodstuffs. 773 blood samples from Black-and-White, Holstein, Simmental, Kazakh White-headed and crossbred cattle of different districts of the Saratov region were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Studies reveal that bovine immunodeficiency and bovine leukemia viruses are spread widely in cattle of the Saratov region: 30.5% and 39.8% on average, respectively. The infection rate varies considerably depending on age-sex group affiliation and cattle ownership. BIV and BLV infection rates increase with the animals age, especially among farm herd. Significant epizootic feature of retroviral infections in cattle in the Saratov region is a high level of retroviral coinfection – 25.2% on average. The clinical complications of BIV infection, confirmed by laboratory studies, were most frequently recorded in cattle aged 5–10 years. For analysis of diagnostic accuracy of serological and molecular genetic methods for enzootic bovine leucosis diagnosis, 271 cattle blood samples were studied by PCR and AGIDT (agar gel immunodiffusion test) in parallel. The comparative analysis shows that diagnostic efficiency of AGIDT in comparison to PCR is 30.8%. Taking into account the retroviruses biological features, the PCR assay can be recommend as a screening method for BLV -infection revealing, especially when the imported cattle are quarantined at the place of keeping. In herds with high BLV -infection level, cattle should be tested for BIV presence to stop the cattle retroviruses’ expansion.
Keywords: polymerase chain reaction, agar gel immunodiffusion test, retroviruses, enzootic bovine leucosis, bovine immunodeficiency, expansion, diagnostics
Article published in number 3 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-3-116-124
Views: 12

Formation and assessment of the phytoregulatory potential of multispecies biofilms based on Fischerella muscicola

L. I. Domracheva, I. G. Shirokikh, E. V. Tovstik, S. G. Skugoreva, E. N. Reznik
Section: Chemistry of natural environments and objects
The results of experiments on the study of the features of the formation of biofilms on the basis of two- and threecomponent associations of microorganisms with the participation of Fischerella muscicola 300 cyanobacteria, Streptomyces wedmorensis streptomycete 38.11 and Fusarium avenaceum 7/2 micromycete are presented in the article. When microorganisms are introduced into sterile soil, over the three months of exposure to light, in variants with a monoculture of cyanobacteria and with a three-component association, growths (biofilms) with a population density of a phototrophic component exceeding 50 million cells/cm2 are formed. In biofilms formed by two-component associations, cyanobacteria experienced inhibition by partners, reducing the number of cells 2.4–7.0 times, and the length of filaments 3.6–7.0 times, depending on the nature of the associate. The growth of the fischerella was limited by the streptomycete culture to a greater degree than by the fungus. In ground biofilms formed on the basis of cyanobacteria Fis. muscicola, the phytopathogenic fungus F. avenaceum, in the saprotrophic phase of development, is able to unite into single structured complexes with other participants in the multi-species consortium of microorganisms, including their antagonists. Aggregation of cells in biofilms is associated not only with the isolation of polysaccharide mucus cyanobacteria, but also with the creation of a net-thread structure of growth due to threads of cyanobacteria and mycelium of heterotrophic partners, the total length of which can reach values exceeding 400 m/cm2. The development of such biofilms on the soil surface significantly increases its ability to retain moisture and prevent erosion. The two-component association of cyanobacteria and streptomycete can be considered as promising for biocontrol of fusarium infection. At the same time, under specific conditions of the rhizosphere, the nature of the interaction of the cultures of microorganisms under investigation may differ from that described for sterile soil lacking root exudates. Nevertheless, in experiments with the inoculation of Triticum aestivum L. seeds, it has been established that the two-component association of Fischerella muscicola + Streptomyces wedmorensis in perspective can be used as a biological agent to limit the development of fusarium infection in the higher plant rhizosphere.
Keywords: cyanobacteria, streptomycetes, micromycetes, biofilm, density of populations, rhizosphere, microbial inoculation
Article published in number 2 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-2-117-124
Views: 70

Degradation of Acid Orange 7 in a persulphate-bisulfite system under visible light

