ISSN 1995-4301

ISSN 2618-8406

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The change in soil actinobiote under the influence of Heracleum sosnowskyi invasion

E. V. Tovstik, I. G. Shirokikh, E. S. Solovеva, A. A. Shirokikh, T. Ya. Ashikhmina, V. P. Savinykh
Section: Population ecology
Certain plant species, as well as phytocenosis, can significantly influence the structure and diversity of soil microbiocenosis. Actinomycetes are an integral component of a soil microbiocenosis that carries out important environmental functions, inter alia, with the transformation of organic matter. This study was carried out to reveal differences in the structure of soil actinomycetes complexes between sites overgrown with the Heracleum Sosnowskyi Manden and non-invasive (control) plots. An increase in genus and species diversity of actinomycetes in invaded soils was noted, compared with control, in particular, the representatives of the genus Streptosporangium were found exclusively on hogweed-occupied plots. The appearance of Streptosporangium in the structure of soils actinomycete complexes under hogweed may indicate that hogweed root exudates contain compounds attractive for this mycelial prokaryotes genus. On the same plots, an increase in the proportion of colored streptomycetes representing the section and series of Cinereus Chromogenes was noted, whereas in the control soils streptomycetin complex, the non-producing pigments were dominated by representatives of the section and series of Cinereus Achromogenes. In the areas of mass growth of Heracleum Sosnowskyi, in comparison with the control plots, a lower carbon content in the soil was noted, which, in addition to the changes in the structure of actinomycete complexes, confirms the fact of intensive organic matter mineralization in soils under the hogweed. Despite the considerable above-ground biomass, at the end of vegetation the removal of nutrients is not replenished by the hogweed plant litter.
Keywords: Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden., soil, invasion, actinomycetes, total number, species diversity, structure of the complex
Article published in number 4 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-4-105-109
Views: 15

Preliminary data about algae and cyanobacteria of volcanic soils on Kuril islands

K. V. Ilchibaeva, D. F. Kunsbaeva, R. Z. Allaguvatova, A. I. Fazlutdinova, O. V. Polokhin, L. A. Sibirina, A. A. Gontcharov, P. Singh, L. A. Gaysina
Section: Population ecology
Fifty-five species from five phyla (Cyanobacteria – 8, Chlorophyta – 29 (Chlorophyceae – 14, Trebouxiophyaceae – 11), Bacillariophyta – 19, Streptophyta – 1, Ochrophyta – 2 (Xanthophyceae – 1, Eustigmatophyceae – 1)) were revealed during the study on biodiversity of cyanobacteria and algae from terrestrial habitats of Urup, Paramushir, Iturup, and Simushir (Kuril Islands). Algal flora of Iturup Islands was the most divers with 25 species, 23 species were found on Urup, 17 on Simushir, and 14 on Paramushir Islands. Number of species per sample decreased from Urup (3.6) to Simushir (2.1), Paramushir (2.0) and Iturup (1.9). Five species, cf. Mychonastes homosphaera, Chlorella vulgaris, Dic� tyococcus varians, Bracteacoccus minor, and Desmodesmus abundans were encountered on each of the island. In the same time species composition of cyanobacteria and algae on each island was specific and reflected ecological peculiarities of the habitats. The most notable feature of algal and cyanobacterial flora of studied islands was prevalence of cosmopolitan species tolerant to toxic volcanic substrates. Besides, this territory was characterized by high diversity of amphibian diatom algae. For understanding biodiversity of terrestrial algae and cyanobacteria of Kuril islands further moleculargenetic research are necessary.
Keywords: Kuril-Kamchatka Trench, volcanic soils, eruption, resistance, spatial-ecological patterns, cf. Mychonastes homosphaera, Chlorella vulgaris, amphibian diatom algae

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Article published in number 4 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-4-110-017
Views: 22

The partial replacement of antibiotics with biologically active substances at treatment of cows’ mastitis

M. A. Aziamov
Section: Social ecology
The World Health Organization (WHO) is informing about the antibiotic resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus increasing problem. These bacteria are changing their genomic composition under the influence of antibiotics and are rapidly spreading in the environment, threatening human health and food security in a number of countries. WHO requires reducing the use of antibiotics in cows’ mastitis by 50%. Staphylococcus aureus is the prevailing kind of cows’ mastitis pathogen in Western Europe and Russia. The staphylococcal mastitis caused by multiresistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus is registered in almost 90% of large farms and complexes where antibiotics are used. The possibility of partial replacement of antibiotics with biologically active substances at treatment of clinical mastitis in cows was evaluated. It is established that Interferon bovine recombinant, Polysaccharide of Hericium erinaceus fungus (PS of H. еrinaceus) and Dialderon after 10 days of treatment of clinical mastitis in cows increased the amount of cured individuals, respectively, by 30, 20 and 20% in comparison with antibiotic therapy. Biologically active substances normalized the number of somatic cells in milk to physiological level. The studied substances reduced the levels of interleukin-2 (Il-2) and interleukin-8 (Il-8), prostaglandins E2, normalized erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and phagocytic activity in the blood of experimental animals. The somatic cells number in the milk of experimental groups cows are decreased to physiological norm after 10 days of treatment. Milk after treatment of cows was fit for food consumption 72 hours earlier than with antibiotic therapy.
Keywords: antibiotic therapy, Dialderon, Interferon recombinant, clinical mastitis, Polysaccharid of Hericium erinaceus fungus
Article published in number 4 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-4-118-125
Views: 9

