Microelemental composition of fluvioglacial sands as a factor of increased phytodiversity in the polissya landscapes
O.V. Shopina, N.G. Kadetov, I.N. Semenkov
Section: Chemistry of natural environments and objects
To determine the reasons for the presence of area with increased phytodiversity and resistance to fires within the Kerzhensky Reserve, in 2017, field works were carried out to analyse the characteristics of the flora and soils. Within the study area (less than 4.7 km2) 169 species of vascular plants (26% of the whole reserve flora and 69% of the species found in places burnt in 2010) were found including rare species for Zavolzhie: Cephalanthera rubra (L.) Rich., Gymnadenia conopsea (L.) R. Br., Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz, Kadenia dubia (Schkuhr) Lavrova et V. Tichomirov, Equisetum hyemale L., Trifolium montanum L. et al. In the study area, the share of eutrophs and xerophytes is 10 and 5% more than in the burnt area. The share of hygrophytes is 10% less. The high levels of phytodiversity and resistance to fires allow us to consider the surveyed (studied) area as a refuge in the period of fires and a source of subsequent spreading of species. The podzols of the studied site (13 cross-sections) are characterized by standard pH values, particle size and humus distribution, with the 1.5 to 2 times elevated content of microelements. According to the content in the A-horizon (n=13), microelements form a range: Zn (90–118 mg/kg)> Sr (82-101)> Ni (45). On the biogeochemical barrier in the A-horizon, Mn, Fe, Mg, As, Ca, P, Ti, Al, and K accumulate. In subordinate landscapes, Fe, Mn, Al, K, and As accumulate; Co and Cu dissipate. The content of Ca, K, Mg, P, Si, and Ti is similar in autonomous and subordinate landscapes. The high content of microelements results in the increased phytodiversity of the study area.
Article published in number 1 for 2021 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-1-154-158
Correction of adaptive reactions of the cardiovascular system using the ecdysteroid-containing remedy Adasten during intensive physical work in the North
V.V. Volodin, V.I. Vetosheva, S.O. Volodina
Section: Social ecology
The efficiency of the cardiorespiratory system of men performing intensive physical work in the North, was evaluated by Bicycle ergometric test before and after phytopharmacological support using Adasten adaptogen. Adasten activated the adrenal cortex (cortisol increase), and sympatho-adrenal system (growth of Kerdo vegetative index). Besides, the pulse slowed down and heart rate decreased, the time of its recovery after the load was reduced. Systolic, pulse and pressure rise increased in time. The relationship between heart rate and pressure to load was revealed only in individuals up to 30 years after phyto-support. Cardiac output and minute blood volume before and after 100 watts load increased and at a load of 200 watts in individuals up to 30 years decreased. In more qualified men over 30 years of age, cardiac output increased not only at a load of 100, but also 175 watts. Minute blood volume increases to a greater extent than cardiac output before and after phyto-support in both groups of men before load. At a load of 100 watts, the increase in cardiac output exceeded that of minute blood volume, increased hemodynamics was carried out by increasing the blood volume release at systole with a decrease in heart rate after phytopharmacological support. At a load of 175 watts, cardiac output is maintained, and minute blood volume tends to decrease, becoming reliable at a load of 200 watts. That is, the strengthening of hemodynamics takes place mainly by increasing the blood volume at systole, which is energetically more beneficial to the organism. The maximum oxygen consumption increased against the background of phytopharmacological support for the load in persons under 30 years; in the older age group there was only a growth trend.
The facts obtained suggest that phytopharmacological support synchronizes the activity of the cardiorespiratory system, physical efficiency becomes more effective, especially in the group of younger men. Dietary Supplement Adasten allows to activate and regulate natural-determined protective mechanisms of the human organism, performing intensive physical work without causing a negative aftereffect.