Heng Zhong, Jia Fang, Lei Sun, Hui Zhao, Aihua Xu, Dongsheng Xia, A. V. Nevsky
Section: Nature management and natural resources consumption
Textile industry is one of the most significant manufacturing sectors that produce large volumes of highly polluted and toxic wastewater. Dyes represent an important part of waste effluents. In this study, the degradation of Acid Orange 7 dye (AO7) in a persulfate-bisulfite (PS-BS) system under visible (Vis) light (wavelength more than 420 nm) was performed. All batch experiments were conducted in a 100 mL undivided glass beaker containing 50 mL solution at about 25 оC without irradiation or under irradiation by a direct exposure visible light power supply (CHF-XM-500W) from Beijing Trusttech Co. (China). After the desired amounts of AO7 and PS in 50 mL of the aqueous solution were added into the reactor, the reaction was initialized by adding BS. To monitor the degradation process of AO7, solution samples were taken out at given reaction time intervals and measured immediately on a METASH UV-5500PC spectrophotometer under the maximum absorption wavelength (484 nm) to record the temporal UV-vis spectral variations of the dye. The related reaction progress was monitored using the UV-vis absorption spectra of AO7 in terms of the percentage of degraded azo-dye. The activities of different systems including BS/Vis, PS/BS, PS/Vis and BS/PS/Vis were evaluated. It was found that the efficiency of PS/Vis system was negligible, and almost 29 and 40% of AO7 was oxidized by BS/Vis and BS/PS within 30 min, and it was further improved to almost 94% within 30 min by BS/PS/Vis system at room temperature. Various operational parameters, such as PS concentration, BS concentration and initial pH were investigated to optimize the process.
Keywords: Dye’s degradation, Acid Orange 7, Bisulfite, Persulfate, Visible light, Inorganic negative ions

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Article published in number 2 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-2-113-116
Views: 23

Some aspects of aluminum detoxifying in plants: phytotoxic and genotoxic effects

B. I. Synzynys, L. N. Ulyanenko
Section: Ecotoxicology
The separate and combined impacts of aluminum, manganese and silver ions on onion (Allium cepa L.) have been studied. The experiments have been performed in several series with different solutions of metal salts: AlCl3 • 6H2O,KMnO4, MnCl2 • 4H2O for the first and second series and Al(NO3)3 and AgNO3 – in third series. The ion concentrations of all studied metals amounted to 1 MPC according to the Russian health legislation and were 0.5 mg/L for Al,0.1 mg/L for Mn and 50 mg/L for Ag. The phytotoxic effect and genotoxic effect (such as mitotic index and the frequency of chromosome aberrations) were estimated. It was showed that aluminum ions promote negative processes in all our experiments. We found that manganese in combined presence in solution with aluminum reduced the phytotoxic and genotoxic effects aluminum on Allium cepa: the coefficients of antagonism calculated for frequency of aberrant cells and mitotic index are equal to 0.2. We have the same tendency for the silver ions. Taking into account our previously obtained data (the reducing of genotoxic effect of aluminum ions by iron ions) it is possible to conclude about similar mechanism for manganese (regardless of valency) and silver. Thus our results demonstrated this unique and at the same time universal mechanism of interaction between two metals (aluminum and other) and their detoxification effect in plant. We anticipate our assay to be a new starting point in investigation of detoxification mechanisms for heavy metals in plants: it is found that a combination of several metals reduces the negative action of each of them.
Keywords: aluminum, manganese ions, silver ions, barley, separate and combined action, phytotoxicity and cytogenotoxicity of aluminum, antagonism indicies
Article published in number 2 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-2-107/2-112
Views: 26

Comprehensive chemical-toxicological research of copper(II) sulfate solutions containing reduced glutathione