Assessment of titanium dioxide nanoparticle effects on living organisms

V. I. Polonskiy, A. A. Asanova
Section: Theoretical problems of ecology
Nanoparticles causing an unprecedented type of industrial pollution directly affect on all objects of the environment and therefore on all types of living organisms. So, these risks have to be evaluated. This review analyzes the world literature about effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on living organisms of various habitats. Currently, ecotoxicity issues of engineered nanoparticles are studied using bioassays with cell cultures and test organisms. The most commonly used test objects for toxicity assessment of nanoparticles are unicellular algae, water crustaceans, plants, mammalian and human cells. It has been established that the most sensitive organisms to titanium dioxide nanoparticles are unicellular algae and water crustaceans, EC 50 values were observed at a concentration of 1 mg/L. This suggests that aquatic ecosystem is one of the most vulnerable objects of the environment to nanoparticles. The high sensitivity of these organisms places them on a par with very promising biotest assays for quality monitoring of the environment which is contaminated with silver nanoparticles. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles have both positive and negative or neutral effects upon plants and these effects depend on concentration. The assays with mammalian and human cells show a negative effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles at concentration above 100 mg/L or have no effect at all. The size-depended toxicity analyses revealed that the less nanoparticles size was the greater toxic effect was. In the final analysis, the responses of living organisms of various habitats to the presence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in the environment are insufficiently investigated. There is insufficient data in world literature about size-dependent toxicity of these nanoparticles to various organisms. These issues require further study.
Keywords: titanium dioxide nanoparticles, biotest, plants, algae, crustaceans, cells, size-dependent toxicity of nanoparticles
Article published in number 3 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-3-005-011
Views: 44

Comparative analysis of the effectiveness of the use of sorbents of different nature with respect to copper(II) ions

S. G. Skugoreva, G. Ya. Kantor, L. I. Domracheva, T. I. Kutyavina
Section: Research methods. Models and projects
A comparative analysis of the efficiency of sorbents of various types (activated carbon, zeolite, peat, fungi Fusarium culmorum , cyanobacteria Nostoc paludosum K ü tz, grass Hordeum distichum L.) with respect to copper(II) ions was car - ried out. Potentiometric method for measuring the potential of an ion-selective electrode sensitive to concentration of copper(II) ions in the solution was used. The sorption curves were recorded in real time with the help of specially devel - oped original software for the ionomer. To describe the kinetics of sorption, mathematical models (pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models, second-order modified model, and Elovich’s model) were used to identify the contribution of the chemical stage to the sorption process. It was found that the sorption process of most sorbents is well described by a pseudo-second order model or a modi - fied pseudo-second order, according to which the sorbate and the sorbent functional group interact with each other at a 1:1 ratio. The parameters of the equation of the pseudo-second-order model are calculated: the kinetic coefficient ( k 2 ) determining the sorption rate, and the equilibrium (limiting) specific mass of the sorbate ( a e ), which corresponds to the sorption capacity of the sorbent. Series of sorbents have been ranked by decreasing the rate of sorption and sorption capacity. The comparison of the kinetic curves shows that sorbents of inorganic nature, zeolite and activated carbon have the least sorption effectiveness. The sorption potential of microorganisms and peat can be characterized as average. The most effective sorbents of heavy metal ions were samples of barley plants, which possessed the highest sorption rate and high sorption capacity. The use of microbial-plant associations as sorbents of heavy metals may be promising. It is necessary to select microorganisms and plants to create various associations for study the kinetics of sorption with the aim of optimizing sorption effectiveness.
Keywords: copper ions (II), sorption, sorption rate, sorption capacity, pseudo-second order model, activated carbon, zeolite, peat, Fusarium culmorum, Nostoc paludosum , Hordeum distichum

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Article published in number 3 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-3-012-018
Views: 39