Article published in number 1 for 2021 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-1-227-234
Cartographic modeling of the Russian steppe-zone urban landscapes with the use of neural networks
S.A. Dubrovskaya, R.V. Ryakhov
Section: Methodology and research methods. Models and forecasts
Based on the method of automated classification of artificial neural networks, an urban-ecological landscape cartographic model of Volgograd was constructed, using geomorphometric data to identify spatially homogeneous sections of the urban-geographic system landscape structures. The neural network approach and data of ecological-functional zoning allow us to carry out the spatial differentiation of urban ecosystems and to obtain reliable information that is necessary to improve the ecological situation of urban space. As a result of the application of the Self Organizing Map learning algorithm and the created digital model, a cartographic model of urban landscapes was compiled, which is a reflection of the geographic environment and the processes of development of technogenic impacts on the state of the natural-anthropogenic complex. In the classification by the method of artificial neural networks, based on vertical differentiation, the features of horizontal geomorphometric indicators information is included. For the first time, the integration of selected genetic types of relief with the modern functional purpose of the zones of the studied urban ecosystem was carried out. The accumulative relief type of Volgograd is identified by the neural network algorithm as a single continual polygon, characterized by a fairly uniform orientation of the slopes. The above-terrace complex is represented by the Khvalynsk abrasive and accumulative terraces, identified by a neural network by morphometric parameters. The water partite geoecological area is presented by gully slopes and near watershed slopes. To classify the slope type of terrain, maps of the exposures along the lines of local watersheds are applied.
Article published in number 1 for 2021 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-1-053-057
Waste disposal in the Udmurt Republic: analysis of the raw material base and current trends
O.P. Druzhakina, I.L. Bukharina, A.G. Kovalchuk
Section: Problems of environmental protection
An analytical study of statistical data on the types and volumes of waste generated in the Udmurt Republic was carried out. The trends and directions of the formation of the industry for waste management in the Republic are shown, taking into account the current regulatory framework and indicators of resource saving wastes generated in the region are considered from the point of view of the raw material base of the secondary raw materials market. The prospects for the development of the processing industry, minimization of environmental damage are shown. Proposals have been developed for the types of waste that are promising in the implementation of technologies and methods of recycling. The problems of separate waste collection in educational institutions are touched upon.
Keywords: waste disposal, separate waste collection, secondary raw materials, waste accumulation, solid household waste
Article published in number 4 for 2020 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-4-123-128
A new approach to developing a remediation plan for soil contaminated with industrial waste
M.A. Shumilova, V.G. Petrov
Section: Remediation and rehabilitation
After what happened in August 2018 the spill of caustic industrial waste on the agricultural lands of the Alnash district of Udmurtia, we were tasked with the prompt remediation of the affected farmland. A group of environmental and resource-saving technologies carried out regular sampling of four soil samples, including the control one from a conditionally clean soil, before the start of work and after technological measures for a long period.
Analysis of the water extract of contaminated soil samples a month after the spill showed a high acidity of the waste: pH = 1.546 ÷ 2.186. The content of nitrates in the soil was determined by a photometric method; however, the acid trapped in the soil oxidized the iron(II) ions to iron(III); therefore, the formation of its complex of bright purple color makes further determination of nitrates problematic. The addition of a 5% sodium carbonate solution to the original soil filtrate at a ratio of 2: 1 caused the formation of a precipitate of iron(III) hydroxide, which was filtered off and then worked according to the procedure. According to the experimental data, nitrates in the contaminated soil did not exceed the values of the background sample.
The quantitative determination of chloride ions in the soil was carried out by argentometric method, preliminarily precipitating iron(III) with a sodium carbonate solution. The excess of the chloride content in the contaminated soil compared to the background was from 113 to 213 times. A method for remediation of contaminated soil was developed at the experimental stand. Carrying out the proposed measures made it possible to reduce the amount of pollutants in the affected soil to background values.
To exclude the ingress of hazardous industrial waste into the environment it is required to create specialized enterprises for their neutralization and disposal.
