Section: Methodology and research methods. Models and forecasts
At the present stage of industrial development, there is a tendency to strengthen environmental control over objects that have a negative impact on the environment (NIE). Enterprises of heat and power, ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, oil and gas processing, chemical and petrochemical industries cause the greatest harm to the environment by emitting mainly sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, hydrocarbons, suspended solids into the atmosphere.
In order to control the quantity of emitted pollutants at the legislative level it is mandatory to equip stationary emission sources of the 1st category objects of NIE with continuous automatic control systems (SAC). The implementation of the SAC is relevant due to the currently limited number of enterprises with SAC.
The aim of the study is to consider the features of the creation SAC of stationary sources of emissions, their composition, functional purpose and implementation in industrial enterprises.
Keywords: automatic control system, environment, atmospheric air pollution, emissions, industrial enterprises
Article published in number 4 for 2023 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-4-035-043
Complex ecological monitoring of negative impact of oil-containing waste in areas of oil fields as an object of ecological risk
Section: Monitoring of natural and anthropogenically disturbed areas
In this paper peculiarities of negative impact of oil-containing waste to humans and biosphere and approaches to its estimation are considered. For the estimation of ecological risks of negative impact of oil-containing waste in areas of oil and gas fields it is suggested to take into account not only its toxicological and quantitative characteristics, but also the degradation of the territories of fields, potential recultivating capacity of fields, suitability of wastes for utilization etc. Negative ecological impact not only from operation but also from mothballed oil well should be investigated. Results of complex experimental researches of negative impact of oil-containing waste in regions of development and exploitation of oil and gas fields are described. In number of cases increased values of oil containing waste and heavy metals were determined in soil and in water environment. For oil wells of Mogutovskoye field acute toxicity of soil samples near to the wells and excess over maximum permissible concentrations of methane were determined. Results of monitoring of toxicological impact of oil containing waste in areas of different oil fields of Samara region and in oil treatment plants by using of biological testing methods have showed that a number of samples have enlarged toxicity and are causing acute toxic effect to the test-organisms – green algae Chlorella vulgaris Beijer and Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turpin) Brébisson, crustaceans Daphnia magna Straus. In number of cases increased values of oil products was observed. Thus, it was determined that negative impact of oil-containing waste in areas of oil fields is complex in nature and may cause significant ecological risks for air, water and soil. Results of work allow us to carry out more efficient and high quality monitoring of negative impact of oil-containing waste and estimation of ecological risks as well as to develop the measures for reduction of negative impact of oil-containing waste.
Article published in number 4 for 2023 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-4-078-084
Assessment of the possibility of using solid waste compost for growing medicinal plants
T.S. Droganova, L.V. Polikarpova, M.A. Sevostyanov, A.А. Mazurkevich
The production of artificial soils – products of solid-phase fermentation of municipal solid waste – is one of the main areas of processing waste from megacities containing organic substances and is a “green” alternative to their incineration or burial. The possibility of using products of solid-phase fermentation of waste for growing medicinal plants was studied using the examples of mountain savory (Satureja montana L.), common basil (Ocimum basilikum L.), marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.). It was revealed that the optimal germination of plants occurs on
the artificial soils “Klasmann Substrates Select” and “Grunt ECO” and it is comparable to the control soil of field crop rotation.The changes in the biochemical parameters of plants (enzyme activity, chlorophyll content) grown on soils under normal conditions, under the influence of heavy metals and at low temperatures are shown. High chlorophyll content was noted in all studied plants, however, in mountain savory grown on the “Veltorf” substrate, destructive phenomena were revealed, expressed in a decrease in the content of chlorophyll a with a simultaneous increase in the content of chlorophyll b. The activity of catalase and acid phosphatase enzymes in the studied plants is within normal limits. The effect of
unfavorable factors – low temperature and heavy metals – leads to an increase in enzyme activity, which is a sign of the formation of adaptation. When assessing the germination of plants of various species and their biochemical parameters, it was found that the domestic soil of the Grunt ECO company is optimal for growing medicinal plants and can be used for medicinal plant growing purposes.
