Comparative evaluation of nutrient media for the cultivation of micromycetes of the genus Trichoderma
P.A. Starikov, L.I. Domracheva, S.G. Skugoreva
Section: Methodology and research methods. Models and forecasts
Fungi of the genus Trichoderma are one of the most used and promising objects of biotechnology. Therefore, among the tasks in the practical application of this micromycete in the future is the isolation of new active strains from the environment and the expansion of the range of culture media used for trichoderma. In this work, we studied the dynamics of vegetative growth of fungi of the genus Trichoderma from various ecological niches. We used isolates from the surface of decaying wood, fruiting bodies of polypores, as well as a strain from urban soil, which was cultivated for 10 years on a medium with sevilen polymer. Cultivation was carried out at 23°С on 5 agar nutrient media, namely, on bean agar, potato and potato-sucrose medium (20 g of sucrose per liter), on the classical Czapek medium, and also on decoction of Fomitopsis pinicola (200 g of fruiting bodies per 1 l of broth). The maximum rates of growth and formation of conidia were observed during surface cultivation of these micromycetes on bean agar and potato-sucrose medium. On the same media of Trichoderma sp., sevilen destructor showed a significant lag in the rate of linear growth (7.55–8.28 mm/day) in comparison with the other studied strains (19.72–24.32 mm/day) which may be explained by profound metabolic changes during long-term cultivation on media where the only source of carbon is a synthetic polymer. The least suitable substrate for cultivation of all studied isolates of Trichoderma spp. turned out to be an agar decoction of polypore, the growth rate on which was 3.55–12.06 mm/day. In all variants of the cultivation of fungi of the genus Trichoderma, the linear growth rate was constant throughout the entire process of cultivation.
Article published in number 1 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-1-044-049
Comparative evaluation of the efficiency of solid and liquid dispersants in simulation of oil and oil product spills
S.G. Litvinets, E.A. Martinson, S.M. Kuznetsov, E.O. Zadorina, O.A. Novikova, V.G. Komosko, A.V. Nikolaeva, M A. Troshin, M.T. Gaysin
Section: Ecologization of industry
The effectiveness of the «Dimex» solid dispersant developed in the interests of PJSC «Transneft» for cleaning the water surface from films of oil and oil products through dispersion, including in winter (ice) conditions, has been studied. Liquid dispersant «Finasol OSR 52», manufactured by Total Fluides, France, approved for use in Russia, was used as a reference drug.
The possibility of using the modified Warren Spring Laboratory test as a method for evaluating the effectiveness of dispersion for solid dispersants is shown.
Under conditions of a wide range of changing parameters, including: salinity of model seawater, water temperature, presence of sludge and broken ice, dispersant: oil ratio, type of oil product, the high efficiency of the solid dispersant «Dimex» was shown, which was for medium sulphurous oil with a density of 870.0 kg/m3 – from 35.69% to 60.67%, for light, sweet oil with a density of 844.0 kg/m3 – from 39.21% to 58.70%, for diesel fuel with a density of 830.8 kg/m3 – from 50.73% to 72.21%, for kerosene with a density of 785.5 kg/m3 – from 52.34% to 60.45%, for gasoline with a density of 739.2 kg/m3 – from 40.41 % to 49.82%. The obtained values are comparable with the values for the «Finasol OSR52» liquid dispersant registered in the territory of the Russian Federation, which makes it possible to recommend the «Dimex» solid dispersant for use in the elimination of emergency oil and oil products spills in offshore areas in the North.
Article published in number 1 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-1-115-123
Rare earth elements in the environment: concentrations, migration characteristics and methods of determination (review)
D.B. Petrenko, K.G. Erofeeva, O.I. Okina
Section: Theoretical problems of ecology
The growing use of rare earth elements (REEs) in metallurgy, glass production, automotive catalytic converters and high-tech industries, and many other areas leads to increased concentrations in soils, water, plants, and other environmental objects. Thus, the REE abundances in sediments, sedimentary rocks, soil, water, and organic residues are becoming critical ecological indicators of anthropogenic environmental change. This work summarizes the data on the concentrations,its geochemical features, and methods for REE determination. The primary attention is paid to the analysis of the last 15 years’ publications.
