ISSN 1995-4301

ISSN 2618-8406

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1 issue of the journal in 2024

4 issue of the journal in 2023

3 issue of the journal in 2023

2 issue of the journal in 2023

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Approaches for establishing threshold concentrations of priority pollutants in urban ecosystem components

Y.A. Tunakova, S.V. Novikova, D.V. Ivanov, A.R. Shagidullin, V.S. Valiev, A.J. Morais
Section: Research methods. Models and projects
This study was conducted on the territory of the city of Kazan with the dominant aerogenic flow of metals from a significant number of stationary and mobile sources of pollution, causing specific and non-specific responses in the population. Use of modern mathematical methods, ways of assessment of a response of biological objects to anthropogenic influence, chemical analysis researches of content of metals allowed to allocate sources and to determine threshold concentration of metals in urboekosistema components Wednesdays, by the upper bound of acceptable concentration in biosubstrates of teenage children. As a result, we have proposed and tested a methodology for calculating threshold concentrations of essential and toxic metals in snow cover and soils of Kazan, which do not lead to an increase in their regional reference values in the blood and hair of adolescent children.
Keywords: metals, snow cover, soil cover, organism biosubstrates, threshold concentrations, regional reference values, neural network modeling
Article published in number 3 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-3-023-028
Views: 28

Agroecological justification for the use of complex micronutrient-enriched fertilizers in the cultivation of spring soft wheat

V.I. Lazarev, J.N. Minchenko, A.Ya. Bashkatov
Section: Agroecology
According to the studies conducted in 2017-2019, the use of complex micronutrient-enriched fertilizers such as Aquadon - Micro, MicroFeed Complex and Novofert on spring soft wheat crops on chernozem soils of the Kursk region has been proved to be highly effective and en-vironmentally desirable. Seed treatment with complex micronutrient-enriched fertilizers in combi-nation with two-time spraying of crops during the “Tillering” phase and the “Beginning of Erect Growth” phase has increased the yield of spring wheat by 0.57 - 0.75 ton / ha, or 14.7 - 19.4% , and the content of crude gluten in the grain by 1.8 - 2.0% compared with the control. The highest in-crease of economical indexes in cultivation of spring wheat has been achieved through the effective use of complex fertilizer Aquadon–Micro. Seed treatment (2.0 l / ton) and two–time spraying of crops during the “Tillering” phase (2.0 l / ha) and the “Beginning of Erect Growth” phase(2.0 l / ha) has increased the cost of gross output by 7500 rub / ha, the net income by 6,170.0 rub / ha and the profitability by 22.2%. It has also helped to reduce the cost price of 1 ton of grain by 626.86 rub. The economic efficiency of complex fertilizers Novofert and MicroFeed Complex applied in the same way has been proved to be slightly lower than the effectiveness of the Aquadon–Micro fertilizer: the cost of gross output has enhanced by 5700-5800 rub / ha, the net income by 4942– 4770 rub/ ha, the profitability by 18.9–17.9%. The cost price reduction of 1 ton of grain was approximately 541.62–513.93 rubles.
Keywords: micronutrient-enriched fertilizers, MicroFeed Complex, Aquadon–Micro, Novofert, spring soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), crop yield, crop capacity, gluten content, economic efficiency.
Article published in number 3 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-3-154-160
Views: 10

Optimization of field crop rotations as a factor of soil fertility preservation and greening of agriculture