E. I. Lyalina, A. I. Fokina, T. Ya. Ashikhmina, A. S. Olkova, E. V. Beresneva, L. V. Darovskikh, A. S. Yarmolenko
Section: Ecotoxicology
The composition and toxicological properties of copper(II) sulfate solutions containing reduced glutathione (GSH)have been studied. It was found that complex compounds Cu2+ with GSH are formed in the solution in the Cu(II):GSH molar ratios 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4. Simultaneously with the formation of complexes in solutions, oxidation-reduction reactions occur, accompanied by the formation of active forms of oxygen and oxidized glutathione (GSSG). All the described processes lead to a decrease in the active concentration of Cu2+. The toxicological properties of solutions with a molar ratio of Cu(II):GSH 1:1, 1:2, 1:4 were determined. For this purpose, test objects of different systematic accessory were used: cyanobacterium Nostoc linckia 271, crustaceans Daphnia magna Straus, infusoria Raramecium caudatum Ehrenberg and bioassay “Ecolum” . The chemical composition of solutions was correlated with toxicity. Reduced glutathione has a protective effect on daphnia, which is most pronounced in the variant 1Cu(II):4GSH. However, the level of viability of cyanobacteria, in contrast to hydrobionts, decreases in the 1:1 → 1:2 → 1:4 range. The decrease is due to the bioaccumulation of copper, which increases with the increase in the fraction of reduced glutathione. Such an effect may be formed by complex compounds, which is consistent with the literature data. For D. magna, such a relationship is not observed, the resulting compounds and reduced glutathione do not affect the accumulation of metal.
Keywords: reduced glutathione, copper(II) ions, bioassay, active forms of oxygen
Article published in number 2 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-2-101/2-107/1
Views: 21

Assessment of soil contamination in the recreational areas of the city by the industrial compounds of heavy metals and arsenic

T. A. Trifonova, A. A. Podolets, O. G. Selivanov, A. A. Martsev, A. A. Podolets
Section: Ecotoxicology
The article presents the results of determination of total content of heavy metals (HM) and arsenic in urban soils of recreational areas in the city of Kolchugino of Vladimir Region. The most polluted recreational areas of the city that are close to the industrial area and in the Central area. According to a spatial correlation analysis, the elements Pb, As, Zn,Cu, Ni, Co and Cr contained in the soils of the city are in approximately equal ratio in all reference areas that may indicate the joint intake of these pollutants. With the aim of obtaining justified results of anthropogenic accumulation of HM and arsenic in the soil, an analysis of ratio of the content of pollutants in the upper layer to its content in the bottom was conducted using the radial differentiation coefficient (R). It is established that the pollutants are concentrated mainly in the upper layers of the soil, and their accumulation has an anthropogenic character. To identify priority of pollutants, the index of accumulation was used, which decreases in the series: Cu > Zn > Pb > Ni > As > Co = Cr > V > Sr. On the calculated level of soil pollution by separate pollutants, the the excess over maximum permissible concentration was revealed in the following series: Zn > Cu > As > Pb > Ni. The highest values of the hazard coefficient were noted in the area of the plant “Kolchugtsvetmet”. The correlation analysis between the pollutant concentrations revealed statistically significant positive dependences (p < 0.05) between Pb, As, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co and Cr. Based on this, it can be assumed that these elements enter the soil of the city from one source.
Keywords: heavy metals, gray forest soil, recreational areas, the coefficient of radial differentiation, the rate of accumulation, the hazard ratio
Article published in number 2 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-2-094-101/1
Views: 50

Technology for conversion of whey into organic-mineral fertilizers with amino acids

Yu. N. Terentyev, N. V. Syrchina, T. Ya. Ashikhmina, А. V. Sazanov, M. L. Sazanova, V. A. Kozvonin, D.V. Petukhov
Section: Ecologization of industry
Rational processing of whey is one of the most important problems of the dairy industry. Less than 50% of this waste is processed in Russia. Unprocessed whey is discharged into the sewage systems, which significantly increases the degree of contamination of the process waste water. Basically, processing of whey in commodity products is limited by economic factors. At the enterprises of small and average capacity high costs of introducing processing technologies do not pay off proceeds from realization of the received products. The authors of the research have used the method of cryogenic concentration (freezing) which provided the complete conservation of bioactive substances (proteins, vitamins,enzymes) in whey. Proteins of the received concentrate were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis to free amino acids. The mineral salts complex (which contains plant-available forms of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and trace elements) was dissolved in the hydrolysate. As a result, the researchers have got a marketable product – liquid organicmineral fertilizer with natural amino acids. Whey-fraction that remained after cryogenic concentration contained no more than 1.2% of dry substances. For its removal there was used glauconite-containing efel as sorbent (the waste of phosphorite ore enrichment, it is a quartz-glauconite sand containing up to 45% glauconite). The waste sorbent was dried up and used as the second commercial product – solid organic-mineral fertilizer (S-OMF). The S-OMF included only natural ingredients, which made this product suitable for use as a fertilizer in natural farming systems. The simplicity and high market value of the received marketable products make it economically viable to introduce the proposed technology into practice. The calculated payback period of the offered technology at the enterprises of a mean power is less than two years.
Keywords: whey, organic-mineral fertilizers, fertilizers with amino acids, sorbents, glauconite, non-waste technologies