The features of REEs that control their distribution in various natural environments are lanthanide compression, double-double effect, chemical composition, and environmental conditions (pH, Eh, concentrations of inorganic and organic ligands). The oxidation state of +3 is most typical for REEs; Ce and Eu can change their oxidation states by +4 and +2 under oxidizing and reducing conditions, respectively, and are separated from the other REEs. The geochemical cycle of REE is considered, natural and anthropogenic factors determining the migration of elements between its components are discussed. Their low concentrations complicate the determination of REE concentrations in natural environments. It requires the use of sensitive methods of chemical analysis, the most important of which are atomic spectroscopy. In addition to traditional methods of analysis, local methods for determining the concentrations of REEs, such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with laser ablation and mass spectrometry of secondary ions, are widely and successfully used today.
The technology of complex processing of phosphorite ore of the Vyatka-Kama phosphorite basin into phosphorus fertilizers is proposed. The main mineral components of the ore are fluorocarbonate apatite, glauconite and quartz. The proposed technology includes the separation of ore into concentrate and tailings (effel) with the subsequent processing of the concentrate into thermophosphate, and the effels ‒ into budgetary granular organomineral РКS-fertilizers (OMF). The Р2О5 content in the concentrate was not less than 20%, in the fine-grained part of beneficiation tailings ‒ not less than 6%. Thermophosphate was obtained by sintering a mixture of a concentrate with alkaline waste of petrochemical synthesis containing Nа2CO3 and/or NаОН. In the product thus obtained, phosphorus is in the form of renanite, readily soluble in citric acid and suitable for use as a P-fertilizer on acidic soils. Organomineral РКS-fertilizers was prepared by granulating a mixture of fine-grained part of beneficiation tailings and serpeat suspension (SS). To obtain SS, gas sulfur (natural gas purification waste) and peat of a high degree of decomposition were used. The main purpose of sulfur in the composition of OMF is the conversion of phosphates into more soluble forms (hydrophosphates) due to H2SO4 formed during the oxidation of sulfur by soil microorganisms. OMF is suitable for use on all types of soil. It was found that the introduction of thermophosphate and OMF leads to a significant increase in the content of mobile forms of phosphorus. Both fertilizers have a positive effect on plant development. The main advantages of the proposed technology include an increase in the efficiency of mined phosphorites and the return to economic circulation of 3 types of waste: effel, gas sulfur, alkaline sludge of petrochemical synthesis.
The brief overview is dedicated to the current understanding of the redox metabolism in the aerobic cells. The characteristic of oxygen radicals and information about the mechanisms of their generation are presented. The data on the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cellular signaling and the induction of oxidative stress were analyzed. The excessive ROS accumulation is dangerous for the cells, as oxygen radicals are able to interact with the biologically important molecules (DNA, proteins, lipids, etc.) and damage the cellular structures. The redox balance violation can be caused by negative effects of factors of various nature (abiotic, biotic, anthropogenic), but ultimately their effects are reduced to the occurrence of oxidative stress. In humans, oxidative stress provokes the development of various diseases, causes a decrease in performance, early aging, etc. This is opposed by the antioxidant system, which detoxifies oxygen radicals and suppresses the processes of the macromolecules oxidation. The article summarizes information about the main low–molecular–weight antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes, and role of the antioxidant system in maintaining the redox balance of the living cells. In conclusion, topical issues for further study and their importance for solving practical problems of ecology are noted.
Article published in number 1 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-1-017-026
Analysis of pesticide load in the Altai Region’s cereal cropping
Y.V. Kalyuta, M.I. Maltsev, N.G. Bazarnova
Based on the statistical data of the Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring, the Federal State Statistics Service, and the Unified Interdepartmental Statistical Information System, this paper analyzes the dynamics of pesticide use in the Altai Region’s cereal cropping from 2010 through 2019. It was found that the amount of plant protection products used in the Region increased and that increased the pesticide load on the soil. In 2010, the cereal crop growers purchased herbicides based on 45 active ingredients, and in 2019 - based on 58 ones. The amount of purchased products based on the above active ingredients ranged from 149 to 286 tons that accounted for 67-75% of the total volume of herbicide products. Throughout this period, 31-71 g per hectare of the basic herbicides per unit of sown area were applied in the Region; generally, this led to increased cereal crop yields; the grain yields ranged from 0.9 to 1.6 tons per hectare. However, the increasing rates of pesticide application were much higher than the rates of yield increase. In the neighboring regions of the Siberian Federal District, the application volumes of the same pesticides were higher than in the Altai Region.