Modern trends in the development of bioassay methodologyof aquatic environments

A. S. Olkova
Section: Research methods. Models and projects
Bioassay is now an integral part of the “Effect-directed analysis” (EDA). We analyzed current research in the field of biodiagnostics and environmental monitoring programs, which used bioassay methods. The modern bioassay methodol - ogy is developing in the following areas: the development and implementation of new bioassay methods, the development of special bioassay devices, the detection of new informative test-functions based on the accounting of sublethal effects in laboratory organisms, the evaluation and interpretation of the results of toxicological analysis of environmental components. We propose three directions for evaluation and optimizing bioassay approaches and methods. First, we propose an algorithm for selecting protocols of bioassay. This algorithm is based on the ranking of sensitivity of bioassay methods to the most important pollutants in the territory of research. This approach will allow using only the most informative and sensitive bioassay protocols in the further researches. The second direction in optimization of bioassay methods is strict standardiza - tion of maintenance conditions of test-organisms. We recommend verification of the influence of abiotic and biotic factors on the test culture during the entire life cycle of individuals of a biological species. Life expectancy and ability of individuals to reproduce are universal criteria of health for many animals. The third part of our work is the development of a system of test-functions for laboratory animals consistently evaluated during a toxicological experiment. This approach allows tak - ing into account the different effects (lethal, sublethal, chronic and delayed) in the process of testing various substances or aquatic environments. We tested this system of bioassay using Daphnia magna . The system of test-functions includes 14 response effects, which we took into account in three generations of crustaceans. The earliest responses of D. magna are estimated from changes in motor activity and trophic activity of crustaceans. Delayed effects are diagnosed by changes in fertility in the F 2 and F 3 generations, as well as the emergence of abortive eggs. Implementation of the proposed directions of bioassay optimization will allow taking into account the multiplicity of obtaining objective results of ecotoxicological analyses. Researchers can consistently use three parts of evaluation and optimizing of bioassay approaches at the planning stage of enviro
Keywords: bioassay, bioassay methodology, methods of bioassay, test-function, laboratory test-organism
Article published in number 3 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-3-019-026
Views: 25

Reducing the environmental threat of motor vehiclesby converting engines for operating on natural gas

V. Romanyuk, V. A. Likhanov, O. P. Lopatin
Section: Research methods. Models and projects
The article explains the necessity of using natural gas (NG) for motor vehicle diesel engines, which makes it possible to reduce their environmental threat and to save motor oil fuel. The composition of the NG used and its physic-chemical properties are presented in the article. In order to determine and to optimize the amount of the NG supplied for motor diesel engines, the authors of the article have tested them on the electro-brake testing bench SAK-N670, which has a balanced pendulum and the weighing machine “Rapido”. At the same time, the toxicity level of the exhaust gases (EG) was determined using an automatic gas analysis system “ASGA-T”, and the smoke intensity of the exhaust gas was estimated using an optical-electric reflectometer “Bosch EFAW-68A”. It has been experimentally established that for the NG using in the tested motor vehicles diesel engines, it is necessary to maintain the following ratio of components: gas should be 80%, diesel fuel filling should be 20%. When converting diesel engine 4F 11.0/2.5 installed on trucks and tractors of urban public utilities to NG, and while the simultaneous use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in it at a rate of 20% (EGR is applied to eliminate the increased nitrogen oxides as a result of using NG), the content of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) in EG is reduced by 30.0–30.1%, carbon soot is reduced by 82.0–88.7%; carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is decreased by 31.6–35.6%. When converting a diesel engine 4FC 11.0/12.5 installed on city passenger buses to NG, in the EG a decrease in NO x content by 5.5–35.1% occurs; carbon soot decreases by 88.2–92.0%; carbon monoxide (CO) decreases by up to 21.6%. The conversion of these motor diesel engines to work on NG, in addition to improving the environmental performance of their EG indicators, also helps to save oil motor fuel in the amount of 80%.
Keywords: natural gas, exhaust gases, diesel, ecology of city

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Article published in number 3 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-3-027-032
Views: 29

Military activity influence on some metals content in the Saur-Mogila soil, Donbas

A. S. Alemasova, Y. I. Penkova, A. S. Pivovarova, R. V. Ostapenko
Section: Monitoring of anthropogenically disturbed areas
Soil samples were collected from funnels after artillery shelling (summer 2014) on burial mound Saur-Mogila (Donbas, Ukraine) as well as from urban garden soil near motorway in the Donetsk central district in order to determine the concentration of 11 toxic metals total content, acid-soluble forms and mobile forms. The concentrations of toxic met - als Cd, Pb, Sr, Mo, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Ga, Mn, Tl were compared with maximum permitted concentration and background level. The results quality was controlled by standard addition method. The mean concentrations of Cd (2 samples) and Co (one sample) exceeded the guidelines while the other metals did not exceed. The level of Zn, Cu, Mn, Pb, Ni, Cd total and mobile forms in funnels soils was 2–7 times lower than in polluted urban garden soil. The sources of toxic metals in Donetsk garden soil may be from traffic and industrial emission. The total pollution index (Z c ) is much lower than the “permissible” category. The index of metals mobility (S n ) indicates their insignificant mobility with the exception of lead acid-soluble forms. The obtained results testify to the need for further systematic monitoring of the soils of battlefield in Donbas. These results refuted the hypothesis as for soil toxic metals content influence on observable state of vegetation in “Donetskiy Kryazh” landscape park near Saur-Mogila burial mound.
Keywords: toxic metals, total content, mobile forms, soils, funnels from artillery shelling, urban lawn soil
Article published in number 3 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-3-033-039
Views: 23

