Forest carbon offsets in Russia: current legal infrastructure
Y.M. Gordeeva, I.E. Vedernikova
Section: Ecology and climate change
Achieving “climate neutrality” (or “net-zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions”) remains as one of the most relevant targets worldwide. Yet, today, when countries implement the Paris Agreement into their national legal systems, important practical questions arise and call for solutions both at the international and national levels. For the Russian Federation, the role of forests in achieving “carbon neutrality”, the creation of conditions in the country for increasing the absorption of GHGs by forests, the implementation of forest climate projects (FCP) in the country and the recognition at the international level of the results achieved by such projects ‒ are of particular significance. The purpose of this study is to analyze the state of the current legal infrastructure in the Russian Federation on the implementation of the FCP. Such projects serve as a supplementary tool for achieving “carbon neutrality”, i. e. they only help to offset those GHG emissions that cannot be avoided by technological solutions. At the international level, the popularity and the number of such projects are growing, as well as prices for emission reduction units (ERUs) issued during the implementation of such projects in international carbon markets are rising. Paradoxically, in the Russian Federation, despite the colossal absorbing potential of forests, tundra, agricultural lands, there is almost no CFP. The study identifies legal issues that (up until now) have been holding back a more active implementation of the CFP in the country, and proposes solutions that, in the opinion of the authors, may contribute to the launch of an entire “industry” of the CFP in the Russian Federation in the future.
The problem of identification, determination and regulation of transformation products of pesticides and veterinary drugs that transfer into food as a result of production processes persists open. Not all possible metabolites are included in the lists of regulated pollutants because of the unavailability of approved methods for their determination or any information about them in principle (about their structure, toxicity, potential danger for consumer health). The transformation products of pesticides and veterinary drugs, particularly antibiotics, contained in food and raw materials both plant and animal origin may generate a danger for live organisms no less than the parent compounds, and even greater in some cases. Using of incomplete or incorrect information about the specificity of the pollutants’ transformation and accumulation in food and raw materials represents an additional risk in the food safety.
Their identification and determination still are an actual problem, which requires the development and introduction into laboratory practice of new effective analytical procedures and knowledge-intensive methodological approaches. This paper presents a literature and presented in scientific databases information analysis about the most studied transformation products of 18 pesticides and 13 veterinary drugs used in agricultural practice, some of which are unregistered or prohibited for use on the territory of the Russian Federation, and the preliminary data of a retrospective analysis of livestock products obtained during the 2020 year by The Federal State Budgetary Institution «All-Russian State Center for Animal Feed and Drug Standardization and Quality» (FGBU «VGNKI») on risk assessment within the framework of food safety monitoring program.
Keywords: metabolites of pesticides and antibiotics, control, livestock production, regulatory documentation
Article published in number 2 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-2-015-025
Influence of phytopathogens on the content of plastid pigments and the intensity of lipid peroxidation processes in the leaves of woody plants
Data on leaf damage by pathogenic organisms and the effect of phytopathogens on the content of plastid pigments and the intensity of lipid peroxidation (LPO) processes in the leaves of woody plants are presented. The studies were carried out in the city of Kirov and its environs (southern taiga subzone). The assessment of damage to the leaves of woody plants by pathogens was carried out in different parts of the city in parks and on the territory of the experimental garden of the FGBNU FARC of the North-East. To determine the degree of damage to woody plants, 100 leaves were collected from each plot (10 leaves from 10 trees or shrubs). Leaves were sampled in the first half of the day to determine photosynthetic pigments and the intensity of LPO processes. The content of chlorophylls and carotenoids was determined in acetone extract.
The intensity of lipid peroxidation processes was assessed by the accumulation of malonic dialdehyde (MDA). Photometric measurements were carried out on a ПЭ-5300 ВИ spectrophotometer (Russia). During the study period, 25 species of phytopathogenic fungi were found on 17 species of woody plants, the most common groups of infectious diseases are spotting, rust and powdery mildew are less common. Virus infections (mosaics) make an insignificant contribution to the total number of infectious diseases of woody plants. Diseases caused by fungi and viruses induced similar non-specific responses in the leaves of woody plants, which manifested themselves in a decrease in the level of photosynthetic pigments. In infected leaves, the content of chlorophylls and carotenoids was lower than in healthy leaves, the ratio of pigments in most cases did not change. An increased accumulation of MDA in infected plant cells indicates a progressive destruction of membranes. A change in the color of leaves affected by phytopathogens may be a result of the oxidative degradation of pigment molecules under the action of active radicals formed during LPO. Differences in the intensity of biochemical changes in leaves in response to the action of phytopathogens are determined by the physiological, biochemical and morphological characteristics of different types of woody plants.
