ISSN 1995-4301
(Print)

ISSN 2618-8406
(Online)

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1 issue of the journal in 2024

4 issue of the journal in 2023

3 issue of the journal in 2023

2 issue of the journal in 2023

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Application of a complex of biologically active substances of Аronia melanocarpa in parapharmaceutical phytofilms

V.A. Kozvonin, E.V. Tovstik, V.K. Tupitsyn, S.A. Votintseva
Section: Chemistry of natural environments and objects
The article presents the results of using non-pharmacopoeial plant raw material – dried leaves of the perennial cultivated chokeberry shrub Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliott. as a source of substances with anti-inflammatory and wound-healing effect. The development of a parapharmaceutical phytofilm based on a complex of biologically active substances from A. melanocarpa is described. The results of preclinical evaluation of the developed phytofilm in an experimental model of skin wound on outbred white rats are presented. The developed phytofilm is environmentally safe compared to synthetic analogues which production is accompanied by a negative environmental impact. Substances with antioxidant properties which can play the role of a medicinal base were found in the composition of aqueous extracts from chokeberry leaves: polyphenols – 7.4±0.7, tannins – 4.6±0.5 mg/cm3. The safety of using A. melanocarpa leaves as raw material for phytofilm has been confirmed in heavy metal tests. The composition and film-forming ability of chokeberry leaves aqueous extract, including polyvinyl alcohol (098-15(G)) (6%), food grade gelatin P-11 (0.5%), glycerin (GOST 6259-75) (0.4%), colloidal silver solution 200 mg/dm3 (1%) has been established. A. melanocarpa leaves extract application to the film-forming solution increases the final vapor permeability by 48% and solubility by 14%. The model experiment shows the effect of using the created phytofilm in the reparation of linear wounds, manifested as significant decrease in their length by 30% by the fifth day, by 25% by the seventh day compared with the control, as well as normalization of the skin histological structure by the tenth day.
Keywords: polyvinyl alcohol, gelatin, glycerin, colloidal silver, polyphenols, tannins, antioxidant properties, linear wound model, histological methods
Article published in number 1 for 2024
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2024-1-097-105
Views: 28

Basidial fungal polysaccharides increase the quality of bovine reproductive cells when frozen

T.V. Polezhaeva, O.N. Solomina, A.N. Khudyakov, А.А. Shirokikh, D.V. Popyvanov, M.I. Sergushkina, O.O. Zaitseva, I.G. Shirokikh
Section: Methodology and research methods. Models and forecasts
The global decline in the animal and plant species diversity is among the key environmental problems of the modern world. One possible way to solve this problem is to develop advanced reproductive technologies using gametes to restore genetic diversity. Cryobanks play an important role in this. The traditional method of long-term storage of reproductive cells is their cryopreservation at –196оC using cryoprotective media based on synthesized substances (glycerin, dimethyl sulfoxide, etc.). The reason for searching new effective substitutes is cytotoxicity, impaired fertility and other disadvantages when using traditional cryoprotectors. In addition, it is relevant to expand the temperature range of biomaterial storage, in particular using the conditions of electric freezers. The wide range of biological effects of polysaccharides of basidiomycetes allowed us to make an assumption about the effectiveness of their use in the composition of the medium for cell cryopreservation. This paper presents the results of a comparative study of the effectiveness of polysaccharides of xylotrophic basidiomycetes in the composition of the medium for storage of the Holstein bull semen. The semen was frozen to –5оC and storaged at the specified temperature for 7 days in AndroMed® (Minitübe, Germany) – certified extender for freezing the semen of bulls and other ruminants. Additional introduction into its composition of polysaccharides from the basidiomycetes Hericium erinaceus BP16 / Ganoderma applanatum GA significantly improves the quality of reproductive cells in the used cryopreservation technology.
Keywords: Hericium erinaceus BP16, Flammulina velutipes FARC D1, Ganoderma applanatum GA, polysaccharides, AndroMed®, spermatozoa, cryopreservation

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Article published in number 1 for 2024
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2024-1-040-053
Views: 11

The effect of nitrapyrin on microbiota and emissions of greenhouse gas from livestock by-products