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Article published in number 2 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-2-087-093
Views: 12

Modification of the sludge from soda production for producing oil sorbents

E. V. Kalinina, I. S. Glushankova, L. V. Rudakova
Section: Ecologization of industry
At present, the volume of accumulated sludge from soda production is more than 50 million tons and the issue of their utilization is topical. The paper presents the results of studies on the production of oil sorbents based on soda production sludge, the main component of which is calcium carbonate. Reagent modification of sludge from soda production allows obtaining materials that have sorption activity to oil and petroleum products. It is established that the oil capacity of samples of initial sludge of soda production is 0.95 for gasoline; on engine oil – 0,9; for oil – 0.75 g/g. Reagent treatment of soda production sludge by sodium methylsiliconate or potassium methylsiliconate increases the petroleum capacity on gasoline by 30%; on engine oil – by 80%; for oil – by 73%. Obtained sorbents can be used for liquidation of oil and oil product spills from solid surfaces. For the liquidation of oil and oil product spills from the surface of water bodies, soda production sludge of less than 0.1 mm fraction obtained by modification with sodium methyl siliconate or potassium methylsiliconate with a working dose of 1.5–1.8% by weight of active substance and heating to a temperature of 90 °C may be recommended. Based on the results of the research, two environmental objectives can be achieved: new oil sorbents are obtained and a method for the utilization of sludge from soda production is proposed. The cost of oil sorbents based on waste will be low, due to the zero cost of the raw materials – waste products of soda production.
Keywords: оil products, sorption capacity for oil, calcium carbonate, sodium methylsiliconate, potassium methylsiliconate
Article published in number 2 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-2-079-086
Views: 9

Thermotechnical properties of municipal solid waste depending upon component and fractional composition

S. V. Polygalov, G. V. Ilinykh, V. N. Korotaev
Section: Ecologization of industry
Thermotechnical properties of municipal solid waste (MSW), in particular their moisture, ash content and heating value, determine the effectiveness of methods of thermal utilization of waste, interest in which is currently growing in Russia. The MSW heterogeneity leads to difficulties in determining their thermotechnical properties and causes the urgency of carrying out complex researches of MSW fractional and component composition with the isolation of sufficiently homogeneous components, the selection and laboratory researches of samples of such components. The article presents an approved methodological approach to MSW analysis, which includes full-scale field investigation of MSW component and fractional composition and analysis of their moisture and ash content in a laboratory with the subsequent calculation of the thermotechnical properties of the MSW flow as a whole. A distinctive feature of this approach is the provision of representative samples of MSW and individual components, consideration of seasonal and weekly fluctuations in waste composition, as well as the allocation of a large number of MSW components and separate investigation of their moisture and ash content in fractions of different sizes. Moisture and ash content of individual components within the same category differ significantly from each other and depend on the component’s material, properties and size. Heating value an individual component category depends on the component composition within the category and vary with the same water and ash content of the individual components. The obtained results allow modeling of MSW composition, heating value and other properties after different treatment technologies, including mechanical, manual and optical sorting, and select technologies and equipment for achieving specified waste quality parameters.
Keywords: component composition of waste, fractional composition of waste, moisture, ash content, heating value
Article published in number 2 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-2-070-078
Views: 10

Assessment of the composition and the microstructure of aluminiumcontaining waste for the substantiation of the directions of its use