L.M. Kozlova, E.N. Noskova, F.A. Popov
Section: Agroecology
One of the main conditions of ecological farming is the introduction of biologized field crop rotations. In a long-term stationary experiment (1982-2017) on the study of various types of field crop rotations in the conditions of the Kirov region, the biological activity of the soil (by the method of linen decomposition), soil toxicity (by the seedlings method), productivity of crop rotations were studied. It has been found that on sod-podzolic middle loamy soil the activity of cellulose-decomposing microorganisms depends on the weather conditions of the growing season, the type of crop rotation, the precursor, the presence of organic matter, the agro-physical properties of the soil. In specialized grain crop rotations, the activity of cellulose-decomposing microorganisms was significantly lower than in crop rotations with 50% saturation with leguminous crops, green-manure fallows, and application of organic fertilizers. Fiber degradation under legumes and tilled crops was evaluated on the D.G. Zvyagintsev scale as from "strong" to "very strong." Soil toxicity increased in grain crop rotations, exceeding 20%. Soil was not toxic (0-6%) in biologized crop rotations when applying organic fertilizers. The lowest percentage of non-grown seeds is observed in the soil of pure and green manure fallows. Crop rotation productivity depended on fertilizer systems and crop composition and aver-aged 3.96-5.69 thousand fodder units.
Keywords: crop rotation, rotation cropping system, biological activity, soil toxicity, organic fertilizers, agricultural crops
Article published in number 3 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-3-147-153
Views: 22

An influence of urbanization on the processes of biological invasions in Arctic (on example of Yamal Autonomous Region)

E.M. Koptseva, I.Yu. Popov, D.Yu. Vlasov, E.V. Pershina, E.E. Andronov, E.V. Abakumov
Section: Social ecology
Urbanized ecosystems of the Arctic environment are considered as the most important example of invasive species redistribution into inhabitats which are not typical for them. In this context, urbanized ecosystems has been investigated in terms of biological invasions and local natural communities transformation into antropogenic ones. It is shown, that transformation of the flora and micro fungi is caused mainly by transformation of hydro thermic regime under the changing of surface of soil cover, which is considered as frequent consequence of the urbanization (construction, mining). Urbanogenic floras are considered as relatively stable and competitive. Indexes of α- and β- biodiversity of microorganisms are very different in soils of technogenic and mature landscapes, which is caused by the presence of the invasive species. The diversity of microorganisms show tend to increase due to antropogenic and ornitogenic translocation, newly formed communities become comparatively stable and results in sanitary-hygienic risks, related to the pathogenesis. An intensification of the tourism, transport activity and increasing of urbanization results in intensive transformation of the local faunas. Urbanized territories increment and expansion results in extending of the area to margin terrestrial borders of Eurasia, this also has an effect in formation of the food chains and holistic changes in ecosystems.
Keywords: Arctic, invasions, flora, microorganisms, fauna
Article published in number 3 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-3-210-216
Views: 17

Checkout of methods for isolation and preparation of basidiomycete cultures for mycorrhization of soil

N.V. Bogacheva, N.V. Pozolotina, N.P. Savinykh, I.A. Konovalova
Section: Research methods. Models and projects
Cultivation of coniferous seedlings in artificial conditions is a promising direction for solving the problem of reforestation. One of the best agrotechnical methods for adapting plants to artificial conditions is mycorrhization of the soil. The formation of mycorrhiza, which is a symbiosis of the mycelium of the fungus and the roots of a higher plant, leads to an improvement in the physiological and biochemical state of plants, which contributes to their survival and growth. Objective of the work is working out methods of selection and preparation of culture of basidiomycetes for mycorrhization of soil. In the process of work, isolation and cultural-morphological assessment of mycelium from Tricholoma equestre, Lactarius rufus, Suillus bovinus basidiomycetes was performed . The homogenization regimes of the isolated fungal mycelium were worked out, which planned to cultivate the soil when growing seedlings of conifers in artificial conditions. The optimal mode was 8000 rpm for 2 min, which led to a significant increase in the content of viable mushroom mycelium in the suspension. The optimal range of content of mycelia suspensions of the studied fungi in beer wort for application to the soil was determined experimentally as 101 to 104 of viable propagules per 1 g of soil.
Keywords: allocation of the mycelium, mycorrhization of soil, seedlings of coniferous trees

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Article published in number 3 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-3-046-051
Views: 9

Monitoring of natural and natural-anthropogenic objects in the province of Vyatka-Kama Upland