N.V. Syrchina, L.V. Pilip, T.Ya. Ashikhmina
Section: Ecology and climate change
The livestock by-products (LBP) using as fertilizers are characterized by such unfavorable environmental characteristics as emissions of greenhouse gases (N2O, CO2, CH4) and the presence of a specific microbiota leading to soil and water biological contamination. The waste processing by nitrapyrin reduces the negative environmental impact of LBP. Currently, nitrapyrin is used as a nitrogen fertilizer stabilizer that reduces nitrogen losses by direct inhibition of soil microorganisms (MO) oxidizing ammonium nitrogen to nitrate. It was found that 0.05 g/L nitrapyrin application to the liquid pig manure effluents decreases the CH4 and CO2 emissions, as well as the species diversity and the number of opportunistic pathogens that promote the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes into natural environments. The number of such MO as Klebsiella sp., Proteus spp., Bacteroides sp., Pseudomonas spp., Candida sp. decreased by 2–4 orders of magnitude due to nitrapyrin. Only anaerobic bacteria of the genus Clostridium and aerobic mold fungi of the genus Aspergillus showed the resistance to the appropriate reagent, the number of the above MO remained almost unchanged in the nitrapyrin variants. The most significant decrease in CO2 emission (2–5 times compared to control) was observed in the first 3–4 days after the nitrapyrin application. The CH4 emission in nitrapyrin variants was lower than in the control during the whole observation period (13 days). The obtained experimental data can be used in the development of reagent formulations to improve microbiological characteristics and to reduce greenhouse gases emission from manure collection systems of livestock enterprises.
Keywords: manure, nitrapyrin, inhibitor of nitrification, greenhouse gases, methane, microbiota of manure effluent, livestock by-products
Article published in number 1 for 2024
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2024-1-209-217
Views: 9

Obtaining and application iodinated bactericide for water disinfection in local treatment systems

N.V. Vedeneeva, E.I. Tikhomirova, A.V. Koshelev, V. F. Golovkov
Section: Social ecology
The paper presents the results of studies on obtaining a bactericide based on iodized anion exchange resin АВ-17-8. The obtained compound bactericidal efficiency was assessed on Escherichia сoli culture suspensions at 103–109 CFU/mL. All experiments gave positive results and demonstrated the possibility of their use for natural water treatment in local water treatment systems. The obtained bactericidal filter can be used for quantitative determination of bacteriological contamination of the studied waters. Water samples contaminated with E. coli at 500, 1000, 5000 and 10000 CFU/mL were prepared to quantify the bactericidal activity of the iodine-containing compound obtained on an anion-exchange resin. Then samples were sequentially passed through a 100 cm3 bactericidal filter. By the amount of iodine released, the degree of microbial contamination can be determined. There were no microbial cells in the filtrate at zero concentrations of released iodine in the solution. The degree of microbiological contamination of water Q was 10,000 CFU/mL at 0.00391 g/L of iodine. A linear dependence between bactericidal activity and iodine release from the anion-exchange resin was established. This allows us to assume that the positive iodine radical is released “on a signal” – at the appearance of living microorganisms carrying excessive electrostatic charge. The released by the bactericide positive iodine radical (I*+) interacts only with the electrostatic charge of microorganisms, and not with the functional groups of their shells. The found quantitative dependence makes it possible to determine microbiological contamination based on the iodine concentration in the treated solution. Based on the test results, a flowchart of the technological process of surface water treatment was proposed. The presence of a bactericidal filter allows the use of a reverse osmosis filter, sensitive to biological water contaminants, as part of the installation.
Keywords: water disinfection, water bactericides, iodinated quaternary ammonium bases, disinfection on a signal
Article published in number 1 for 2024
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2024-1-218-227
Views: 5

Phenology of the spawning migration start dates of anuran amphibians (Anura, Amphibia) in the river valleys of Saratov Right Bank region

M.V. Yermokhin, V.G. Tabachishin
Section: Population ecology
The intra-century dynamics of the spawning migrations start of the three most numerous species of anuran amphibians (Pelobates vespertinus, Bombina bombina and Pelophylax ridibundus) was analyzed. Local populations of the above anurans in the valley of the middle course of the Medveditsa River (Don Basin, Saratov region) were the object of the study. From 1892 to 2023 the phenological norm of this phase of the annual cycle shifted to earlier dates by an average of 7 days for each species in a climate warming. By 2023, the henological norm of the spawning migration start of P. vespertinus, B. bombina and P. ridibundus was April 14, April 21, and April 22, respectively. In addition, the change rate of this phenological parameter in the model species was similar as well, about 8 days/100 years. The absolute value of the phenological norm change, as well as the rate of its transformation, is comparable among the three species of anuran amphibians, despite any differences in their thermobiological characteristics. The early snow clearence in the Northern Lower Volga region may be one of the reasons for shifting the start dates of amphibian spawning migrations to earlier dates. The continued phenological changes in the spring phase of the annual cycle require continued monitoring of this process. This will allow forming scientifically based forecasts of local population dynamics in the future. Possible consequences of this transformation of the spring phenology of anuran amphibians are increased probability of metamorph survival in low water availability in the floodplain, and spawning migration development in the false spring scenario and susceptibility to return cold weather. This is discussed in relation to the changes identified.
Keywords: Pelobates vespertinus, Bombina bombina, Pelophylax ridibundus, phenology, spawning migrations
Article published in number 1 for 2024
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2024-1-191-198
Views: 11