Comparative analysis of artesian water quality

T. N. Ashurbekova, N. G. Isaeva, A. N. Murzaeva, E. M. Musinova, Z. G. Gadzhimusaeva, R. А. Abduragimov
Section: Monitoring of anthropogenically disturbed areas
Water quality is an essential part of a human life. The availability of high-quality drinking water is one of the main issues in Russia. One of the most important directions of economic and social development of the Chechen Republic is to provide the population with clean drinking water. The paper presents the results of research of drinking water quality in artesian wells in the Chechen Republic. Artesian well water in stanitsa of Chervlyonnaya in Shelkovskoy District, stanitsa of Naurskaya in Naursky District and stanitsa of Petropavlovskaya in Groznensky District of the Chechen Republic contains heavy metals, such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and arsenic (As). The presence of heavy metals in the above-mentioned artesian wells can be attributed to the geological structure of the territory of the Chechen Republic situated on the rocks of Jurassic and Paleogene age. As confirmed by measurements, samples of water were found to have cadmium levels above the maximum permissible concentration (water taken from wells in stanitsa of Chervlyonnaya – 5 times, stanitsa of Naurskaya – 7 times and stanitsa of Petropavlovskaya – 9 times). The content of lead in all the samples exceeded the MPC by 4–5 times. The samples also contained arsenic at levels that exceeded the maximum permissible concentration by 4.8 times in stanitsa of Chervlyonnaya, by 1.5 times in stanitsa of Naurskaya and by 6.2 times in stanitsa of Petropavlovskaya. Arsenic, lead and cadmium are toxic elements and long-term exposure to them is known to cause cancer. Multi-year studies of public health in the Chechen Republic show increase of cancer rates among the population.
Keywords: artesian water, heavy metals, lead, cadmium, arsenic, maximum permissible concentration, oncologic diseases
Article published in number 3 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-3-040-047
Views: 33

Development of plankton communities in the anthropogenic hydrothermal conditions

N. A. Tashlykova, E. Yu. Afonina
Section: Monitoring of anthropogenically disturbed areas
An electric power plant induced increase in water temperature substantially affects aqueous medium. Any hydraulic facility zones to be artificially heated and used by power plants may be considered as peculiar “anthropogenic hydrothermal systems”. Interrelation properties of specific abiotic and biotic parameters of such extreme ecosystems shall be studied at large for understanding hydraulic facility ecosystem biological efficiency and trophic status alteration factors. This paper applies to analysis of relations between hydrothermal zone environment factors and basic characteristics of the plankton population in the Kharanorskaya State District Power Station (Trans-Baikal Territory) cooling reservoir. The population of planktonic animals and plants were studied at a thermal zone of the cooling reservoir by using standard hydrobiologic methods for the period of February to October, 2013. Hydrochemical samples were processed at the industrial sanitary laboratory of INTER RAO-Electroenergy JSC, Kharanorskaya SDPS branch using common techniques. It was found that phytoplankton contained 40 taxonomic groups of algae and 25 invertebrate species of animal plankton. Chlorophyta, Bacillariophyta and Crysophyta dominated in algocenosis amounted to 80% of the total taxonomic groups. As for Rotifera, it dominated in animal plankton cenosis amounted to 40% of the total species. It is demonstrated that the dominated complex varies seasonally. Quantity of phytoplankton and animal plankton has been specified. The algal species diversity has drastically reduced and quality of inver - tebrate animals has fallen down within the period when water was maximally warmed up since temperature values jumped up and oxygen content come down. With some aquatic organisms (i.e. algae and invertebrate animals) taken as an example, it was found that the offset and extension of organism growth periods induce a primary reaction to particular thermal load increase factors. Inverse temperature correlation was identified at surface and natural water layers to have specific abiotic parameters in relation to clear water and nitrate levels in water. As provided by biotic plankton sampling statistical data, it was found that temperature, cation and anion water composition, as well as suspended solid concentration are the main factors that affect growth of organisms in the anthropogenic water reservoir of the hydraulic facilities.
Keywords: phytoplankton, zooplankton, abundance, biomass, anthropogenic hydrothermal, principal component analysis, cooling reservoir of Kharanorskaya electric power station

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Article published in number 3 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-3-048-054
Views: 19

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