M.G. Dvornikov, V.V. Shiryaev, V.G. Safonov, D.P. Strelnikov
Section: Monitoring of anthropogenically disturbed areas
The review summarizes the results of thirty years stationary studies of zonal natural and anthropogenically disturbed biogeocenoses (BGC) based on natural ecosystems and their components in the province of Vyatka-Kama Upland. The combination in the hierarchical series of natural, natural-anthropogenic and anthropogenic objects is the chorological basis of environmental monitoring. The analysis of the structure of regional ecosystems and the use of biological resources in changing climatic and anthropogenic conditions is carried out. Due to the identified parameters of the structural and functional organization of the BGC and their capacity, the trend for the conversion of taiga into mixed and rejuvenated forests has been established (in numerical values). The conversion process is accompanied by an increase in calcium to the south of the region and confirms changes in the biogeochemical cycle of the taiga type, which entails a decrease in the ability to restore and maintain the natural amount of water in the Kama basin and its aggregations and the climate as a whole. At the same time, the emergence, dynamic functioning of the BGC and the forecast for their development opens up attractive innovative and investment prospects for effective environmental management and development of the region.
Keywords: natural and anthropogenic objects, biological productivity, forecasting of ecological risks and safety
Article published in number 3 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-3-091-096
Views: 19

Ecological and toxicological assessment of bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil

I.A. Degtyareva, T.Yu. Motina, E.V. Babynin, A.M. Ezhkova, A.Ya. Davletshina
Section: Remediation and rehabilitation
The combined use of a consortium of microorganisms-destructors and sorbent in native and nanoscale form allows to ensure the rate of destruction of oil pollution at a higher level compared to the use of each component separately. Bentonite and nanobenthos not only adsorb hydrocarbons, and are a source of mineral nutrition for autochthonous microflora, improving the soil structure. Nanoantenna at least in 10 times the dose of making contributes to the efficiency of purification of polluted soil in comparison with bentonite in native form. Included in the consortium microorganisms-destructors (Achromobacter insolitus, Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Pseudomonas stutzeri) are actively integrated into the natural population, adapt and begin to effectively decompose hydrocarbons, using them as food and energy.
Keywords: soil, bioremediation, oil, microorganisms, sorbents
Article published in number 3 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-3-196-202
Views: 21

Lycopodiella inundata (L.) Holub (Lycopodiaceae) in the Komi Republic (Russian Federation)

L. V. Teteryuk, Yu. A. Bobrov, B. Yu. Teteryuk, T. I. Marchenko-Vagapova, Yu.V. Golubeva, V. A. Kanev, S. N. Plyusnin
Section: Population ecology
Lycopodiella inundata expands its areal on the European North-East of Russia. In the subzone of the middle taiga of the Komi Republic in 2017-2018, four local populations of this species were found, associated with anthropogenic ecotopes, poor and acidic sands, or peat, varying in moisture regime. Obligatory satellites of L. inundata in plant communities are Drosera rotundifolia L. and Juncus filiformis L., mosses of the genera Sphagnum L. and Polytrichum Hedw. Its local populations are small, beyond protection areas of the Komi Republic and so are endangered. The life-form of the Lycopodiella inundata sporophyte is a spore variance of perennial plant with annual shoot system. This species prefers vegetative multiplication through natural winter morphological disintegration. For determine the population in the beginning of shoots growth, ramets are recommended to be counted. The paleo-geographic analysis makes it possible to exclude the relic nature of the present locations of L. inundata in the European North and allows one to classify the species as an allochthonous element of the flora. In view of the fact that the species is rare and tends to decrease its habitats worldwide, we included L. inundata into new edition of the Red Data Book of the Komi Republic with protection status category 3 (Rare). All habitation places of the species are out of specially protected areas of the republic and so are threatened. Limiting factors for this stenotopic species in the Komi Republic are its narrow ecological amplitude, low competitiveness, instability to violations of the hydrological regime (bogging or draining) and overgrowth of biotopes due to natural succession processes.
Keywords: Lycopodiella inundata, North-East of the European part of Russia, the Komi Republic, flora, rare protected species