Assessment of the soil and vegetation cover condition of the river basin based on remote sensing data

P.S. Shutov, T.A. Trifonova, N.V. Mishchenko
Section: Monitoring of natural and anthropogenically disturbed areas
The aim of this work was to summarize the studies devoted to the soil and vegetation cover assessment of the river basin on the example of the Klyazma River catchment using remote data for a 17-year period. The remote data from the MODIS/Terra+Aqua Land Cover Land Cover, Landsat ETM+ and Meteor with different spatial resolutions were used in the work. The assessment of land use structure dynamics was carried out for the Klyazma River basin as a whole, as well as for individual landscapes. According to MODIS data there is a common trend towards an increase (about 9%) in the area of forest vegetation and a decrease in arable land and pastures for most of the basin. The exception is the interfluve of the Lukh River, where there is a decrease in forest lands and their transition to wetlands. Different landscapes of the Klyazma Rivers basin vary in both the rate and intensity of organic matter accumulation in the form of gross and net primary production as well as respond differently to climatic changes and land use change. However, the unified ecosystem of an entire river basin is more stable compared to its constituent landscapes. The remote sensing data allowed us to establish that the deep valley of the Rpen River (a tributary of the Klyazma River) forms an air flow that carries atmospheric pollution out of the Vladimir industrial zone.
Keywords: basin approach, remote sensing, land use structure, phytoproductivity, ecological monitoring

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Article published in number 1 for 2024
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2024-1-073-081
Views: 27

Sources, toxicity and bioaccumulation of rare earths in the environment: review

A.S. Olkova, M.A. Sysolyatina
Section: Theoretical problems of ecology
The anthropogenic part of the rare earth elements (REE) cycle is becoming increasingly noticeable due to its increasing mining, using, accumulating in wastes. The aim of the work is to summarize current scientific data of the REE effect on living organisms in different habitats, including the mechanisms and specificity of their action, as well as bioaccumulation. Both REE’s natural geochemical anomalies and anthropogenic polluted zones are known. The REE soil accumulation in industrial areas is up to 2.3 µg/kg; in urban snow the REE content varies from 0.411 µg/kg to 1.463 µg/kg. The REE negative molecular mechanism provokes oxidative stress; the latter can be expressed as stimulation of vital functions at low doses of toxicants, and as inhibition of organisms with increasing concentrations. The REE toxic concentrations depends on the chemical element nature, as well as on set of environmental factors and the exposure target, but they are often 2–3 orders of magnitude higher than those of heavy metals. In the early 21th century, this served as a basis to consider REEs environmentally safety. But many sublethal and delayed effects of REEs including endocrine disorders and negative effects on the breeding potential of populations have now been shown. The complexity of REEs study is due to additive, antagonistic, or synergistic effects of their mixtures and combinations with other elements. Thus, a comprehensive study of rare earth elements remains an urgent task with preventive environmental importance. The vulnerable species identification, REEs delayed effects and the REEs co-action with other substances are the most promising scientific issues.
Keywords: rare earth elements, biotesting, bioindication, bioaccumulation, toxic effects

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Article published in number 1 for 2024
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2024-1-019-030
Views: 35

Primary pedogenesis on different texture substrates in post-technogenic ecosystems of the taiga zone