Article published in number 2 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-2-084-092
Degradation of poly(ε-caprolactone) under laboratory conditions during exposure to air and soil
E.S. Shirokova, E.V. Tovstik, A.V. Sazanov
Section: Remediation and rehabilitation
Various aliphatic polyesters are used to provide biodegradable compostable packaging materials. They are a group of materials with a wide range of thermal, mechanical and biodegradability properties that can be easily adapted to a specific application. However, when using such materials for packaging solutions,their release into the environment after the end of the product’s service life is not excluded. In this regard, the assessment of changes occurring with polymeric material in soil and in air is of interest. The paper presents the results of assessing the degradation of films made from poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), one of the representatives of polyesters used for the production of flexible packaging, as well as high-density polyethylene (HDPE), which served as a reference sample. The experiment was carried out in laboratory conditions (natural light; temperature 20±2 оC) with exposure of the samples in the soil and in the air for 12 months. The changes in the polymer materials assessed by the appearance of the samples, the loss of their absolute mass, as well as IR spectroscopy and thermogravimetry data. The number of micromycetes in the soil in which the polymer samples were kept was indirectly judged to be biodegradable. The safety of degradation products was judged by the results of contact biotesting of soil us- ing radish (variety Zhara), carried out according to certified methods, taking into account international standards. The ability of polymeric materials to biodegrade under the action of micromycetes was confirmed in a fungus resistance test. A strain of mycelial fungus Fusarium proliferatum AC was a test culture. Degradation in the soil over the studied period was typical only for samples of PCL films. At the same time, the phytotoxic effect of PCL degradation products in the soil was not established. Signs of HDPE oxidation were indicated on the 3rd month of its air incubation. HDPE showed resistance to degradation in the soil. Based on the results of the work, a conclusion was made about the need to create special conditions for the disposal of PCL, despite its biodegradability proven in laboratory experiments.
Article published in number 2 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-2-165-172
Study of the effect of antibiotics on the urease activity of sod-podzolic and gray forest soils
A.G. Kosmacheva, S.M. Chesnokova, T.A. Trifonova
Environmental pollution with antibacterial drugs is associated with their massive use, and can affect the microbial communities of ecosystems and their functions, which determines the relevance of the study of such effects. Urease participates in the nitrogen cycle, promotes the breakdown of urea to ammonia. Ammonia, in turn, is a source of nitrogen nutrition for plants and microorganisms. The objects of research were sod-podzolic and gray forest agricultural soils. Antibiotics of various groups were used as pollutants, differing in the spectrum of action and physicochemical characteristics: tylosin, benzylpenicillin, oxytetracycline. The urease activity of the sod-podzolic soil without antibiotics was 0.951 g NH3 / 10 g soil * 24 hours, gray forest soil – 1.178 g NH3 / 10 g soil * 24 hours. The results of the study demonstrate the predominantly toxic effect of antibiotics on urease activity. The effect of drugs depends both on their concentrations and properties, and on the properties and type of soil. The urease activity of gray forest soil is higher than that of sod-podzolic soil, and is more resistant to the effects of antibacterial drugs. A triple mixture of antibiotics had the greatest toxic effect on the urease activity of the sod-podzolic soil. Tylosin had the greatest toxic effect on the urease activity of the gray forest soil. However, these effects were not dose-dependent (p>0.05). Significant negative correlation dependences were established of the urease activity of sod-podzolic soil on the concentration of oxytetracycline and its mixture with tylosin, and the urease activity of gray forest soil on the concentration of benzylpenicillin and a mixture of oxytetracycline with tylosin (p<0.05).