Article published in number 4 for 2023 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-4-157-164
Environmental safety through the prism of legal regulation of renewable energy in Russia
E.S. Koshcheeva, M.A. Smirnov
Section: Social ecology
The article is devoted to an urgent problem in the field of environmental safety – the legal regulation of renewable energy in Russia at the level of federal legislation, as well as trends in the field of program normative regulation in the context of long-term planning until 2050. The method of special normative regulation in the field of renewable energy chosen by the legislator is determined by the directions of state regulation in the area under consideration. The basis for long-term programmatic legal regulation is the combination of traditional and renewable energy, which is necessary for the country’s energy security. On the other hand, a serious problem of legal regulation has been identified: at the level of federal legislation, there is a legal gap in the issue of the relationship between the concepts of “energy resource” and “non-renewable energy sources”, which is the reason for finalizing the current legislation. The result of the study is recommendations to reflect in the legal regulation of renewable energy, which is programmatic and long-term in nature, not the principle of priority of renewable energy sources (RES), but the principle of combining traditional and renewable energy and its development, taking into account the interests of the country’s energy security. Thus, the actual preservation of the priority of traditional energy and the development of energy based on renewable energy sources within the framework of regulatory long-term planning based on state support determine the main direction of developing the country’s environmental safety system for the coming decades.
Keywords: renewable energy, regulation, long-term development of RES, energy security
Article published in number 4 for 2023 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-4-199-207
Rational disposal of sulfur-containing waste
N.V. Syrchina, S.G. Skugoreva, T.I. Kutyavina
Storage of sulfur extracted from hydrocarbon raw materials in open areas (sulfur pads) leads to soil contamination of sulfur. The sulfur-soil mixture is not suitable for further chemical processing, and its separation into individual components is not economically viable. In this regard, it is sent to specialized landfills as hazard class IV waste called “soil contaminated with sulfur during the repair of sulfur storage pits, sulfur pads, sulfur pipelines”. The production of ameliorants for alkaline saline soils is one option to utilize this waste without separating it into components. The application of a finely ground sulfur-soil mixture into alkaline saline soil decreases pH and the carbonates and bicarbonates content, increases specific electrical conductivity and the phosphorus and potassium mobility, as well as leads to the
active displacement of Na+ cations from the soil absorption complex into the solution. The ions transition from the soil absorption complex into solution considerably facilitates the removal of excess salts from the soil by washing. The main effect of sulfur-soil mixture application is during the first three weeks after applying the ameliorant. It depends on the amount of sulfur applied to the soil. The introduction of technology for processing sulfur-soil mixtures into ameliorants will minimize the amount of sulfur-containing waste stored in landfills and bring to the market a budget-friendly, natural
and effective agrochemical to restore the fertility of alkaline saline soils. The results obtained can be used as an experimental basis for the development of new processing of sulfur-soil mixtures into marketable products.