I.A. Likhanova, E.G. Kuznetsova, Yu.V. Kholopov, S.V. Deneva, E.M. Lapteva
Section: Remediation and rehabilitation
The paper focuses on the primary soil formation under automorphic conditions in the middle taiga sub-zone of the European North-East of Russia (Komi Republic) on the post-technogenic territories (quarries for the extraction of minerals (construction sand)) with different soil materials (ancient alluvial sands; fluvioglacial sands and sandy loams, moraine loams). In the quarries, the processes of soil formation and vegetation cover development are interdependent and are affected by the properties of soil-forming rocks. Along with the improvement of soil properties (from sandy loam to loam), the biometric parameters of pine stands increase; in the ground cover, dominating lichens are replaced by mosses, and then by grasses. The biogenic accumulation rates of organic matter increase along with the transition of soil material to fine-textured. In automorphic conditions, the accumulation rate of Corg. in soil of sandy quarry under sparse young lichen pine forest reaches 0.1, in sandy loam under young forb-moss pine forest – 0.3, in loam under young grass-forb pine forest – 0.6 t/ha/year. Already in the first succession decades, every study soil demonstrates weakly expressed processes of eluviation and illuviation (the beginning of podzolization). These processes are evidenced by morphological signs (the appearance of bleached quartz grains and whitish patches under organic horizon and in its lower part), redistribution of silicon, iron, and aluminum compounds, as well as of silty particles proportion.
Keywords: middle taiga, quarries, primary soil formation, soil carbon, podzol formation
Article published in number 1 for 2024
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2024-1-122-130
Views: 14

The assessment of potential risks of chloride salts and their effect on seed germination and plant development

L.P. Voronina, V.L. Flerchuk, K.E. Ponogaybo, A.V. Sbitnev, M. Abdelkader
Section: Ecotoxicology
The article discusses the negative effect of de-icing materials (DM) and salts in their composition on plant seedlings germination and development. The influence of sodium and potassium cations and chlorine anion on phytotoxicity index is considered. The dynamics of test-plants (Avena sativa L., Raphanus sativa L., Hordeum vulgare L.) response on a number of test-indicators depending on the concentration of basic salts in DM by a promising method of phytotesting was analyzed. The analyzed DMs in concentrations higher than 1% have an inhibitory effect. The DM at 14–16 g/L suppresses root length of test plants (more than 50%) relative to the control. The low content of heavy metals, such as Cd, Cu, Pb, in the analyzed DM samples indicates the toxicity of sodium chloride as an active de-icing agent. The results of statistical analysis convincingly prove the high phytotoxicity of sodium chloride (NaCl) in relation to such indicators of the juvenile test-plant development as germination, the primary root length and the coleoptile height. Increasing the NaCl concentration in the solution from 0.75 to 1% was strongly toxic to the test-plants (more than 50%). Potassium chloride (KCl) in the concentration range of 0.1–1.0% showed no phytotoxicity. The KCl presence in the NaCl-included de-icing reagent reduces its phytotoxicity and allows the toxicity level of the agent to be assessed as “moderately toxic”.
Keywords: deicing material (DM), sodium chloride, potassium chloride, seed germination, phytotoxicity, salinity
Article published in number 1 for 2024
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2024-1-156-165
Views: 18

Cyanobacteria and Algae in the Karlamanskaya Cave (Bashkortostan Republic, Russia)

M. Yu. Sharipova, I.Е. Dubovik
Section: Population ecology
The article presents data on the composition and structure of cyanobacterial-algal cenoses of various habitats of the Karlamanskaya Cave. The study identified 46 species and intraspecific taxa of cyanobacteria and algae belonging to 5 divisions (Cyanobacteria – 17 species and intraspecific taxa, Bacillariophyta – 12 species and intraspecific taxa, Chlorophyta – 14 species, Charophyta – 1 species, Ochrophyta – 2 species), 7 classes, 16 order, 28 families and 36 genera. Leptolyngbya boryana (Gom.) Anagn. et Kom., Oscillatoria rupicola (Hansgirg) Hansgirg ex Forti, Luticola mutica (Kütz.) Mann, Mychonastes homosphaera (Skuja) Kalina et Punс., Chlorella vulgaris Beijerink present the dominant complex of cyanobacteria and algae in all studied habitats. Cyanobacteria dominate in all biotopes of the cave except aquatic ones where diatoms predominated. The maximum number of species was found in the soil at the cave entrance and in the soil of the illuminated cave zone: 31 and 29 species respectively. The lowest number was found in the soil and on the walls (16 and 11 species respectively). Ecological analysis of cyanobacterium and algae revealed 12 life forms: Сh9B9P5X5CF5hydr4amph2PF1NF1C1M1H1. Most of the life forms were found in the illuminated cave zone: in the soil (10 forms), on the wall (10 forms) and at the cave entrance (11 forms). The ecobiomorphs composition of the dark zone is the poorest (5 forms).
Keywords: karst cave, cyanobacteria-algal cenoses
Article published in number 1 for 2024
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2024-1-184-190
Views: 15

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