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Article published in number 3 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-3-111-118
Views: 13

Research and environmental assessment of complex yard compost

L.V. Boitsova, K.G. Moiseev, V.N. Pishchik, E.G. Zinchuk, Yu.V. Khomyakov
Section: Agroecology
The problem of environmentally safe disposal of a large amount of leaf litter generated every year in urban parks and squares is relevant. In this regard, the assessment of the toxicity of complex yard compost on the basis of leaf litter, as well as ground with addition of yard compost. In this paper, three types of substrates were studied: complex yard compost, soil-ground and native soil. Yard compost by 50% consisted of leaf litter. The soil-ground consisted of 40% of composting products of yard compost, 25% of soil-forming rock (sandy), 20% of greenhouse recoil, which included peat, 15% of building sand. The native soil (urban soil) was studied as a control. Soil toxicity control was carried out by chemical and biological methods (a bioindication, and a bioassay). The species diversity and abundance of the mesofauna in the studied substrates was studied. An increase in the number of representatives of Julida sp. and Geophilomorpha in complex compost, compared with native soil was found. The abundance of Eisenia fetida in the compost was 40 pieces per m2 in native soil; this species was not found. The number of Eiseniella tetraedra is not large and amounted to 7-12 pieces per m2 in compost, but exceeded their number in native soil by 3-4 times. Cucumis sativus, Solanum lycopersicum, Raphanus sativus, Lepidium sativum were selected as test objects. A phytotest was performed on seed germination of Raphanus sativus and Lepidium sativum. The species diversity of pathogenic fungi has been analyzed. The inhibition of seed germination in the studied substrates was noted. Chemical analysis showed that the concentration of Cd in the studied substrates exceeds approximately the permissible concentration by 7-10 times, Cu and Pb by 2-4 times. Hg was not found in these substrates. The studied complex compost is not recommended to grow vegetables without taking measures to reduce the overall toxicity. Compost and soil - ground on its basis can be used as a substrate for lawn and cultivation of ornamental crops.
Keywords: toxicity, complex compost, soil, bioindication, bioassay

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Article published in number 3 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-3-133-139
Views: 8

Ecological aspects of the immune system of reptiles

E.B. Romanova, E.I. Solomaykin
Section: Theoretical problems of ecology
We systematized the literature data on of reptile immune system and provided our own research on the immunohematological characteristics of venomous and non-venomous snakes at that review. The reptiles’ lymphomyeloid complex is characterized by heterogeneity. The protection against to a wide range of habitat antigens is provided by two forms of immune response: innate and adaptive immunity. The innate immunity in comparison with adaptive responses responds more quickly and effectively. Protection against infections is represented by antimicrobial peptides, the complement system, a set of nonspecific leukocytes, and the formation of an inflammatory reaction, with a set of cytokine-like components. The mechanisms of adaptive immunity are cellular and humoral factors actions. The reptiles have is a weakened reaction of transplant rejection. Humoral immune responses are carried out by B-lymphocytes. Reptiles have immunoglobulins, which structure and whom functions are discussed in that paper. The switching features of intracellular synthesis of immunoglobulins from one isotype to another. It was shown that the immune protection strategy is determined not only by the ontogenetic features of reptiles, but also by the input, size, and duration of exposure to antigens, by the range of external temperatures, by seasonality. The patterns of the immune response of venomous and non-venomous snakes to a complex of environmental factors were revealed. For the first time an immunohematological approach has been used to assess the status of the population of Elaphe dione in nature reserve. Biotopic and interspecific variability was found in the mechanisms of formation of the adaptive response at the population level.
Keywords: reptiles, immune system, innate immunity, adaptive immunity, immunohematological approach
Article published in number 3 for 2020
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-3-015-022
Views: 5

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