The composition and taxonomic structure of the phylum Actinobacteria were studied on the example of technosols formed on the territory of the former tailings of liquid waste of a chemical enterprise in the floodplain of the Vyatka River. The diversity of actinobacteria in soil samples taken from three spatially remote monitoring sites (SG, SU1 and SU2), differing in the complex of physico-chemical properties and the nature of the vegetation cover, was studied. The
results were compared with the background soil (BS) – alluvial soil selected on the territory of the Nurgush State Nature
Reserve. The studies were carried out using high-performance sequencing using Illumina technology and the culture
method (seeding). The culture method revealed representatives of the genera Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Streptosporangium and a number of oligospore forms in the actinobacterial complexes. The total number of actinomycetes in the samples of technosols varied from 2.4·104 to 1.8·105 CFU/g, and in the background soil was 8.5·103 CFU/g. Families of actinomycetes established by the seeding method were also detected using the amplicon sequencing of the V4 section of the 16S rRNA gene, but the molecular method made it possible to identify a number of other taxa in the studied samples, including those that do not have cultured representatives or are not yet classified. Using amplicon sequencing, it was found that representatives of the phylum Actinobacteria in samples of technogenically disturbed soils are absolute dominants in relative abundance in the total bacterial diversity. The proportion of actinobacteria in disturbed soils ranges from 33 to 41%, while in the background soil it is only 22%. Actinobacteria in the samples of technosols were represented by the families Micromonosporaceae, Micrococcaceae, Nocardioidaceae, Microbacteriaceae, Thermomonosporaceae, Pseudonocardiaceae, Actinosynnemataceae, and Intrasporangiaceae, etc. The taxonomic spectrum of actinobacteria in the BS sample was similar to technosols, but the proportion of taxa was different. The results obtained will be used in further studies of soil actinobiota in connection with changes in ecosystems disrupted by human economic activity, and are also of interest for the search and isolation of natural strains of actinobacteria for biotechnology purposes.
Keywords: chemical production waste, technosols, actinobacteria, actinomycetes, diversity, taxonomic structure
Article published in number 4 for 2023 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-4-174-183
Pollution of the environment with petroleum products is a serious environmental problem. There are several ways to dispose of used oils: regeneration, burial and incineration. The burning of waste oils is widespread both in Russia and abroad. One of the significant disadvantages of the method is the entry of harmful substances into the atmosphere. The results of research on the development of a more advanced installation of thermal utilization of waste oils, ensuring the completeness of combustion and reduction of harmful emissions, are presented. The unit for thermal disposal of waste oils consists of a furnace and an emulsion nozzle.
The furnace from the furnace chamber and the afterburning chamber of the flue gas provides two-zone, two-stage oil gorenje. Oil is burned in the combustion chamber (1st gorenje zone with t ≈ 600–700 оC). Then the smoke enters the afterburning chamber, where it is completely burned due to the supply of additional air (2nd gorenje zone with t ≈ 1200–1300 оC), due to the increase in temperature, toxic substances contained in the smoke are transformed into harmless due to their complete oxidation.
The emulsion nozzle consists of intersecting grooves, which, when air and heated oil are fed into it, provide finely dispersed oil spraying by forming gas-liquid vortices in the oncoming grooves. Using the ANSYS program, the calculation of the flame angle of the emulsion nozzle was carried out. It is established that to change the range of the spraying torch and the use of emulsion nozzles in furnaces of different volume and power, it is necessary to change the angle of the screw direction.
This research contributes to the development of the industry of processing of production and consumption waste. The proposed solution allows the installation to be used not only in industrial centers where significant volumes of waste oils accumulate, but also in sparsely populated areas, and also ensures the completeness of combustion of oil waste and reduces the negative impact on the environment.
Section: Methodology and research methods. Models and forecasts
The problem of soil salinization is relevant not only for agricultural areas but also for mining, where brines enter the surface as formation water or runoff from sludge storage facilities and salt dumps of mining enterprises. Currently, there is little elaboration of assessment and lack of normative support (MPC, APC) for assessment of technogenic salinisation of soils. The aim of this research is to develop a mathematical model for predicting the transformation of soils affected by technogenic salinization. The research focuses on soils in three types of landscapes, namely eluvial, transitional, and alluvial, located in the area of technogenic salinization. To develop the model, information-logical analysis and soil indicators were employed. These indicators were determined by standard methods. According to the information-logical analysis the sodium adsorption coefficient is the dominant factor of soils’ salinity; descending further: calcium ion content, sulfates content in the soil water extract and the calculated indicators (∆pH and pH) of the salt extract. The model showed that the highest amount of toxic salts is observed when pHKCl ranges from 5.3 to 7.4, sulfate content is above 500 mg/kg, calcium content is above 1000 mg/kg, SAR is above 10, and ∆pH is below 0.5. These indicator values correspond to alluvial soils found in small river valleys; these soils are highly prone to transformation. Using the obtained information-logical model and soil indicators, it is possible to make a forecast of soil transformation under technogenic salinization.