A. A. Martynova, G. M. Batrakova
Section: Ecologization of industry
Complex recycling of industrial wastes involves the extraction of valuable components and the use of waste as secondary material resources. Implementation of resource-saving technologies reduces the anthropogenic load on the environment. In the process of thermal destruction of calorific materials, waste with a high content of aluminum oxide is generated. In order to determine the directions of usage of alumina-containing waste the initial study of its composition and structure was made. The methods of scanning electron microscopy and quantitative physicochemical analysis were used. The following samples were studied: construction samples with waste additives (15 and 30%), and a series of samples purified with mineral acids and water. The mineral composition of the alumina waste corresponded to the requirements for raw materials for use as a reinforcing additive in cement mixtures, heat-resistant concretes and for the manufacture of binders. Compaction of the structure by spherical particles Al2O3 affects the strength characteristics of gypsum binder samples. A comparison is made between the physico-mechanical characteristics of samples with different waste content and control sample of gypsum. A study of the microstructure and element analysis of waste, purified by mineral acids, was made. The analysis showed an inhomogeneous composition of impurities. Treatment of waste with acids and water is effectively remove impurities, at the same time mass content of aluminum in the purified samples is increasing. The results of evaluation of waste structure and composition can be used for explanation of materials formation with new structure on aluminum-oxygen basis and ceramic materials formation that can be manufactured using this type of waste.
Keywords: aluminum-containing wastes, aluminium oxide, sludge, energy-dispersive microanalysis

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Article published in number 2 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-2-062-069
Views: 6

Production of organic matter and carbon stock in ground vegetation of spruce and birch phytocenoses in the Foothills of the Subpolar Urals

T. A. Pristova, S. V. Zagirova, A. V. Manov
Section: Monitoring of anthropogenically disturbed areas
The reserves of phytomass and carbon in the ground cover of spruce and birch phytocenoses in the foothills of the Subpolar Urals in Komi Republic are determined. The concentration and carbon stocks of these forests are currently poorly understood. Three types of forest were studied: bilberry green moss spruce forest, sphagnum spruce forest, polytric birch forest. These forests consist of spruce, birch and fir, stands of different ages and low productivity. It is established that the concentration of carbon in plant species varies from 39 to 50% of absolutely dry matter. High concentration of carbon in bilberry shrubs, low in horsetail, medium in herbs. Carbon content in plants of one species or group of species growing in different forests was similar. Ground vegetation plants accumulate 512–960 g/m2 organic matter, including carbon 250–409 g/m2. Carbon accumulation in ground vegetation plants of the sphagnum spruce forest was the highest. More than 50% of the phytomass carbon concentrated in aboveground part of plants. The aboveground parts of shrubs accumulated carbon 8–49 g/m2, herbs – 54–68 g/m2, mosses – 62–140 g/m2. Aboveground phytomass contents 44–62%,underground phytomass – 31–36% of the total carbon reserve in annual production, 86–95% of it returns to the litter. The leading role in the accumulation of carbon in the growth of ground cover belongs to grasses. Annual carbon stock in ground vegetation of spruce forests is 11–20 gC/m2, in birch forest – 9 gC/m2. Thus, a significant part of the carbon accumulated in annual production of plant cover is included in the destructive process of the carbon cycle.
Keywords: Subpolar Urals, spruce and birch forest, ground vegetation, organic matter, carbon stock
Article published in number 2 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-2-053/2-061
Views: 12

The response of lichens to the environmental pollution under the bauxite mining in the taiga zone

T. K. Golovko, M. А. Shelyakin, I. G. Zakhozhiy, G. N. Tabalenkova, T. N. Pystina
Section: Monitoring of anthropogenically disturbed areas
The activity of the mineral complex enterprises resulted in the pollution of the biosphere by the products of mining and processing of minerals. The open method of mining is the most vulnerable for the landscapes. Northern ecosystems have relatively low capacity of self-purification and self-healing, which increases their vulnerability to anthropogenic impact. The functional status of the three lichen species (Hypogimnia physodes, Lobaria pulmonaria and Peltigera aphthosa)from the areas with different degree of pollution in the zone of influence of the largest in Eurasia Middle Timan bauxite mine was studied. It is shown that the bauxite dust pollution led to the accumulation of metal compounds in the thalli,especially aluminum and iron. Their content in the lichen samples collected on the plot located near the concentrating mill, reached 16000–20000 μg/g of dry weight (DW). It is 40 times more compared to relatively clean (background)site. The significant part of the metal compounds was localized in the surface fraction. In the intracellular fraction it was detected from 3–10% (Mn, Fe, Al, Cr, Pb) to 40% (Cu) of their total amount. The content of organogenic elements (carbon, hydrogen and oxygen) was lower by 10–15% in the thalli from impact areas. These thalli showed a high level of lipid peroxidation and increased activity of antioxidant enzymes that indicate the development of oxidative stress. The lipid peroxidation, and superoxide dismutase, and peroxidase activities were increased by 1.5–2 times. Judging by these parameter values, the reaction of three-component cyano-lichens L. pulmonaria and P. aphthosa to pollution were expressed more strongly in comparison with chloro-lichen H. physodes. It was concluded that the application of physiological approaches increases the efficiency of lichenoindication and allows us to identify the first signs of defects long before significant reduction in vitality and taxonomic diversity of lichens will become apparent.
Keywords: lichens, lichen-indications, bauxite dust, metals, compartmentalization of elements, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase

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Article published in number 2 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-2-044/2-053/1
Views: 10

Characteristics of cryogenic calcite from cave Grandioznaya (V. A. Anufrieva), Southern Ural

O. I. Kadebskaya, Y. V. Dublyansky
Section: Monitoring of anthropogenically disturbed areas
Cave Grandioznaya, discovered in 1999 in Republic Bashkortostan is one of the largest natural caves in Ural Mountains.Speleological research of the cave is conducted by the Salavat club of speleologists (Republic of Bashkortostan).Unusual calcite formations were found in the cave in 2016, as on large blocks, and on a clay bottom in free space were discovered. Using the temperature data logger HOBO Water Temp Pro v2, it was found that stable positive temperatures are observed throughout the year in the grotto where calcite was found (fluctuations do not exceed 0.5 оC). On the basis morphological, chemical and stable isotope studies, as well as the 230Th/234U dating, this calcite was found to be of cryogenic origin. Crusts are aggregates (up to 6 cm in size) of differently oriented calcite crystals with clay primers. The color tone of the crusts depends on the amount of clay particles. Finding of such calcite, formed on the transition from Younger Dryas to the Preboreal stage of the Holocene epoch is indicative of the presence of degrading permafrost in this part of Ural at the time. During this, rather sharp, warming of the climate, an active thawing of the permafrost existed, which is a prerequisite for the formation of cryogenic calcite in caves. Methods of identification of cryogenic calcite, as well as other speleothems that remained after disappearance of underground ice, developed by the authors allows assessing the extent of ancient permafrost and its effect on karst ecosystems in the study region.
Keywords: carbonates, caves, cryogenesis, isotope composition, geochronology, paleoclimate

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Article published in number 2 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-2-038-044/1
Views: 10

Identification of the thickets of Heracleum sosnowskyi using Earth remote sensing data

E. V. Tovstik, T. A. Adamovich, V. V. Rutman, G. Ya. Kantor, T. Ya. Ashikhmina
Section: Research methods. Models and projects
Sosnowsky’s hogweed (Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden.) is one of the most dangerous invasive plant species,common in the European part of Russia and some European countries. Its spread threatens the biological diversity of natural ecosystems. The danger of H. sosnowskyi for the human health lies in its ability to cause skin burns. Large populations of H. sosnowskyi can be found in uncultivated fields, meadows, on the banks and in the vicinity of watercourses and reservoirs, on the outskirts of forests, and along roads. Currently in Russia, in connection with the massive spread of H. sosnowskyi, the question is raised about the need to create a special federal target program to control this dangerous species. The data of the Earth remote sensing can provide essential assistance in planning the measures to control the spread of H. sosnowskyi. Satellite imagery provide information about localization and areas of plant communities in large areas. To monitor the distribution of H. sosnowskyi, it is possible to use multispectral as well as monochrome satellite images of high and medium resolution. In our study we used images from the Sentinel-2 satellitewith a resolution of 10 m. The detection of the foci was carried out on the territory of certain districts of the Kirov region of Russian Federation. The populations of Sosnowsky’s hogweed are well recognized visually on synthesized color images using either three channels of the visible range (blue, green, red), or two visible (blue and green) and near infrared channel. Both variants give very close results, providing reliable identification of thickets of the hogweed.
Keywords: Heracleum sosnowskyi, invasion, remote sensing data, Sentinel 2

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Article published in number 2 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-2-035-037
Views: 22