Article published in number 2 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-2-183-190
Control of odor pollution of atmospheric air (review)
N.V. Syrchina, L.V. Pilip, T.Ya. Ashikhmina
Section: Theoretical problems of ecology
Monitoring odor pollution (OP) of air is a complex analytical problem. Standard gas analysis equipment can be used to detect and measure the concentration of individual odor-forming substances (OFS) in the air. However, the presence or absence of odor on the basis of instrument readings is practically impossible to prove. The reasons are the subjective perception of odors, the complex multicomponent composition of the OP, the effects of synergism, masking, neutralization, which are manifested in the combined effect of various OFS on the human olfactory system. Today olfactometric method is used to measure the concentration of odors (group of experts are used as sensors). Measured by the olfactometric method the concentration of odor is expressed in odor of units per cubic meter (OU / m3). The most objective information about the OP can be obtained on the basis of a combined approach, including olfactometric and physicochemical research methods. The results of olfactometric research can be used to construct mathematical models of the dispersion of odors and to establish standards for OP. In addition to instrumental methods for monitoring the OP are used methods that do not require special equipment. There are methods of public opinion, analysis of complaints people about OP and method Citizen Science. Citizen Science is scientific work (collection of information, analysis of array of information, joint decision-making and so on). Citizen Science is carried out by citizens (volunteers) together with scientists or under the guidance of scientists. The experience of various countries shows that regulations aimed at control and minimization of OP can be established at the regional level. This approach will allow to maximally take into account the socio-economic characteristics of specific territories and optimize the costs of the budget and enterprises – sources of OFS for the implementation of measures to protect the environment and the people from OP.
Trees are very important components of an ecosystem which act as key elements of biodiversity which also provides
countless benefits and protection from adverse events such as climate change. This study focused on the assessment of
diversity and carbon storage potentials of tree species in Barangay North Poblacion and Barangay South Poblacion in
Dipaculao, Auorora. The study covered a 100% inventory of the trees with diameter at breast height of at least 5 cm. The
area was found to have a high overall diversity (H’ = 3.278; 1-D = 0.963) with 68 morpho-species of trees, 1290 individuals
and 23 families. The most abundant species were Swietenia macrophylla King, Mangifera indica L., and Gmelina arborea
Roxb. Ex Sm. collectively with 465 individuals. Ecological status assessment revealed 32 indigenous, four threatened (IUCN
), six threatened (DAO 2017-11 ), and three invasive species. Notable among the species were the three Philippine
endemics – Artocarpus blancoi (Elmer) Merr., Ficus pseudopalma Blanco, and Drypetes falcata (Merr.) Pax & K. Hoffm.
The overall tree biomass estimates were 2367.60 tons using Brown formula while 2328.90 tons using the equation of Chave.
For carbon storage potential, the overall estimated values of two barangays were 1183.8 tons (16.28 t/ha) using Brown and
1164.45 tons (16.01 t/ha) using Chave. Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr. had the highest carbon storage potential of 407.4
tons using Brown and 342.2 tons using Chave. The results of the study can serve as a guide to the local government in
the planning the conservation and protection measures for the tree species in the area.
Keywords: developed areas, Philippine trees, tree carbon stock, tree diversity, urban trees
Article published in number 2 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-2-198-208
Microsatellite analysis of populations of the ussuri sika deer acclimatized in the European part of Russia
In the Russian Federation, the indigenous population of sika deer (C. nippon hortulorum, Swinhoe, 1864) lives only in a small area of the Primorsky Kray. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, along with measures for the conservation of sika deer, they began to acclimatize it, with settling over a large territory and creating new habitats. Currently, up to 40% of the total population of sika deer in the Russian Federation is concentrated in the European part. Despite the long period of existence in the new ecological conditions, molecular genetic methods were not used in the study of sika deer. The presented work presents for the first time the results of microsatellite analysis of two populations of sika deer from Tver (Tver population) and Kaluga (Tarusa population) regions. F-statistics calculated for 12 STR-loci (BMS1788, Rt1, C143, OheQ, FCB193, C217, Rt24, C32, BMS745, NVHRT16, T40, C276) indicate a lack of heterozygous genotypes and indicate a weak divergence of populations. In the interpopulation comparison, the Tver population was distinguished by a greater allelic diversity and a significant number of private alleles. Genetic variability in observed and expected heterozygosity for the Тver population was HO 0,47 and HE 0,51 and for the Tarusa population – HO 0,52 and HE 0,49, respectively. At the same time, both studied populations of sika deer were characterized by a decrease in allelic diversity and heterozygosity relative to the “maternal” aboriginal Far Eastern population. Accordingly, at the present stage of hunting resource management, a reasonable artificial expansion of the range of rare and economically especially valuable animal species due to their dispersal and acclimatization is impossible without a genetic analysis of populations using highly polymorphic molecular markers and the use of standard estimated indicators of dynamic processes in populations. According to the results of the study, it can be concluded that the genetic diversity of the studied acclimatized populations of sika deer in the Tver and Kaluga regions does not differ significantly, and the observed difference in private alleles suggests an independent development of the gene pools of the populations under consideration.