Keywords: pesticides, glyphosate, 2,4-D, yield, cereal crops, Altai Region
Article published in number 1 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-1-175-181
Bioassay as a method of integral assessment for remediation of oil-contaminated ecosystems
E.V. Morachevskaya, L.P. Voronina
Section: Methodology and research methods. Models and forecasts
The development of new technologies and improvement of existing ones for the restoration of oil-contaminated lands,
the neutralization and disposal of oil drilling waste are important measures to solve environmental problems. Bioassay is
successfully used to determine the danger of pollution of environmental objects by oil and oil industry wastes. With the
help of biotests, it is possible to assess the state of contaminated objects, which is not always possible to do by chemicalanalytical methods, considering the complex chemical composition of petroleum hydrocarbons. An analytical review
confirms the need to develop a biotesting system to assess the state of ecosystem components in the event of oil pollution
and to determine the effectiveness of measures to restore them. Taking into account the nature of the pollution, presented
in the article by a number of provisions on the chemical characteristics of petroleum hydrocarbons and the duration of the
recovery processes, bioassay should be carried out at each stage of the reclamation process, in dynamics. Determination
of the degree of neutralization of contaminated objects consists in a step-by-step transfer of the hazard level from a higher
class to a lower one. Bioassay, in this case, remains a mandatory method for determining the total toxicity. In the course of
sample preparation for biotesting, it is advisable to consider the possibility of increasing the bioavailability of hydrocarbon
components. A prerequisite for the use of biotesting is the use of eluate and contact approaches. The main methods that
can be included in the abbreviated scheme for determining the efficiency of remediation of oil-contaminated objects can
be considered the method of biotesting using hydrobionts in the eluate (water extract) and phytotesting performed using
the contact and eluate approaches. The battery of biological tests included in the extended scheme should be developed
taking into account the specific case, taking into account the specifics of the ecosystem components, soil and climatic
conditions, the methods of reclamation used, etc. The strategy for the development of biotesting is closely related to the
solution of issues on the assessment of the real danger of oil pollution and the neutralization of oil drilling waste, which
are among the priority ones.
Keywords: bioassay, phytoassay, drilling slurries, reclamation, hazard class
Article published in number 1 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-1-034-043
Streptomyces geldanamycininus Z374 – a novel strain with biocidal activity against cyanobacteria
T.B. Zaytseva, V.I. Safronova, N.G. Medvedeva
Section: Remediation and rehabilitation
The mass development of cyanobacteria causing the “bloom” of water in water bodies, leads to a significant deterioration in the quality of water and the environment of coastal areas, causes great economic losses and poses serious ecological
problems. Among the known methods eliminating the growth of cyanobacteria biological method has been recognized as
the most efficient and ecologically sound method. As a result of the screening of soil actinobacteria, the strain Z374, producing metabolites with biocide activity against cyanobacteria was isolated. Based on the complex of phenotypic traits and the
results obtained by sequencing a fragment of the 16S rRNA gene sequence, we identified the isolate Z374 as Streptomyces
geldanamycininus and deposited it in the Departmental Collection of Agricultural Microorganisms of the All-Russia Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology under registration number RCAM 05297. The rrs sequence of the isolate
S. geldanamycininus Z374 (RCAM05297) gene was deposited in the GenBank database under the number MT437400. Analysis of the UV absorption spectrum of a 1% methanol solution of crude biocide (CB) Z374 isolated from the cells of
S. geldanamycininus Z374 suggested the presence of at least 2 compounds in its composition, one of which has the heptaene
structure. Сrude biocide Z374 inhibits the growth of bloom-forming cyanobacteria Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Microcystis
aeruginosa, Nodularia spumigena, Planktothrix agardhii and causes a decrease in the content of microcystins in the cells of
the toxic cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa and Planktothrix agardhii and a decrease in the total toxins concentrations
in the medium. The presented work is the first report on the biocidal activity of soil actinobacterium S. geldanamycininus
against cyanobacteria. The obtained results showed that the CB Z374 synthesized by S. geldanamycininus can be considered
as a potential regulator of the mass development of bloom-forming cyanobacteria including toxic ones.