A multi-factor model as the basis for the environmental quality management of urban аreas

E. V. Sokolskaya, B. I. Kochurov, Yu. A. Dolgov, V. A. Lobkovsky
Section: Research methods. Models and projects
The article considers mathematical approach to environmental quality management to improve the ecological comfort of living for the population. The problem of environmental management is described using a multi-factor model of quality of the environment with the weight coefficients of the importance of its components: atmospheric air, acoustic impact, soil, water resources, and green spaces, accessibility of natural and recreational areas. The values of weight coefficients of importance of influencing factors for environmentally comfortable living are determined by the method of expert assessment. A multi-factor model is used for detailed assessment of the ecological quality of the urban environment. The proposed quantitative approach also allows to compare the environmental comfort of the different residential districts or to study the dynamics of environmental comfort of specific urban area. Much attention is paid to scientific and methodological principles of management and the formation of the concept of «environmental quality». The strategy of environmental management with ecological foundation of various practical solution is shown. The plan of measures on organization of optimal management of quality of the environment to improve comfort of living for the population of the residential microdistrict of Tiraspol is presented. Graphical scheme of the results of integral analysis of various environmental indicators and assessments for improving the comfort of the environment is given. Realization of environmental quality management of the urban areas on the basis of a multi-factor model contributes to the gradual change of dangerous ecological conditions of environmental factors, to increase a comfort of the territory taking into account the real preferences and needs of the population.
Keywords: environmental quality management, environmental factors, ecological comfort, generalized desirability function, expert assessment, complex indicator
Article published in number 2 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-2-026-034
Views: 40

Analysis of Kramer’s coral-reef food web model

M. Solomonovich, I. Bica, L. Gao, А. Hailu
Section: Research methods. Models and projects
The model of a coral reef ecosystem, proposed by D.B. Kramer and published in Ecology and Society in 2008, explored the implications of changes in biological parameters and changes in economic and social interaction variables governing the fishing behaviour of anglers targeting the two fish species included in the model, herbivore and piscivore fish. This model is parametrized based on evidence provided in the literature. The recognition of multiple species in the model as well as the inclusion of adaptive harvesting behaviour may supposedly allow to explore policy or management options. This paper reviews, extends and sharpens the analysis undertaken in original article, and reveals both mathematical and interpretational mistakes in it. We use analytical and numerical methods to show that, contrary to the assertion in discussed article, some of the equilibrium outcomes are independent of the parameter values that were identified as important in this paper. At the same time the model is highly sensitive to the setting of some parameter values as well as to the structures representing interactions in the model. We suggest ways in which the model can be modified so that it would become interpretable.
Keywords: coral reef ecosystems, dynamical system, ecosystem simulation, equilibria, fisheries management, socio-economic values
Article published in number 2 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-2-016-025
Views: 13

Genetic engineering in solving “unsolvable” problems of soil remediation

A. A. Gulevich, E. N. Baranova, I. G. Shirokikh, A. A. Shirokikh
Section: Theoretical problems of ecology
Many centuries of cultivation of plants allowed human civilization to significantly increase the population of the planet. However, as a result of economic activity, many areas have turned into waterless deserts, salt heaths, dumps and waste pits that remain after mining. Classical technology has been developed for many decades, but this has not led to an effective solution of the problems that have arisen, and humanistic values do not allow for the reduction of the population. In this review, new approaches are considered that can significantly improve the efficiency of remediation. The solution involves combining biotechnologies: genetic engineering of plants, fungi and microorganisms; in the compartment with the application of nanotechnology recultivation and creation of artificial analogues of soil and new materials of geoplastics for the creation of an artificial landscape. The principal possibility of creation of plant complexes and microbes-rescuers on the basis of potentially resistant organisms capable of effective interaction is considered. The review deals with the genetic modification of plant and bacterial organisms that allow to accelerate in principle the formation of biogenic matter on disturbed and remediated soils, including man-made soils. This can restore the ecology of the abandoned lands destroyed by mankind over the centuries of its existence.
Keywords: soil degradation, waste pollution, ecobiotechnology, phytoremediation, rhizosphere microorganisms, genetic engineering, landscape reconstruction

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Article published in number 2 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-2-005-015
Views: 30


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