Section: Methodology and research methods. Models and forecasts
The problem of regulating the discharge of liquid wastes into water bodies is the most urgent task and is carried out on the basis of establishing standards of permissible discharge (SPD). Many authors note that the key problem of setting the SPD is the use of maximum allowable concentrations (MAC) as threshold values, determined without taking into account regional peculiarities of formation of natural water composition and its ability to dilute wastewater. We have proposed the development of the methodology for calculating SPD, based on the condition that ensuring the disposal of liquid wastes at the level of permissible discharge standards will not lead to a change in the water quality class determined using the specific combinatorial index of water pollution (SCIWP). In the previous publication we have substantiated territorial threshold concentrations (TTC) based on the analysis of long-term data sets of hydrochemical observations, which allow us to take into account regional features of the geochemical background of water bodies, including the content of substances of dual genesis. They also implicitly allow taking into account hydrological and hydrochemical factors that ensure the ability of natural waters to dilute liquid waste effluents. The obtained TTCs are proposed to be used for calculation of permissible concentrations of substances in wastewater instead of MAC. SPD is established by cyclic iteration of TTC values by 10%, with parallel calculation of SCIWP, until the index is transferred to another water quality class. This paper presents the results
of approbation of the proposed development of the methodology of SPD calculation for liquid waste from Оpen JSC “Kazan Synthetic Rubber Plant” discharged into the Volga River. The obtained calculation results make more stringent requirements to the value of SPD for substances mainly of anthropogenic origin. For some substances of dual genesis, the value of SPD was higher, which allows us to make more adequate requirements to water users for treatment of sewage effluents.
Keywords: liquid industrial waste, discharge, water bodies, regional peculiarities, threshold concentrations, standards of permissible discharge, calculation
Article published in number 4 for 2023 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-4-070-077
Kinetic characteristics of the regenerative utilization process of the spent solution after chemical nickel plating
M.A. Shumilova, N.E. Suksin
Section: Methodology and research methods. Models and forecasts
Galvanic production in terms of the degree of negative impact on the environment occupies a leading position in the global industrial production; therefore, the introduction of regenerative recycling technology is receiving increasing attention. The aim of the present work is to determine the kinetic characteristics of the precipitation reaction in a solution of nickel sulfate with sodium hydroxide to develop a technology for the regeneration utilization of spent solutions
of chemical nickel plating (SCNPS).
The object of the study was the spent solution of chemical nickel plating of one of the industrial enterprises of Izhevsk. The experiment was carried out in the temperature range 293–333 K at various concentrations of sodium hydroxide (1.25–2.60 M) and nickel sulfate (0.037–0.06 M).
To determine the order of the reaction, we plot graphs in the coordinates lg w – lg C(Ni) using the experimental data, where w is the reaction rate. The tangent of the slope of the obtained linear dependences with a high degree of approximation (R2 = 0.98) is close to 2, therefore, the order of the reaction of the deposition of SCNPS with sodium hydroxide is second.
With a graphical method for determining the rate constant of a second-order reaction for the dependence 1/С = f(t), the tangent of the slope of the straight line corresponds to the calculated parameter. In the investigated temperature range
the rate constant takes values from 5·10-4 to 9·10-4 dm3·mol-1·s-1.
The activation energy of the precipitation reaction, determined by the Arrhenius equation by graphic and calculation methods, is 16.57 kJ·mol-1 and 16.44 kJ·mol-1, respectively. The low values of Ea indicate a weak dependence of the reaction rate on temperature. Consequently, the introduction of the technology for the regeneration utilization of SCNPS will not entail large expenditures of energy resources for heating the reaction masses.
Keywords: spent chemical nickel plating solution, sodium hydroxide, reaction order, reaction rate constant, activation energy
Article published in number 4 for 2023 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-4-044-051