Article published in number 1 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-1-159-166
Estimate of brown bear (Ursus arctos) spring population size using an aerial census method of bear tracks in tundra
V.V. Anufriev, V.N. Mamontov, E.A. Punantsev
Section: Population ecology
The results of determining the number of brown bears (Ursus arctos (Linnaeus 1758)) in the tundra based on the data of the aerial survey of their tracks after the release of this predator from the dens are discussed. The aerial survey of brown bear tracks was conducted at the time when the maximum number of bears including a females with cubs, left their dens. Thirty-seven tracks of adult brown bears were recorded during air routes with a total length of 2,290 km, of which 34 (92%) were located near rivers, large lakes and sea coasts and were located at an average distance of 1,2 km from the shoreline of these reservoirs. It is suggested that the population density of brown bear can be calculated from the indicators of the density of the shoreline of reservoirs (km/km²) and the number of crossed bear tracks belonging to different individuals are located for the flying transects laid along the shoreline of reservoirs. The population density of the brown bear is calculated as the product of the density of the shoreline of the reservoirs (km/km²) and the number of registered bear tracks belonging to different individuals per 1 km of fly transects along the reservoirs. According to the results of the aerial survey in the spring season, the maximum bear density (3,8 individuals per 1000 km²) in the taiga zone, the minimum (1,8 individuals per 1000 km²) – in the southern tundra. In the northern tundra, the brown bear was absent.
Keywords: aerial census, brown bear, tundra, Ursus arctos
Article published in number 1 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-1-153-158
Eco-friendly technology for the processing of livestock manure waste with greenhouse gas absorption
Section: Social ecology
A method of chemical absorption purification of manure biogas from harmful gases including greenhouse ones
(carbon dioxide, methane, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide) is proposed, which provides its purification to obtain highcalorie combustible biogas with high (95%) methane content. In the process of biogas purification we obtain mineral
fertilizers due to the absorption of harmful gases from biogas: liquid nitrogen fertilizer – ammonia water with the possibility
of its concentration, ammonium sulfate and soda as a by-product of biogas purification. Biogas passes through a treatment
plant with water, where it is purified from ammonia, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide. Moreover, repeated passage of
biogas through water and chemical absorbent during several fermentation cycles, starting with the laying of manure
for fermentation, increases the concentration of nutrients in water and chemical absorbents. To implement the tested
method it is required a tight connection between the elements of the biogas installation and the device for purification of
biogas – the first and second chemical absorbers with a storage tank. Water samples through which purified biogas was
passed for 10 days contained 8 times more ammonium (20.8 mg/dm3
), 2.3 times more free carbon dioxide, compared to
water samples with biogas for 5 days, the level of hydrogen sulfide increased 10 to 15.6 times. That is, as the time of biogas
passing through the water of the treatment plant increases, the water is saturated with ammonium compounds, which are
suitable for soil fertilization. After reaching a nitrogen concentration of 16.4–20.5% in the water of the treatment plant
through which the biogas passes, the liquid is taken into airtight containers and used for plant nutrition. For the formation
of ammonia water, a quick effect will be achieved if the biogas from the fermentation of chicken manure is passed through
the water, since it contains 52 times more ammonium than pork biogas. Between all treatment tanks there are discharge pipes with clamps in case it is necessary to check the composition of biogas during the process. Purification of biogas
in the first chemical absorber is carried out by conversion carbon dioxide to soda with 10% aqueous solution of sodium
hydroxide. Purification in a second chemical scavenger using concentrated sulfuric acid is performed from ammonia to
form ammonium sulfate, which will contain 21% nitrogen and 24% sulfur. In the case of acidic soils