Article published in number 2 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-2-130-137
Utilization of wastewaters as a nutrient medium for the accumulation of microalgal biomass
A.V. Gogonin, T.N. Shchemelinina, E.M. Anchugova
Section: Population ecology
Cultivating microalgae using wastewater nutrients is a potential approach to realize resource recovery that can contribute to circular economy. However, wastewaters discharged from pulp and paper mills contain high concentrations of recalcitrant compounds such as metal ions, phenols, nitrogen compounds, sulfur, phosphorus, that exceed quality standard values, that is why microalgae-based approaches are a solution to cope with wastewater treatment and simultaneous biomass accumulation. To address those problems, we investigated microalgal cultivation fed with nutrients from wastewaters, synthetic, and semi-synthetic media. This study employed the species of Chlorella genus adapted for technologies of algal ponds and stepwise bioprocessing approaches. Biotechnological properties of Chlorella vulgaris f. globosa strain were evaluated in a series of laboratory experiments testing a range of regimes and conditions. Results showed that C. vulgaris f. globosa grew well on both semi-synthetic Liuk’s medium and synthetic conventional media because of its similar nutrient profile to a common algal growth medium, but wastewaters were found to be the most appropriate for scaling up of beneficial acclimatized biomass production. Microalgae inoculation affects the content of major pollutants while treating real wastewater of Mondi Syktyvkar JSC. Nutrients, metal ions, and other recalcitrant pollutants were effectively removed by this strain with removal efficiencies of 74–79% NH4+-N, 42–44% NO3--N, 25–50% total phosphorus, 6.4% total sulfur, and 62–70% of phenols, respectively. After microalgal cells having been deposited and harvested, chemical parameters of the wastewater processed were in compliance with quality standards for fishery waterbodies. It might be useful, in a framework of further studies, to assess toxicity of the biomass harvested and its applicability for agriculture.
Article published in number 2 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-2-109-115
To the question of methodological support for determination of rare earth elements for industrial inspection
T.S. Ulanova, M.V. Volkova, G.A. Veikhman, A.V. Nedoshitova
Section: Ecologization of industry
The purpose of the study is the development of methodological support for the determination of rare earth elements (REE) in workplace air and biological media (blood) of workers. New methodical guidelines for the determination of REE in the workplace air and whole blood in a wide range of concentrations by the method of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry are presented. It is proposed to use these methods for production control at the
enterprises of mining and metallurgical industries. Also it is recommended to use the test for the determination of
REE in biological media (blood) of workers to assess the sufficiency of measures for organizing safety and reducing
harmful production factors, along with monitoring the air quality of the working area. The methods are included in
the Federal Register of Measurements: FR.1.31.2018.31642 for the cerium group; FR.1.31.2018.31641 for the yttrium group in the air of the working area, patent No. 2697479; FR.1.31.2019.32618 for the determination of REE
in blood, patent No. 2696011.
The developed methods meet the modern requirements of standardization and metrological certification, they have
high sensitivity and selectivity. The methods have been successfully approbate at a metallurgical enterprise for determining the concentrations of REE in the blood of workers and in the workplace air.
Keywords: rare earth elements, toxicity, workplace air, blood, mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma
Article published in number 2 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-2-101-108