The joint in the time and in the space biological and reagent treatment processes act as the modern innovative proposals in water treatment and sewerage technologies in order to increase the efficiency of removing various water impurities and improve the physiological characteristics, biochemical and operational properties of microorganisms-destructors of pollutants. Moreover, it is relevant to assess the effect of reagent which is introduced into the microbial community of the activated sludge. One of the promising directions of development for joint biological and reagent wastewater treatment is the design of innovative reagent preparations based on nanostructured metals, in particular iron. This work presents the results of obtaining of iron nanoparticles, experimental determination of the dosage for iron nanoparticles in wastewater treatment system. Comparative analysis has been performed to assess how the iron-based nanostructured reagents used in the processes of biological wastewater treatment remove phosphorus compounds. In addition, the efficiency of the treatment processes was evaluated by the extent to which the concentrations of organic substances, nitrogen compounds, phosphorus were changed, as well as by the enzymatic activity of the activated sludge microbial community. The results of experimental studies have shown that the using of nanostructured reagents improves the most important technological parameter of the process - sedimentation of the activated sludge. The results indicate the increase in the wastewater treatment efficiency in all samples with iron-containing reagents. The analysis of the microbial community state on the activated sludge enzymatic activity has shown that the inhibition of microbial activity was not observed when applying the reagents based on nanostructured iron.
Keywords: active sludge, wastewater, biological treatment, reagents, iron nanoparticles, dephosphorization, sedimentation
Purpose. Dumping and preserving spent pickling solutions on the territory of enterprises leads to environmental pollution, requires significant costs for their neutralization at the enterprise and at treatment facilities at the production sites. The purpose of the article is to present the results of research and tests carried out to create environmentally friendly equipment.
Methodology. In this work, individual processes of regeneration of copper-ammonia pickling solutions with the production of dense copper precipitates, the release of which sharply reduce the formation and storage of waste in the form of sludge on the territory of enterprises, are studied.
Results. It is noted that the chemical correction of pickling solutions leads to the formation of a significant amount of wastewater, which contains heavy metals, which negatively affect soils, groundwater, flora and humans, as the top of the food chain. The creation of equipment for the recovery of used solutions with the release of metal in a form suitable for remelting is becoming an important element in saving the environment.
Scientific novelty. The research carried out made it possible to create promising equipment on their basis. The diagram of the etching line with the withdrawal of the used etching solution for regeneration to restore operating parameters is presented. The research-based etching line for printed circuit boards provides for the reuse of rinsing waters in the technological process to replenish the withdrawn pickling solution or after their recovery and use for rinsing the printed circuit boards. For the regeneration of a copper-alkaline solution based on CuCl2, a continuous-operation unit was proposed using a stainless steel or titanium cathode 3 mm thick and a graphite anode 30 mm thick.
Practical significance. The use of a dense precipitation copper recovery process facilitates metal removal by simple mechanical operations and avoids the complex design for recovering copper in the form of metal powders. Separate dimensions of structural elements are given to ensure the operation of the regenerator of the used pickling solution.
Keywords: regeneration, sludge, pickling solution, titanium, cathode, wash water
Article published in number 4 for 2020 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-4-086-092
Prospects for sonochemical treatment of wastewater containing synthetic surfactants
R.K. Zakirov, F.Y. Akhmadullina, E.S. Balymova
Section: Ecologization of industry
Experimental studies have been carried out to study the effect of low-frequency ultrasound on the destruction of nonionic synthetic surfactants, which have different molecular weights. Model solutions of two nonionic surfactants: polyethylene oxide and oxanol were chosen as the objects of study. The studies were carried out in order to confirm the prospects of using low-frequency ultrasound in the process of local treatment of wastewater, containing nonionic synthetic surfactants. The level of disintegration of polyethylene oxide and oxanol was evaluated by two methods in a comparative aspect: viscometry and photocolorimetry. A similar nature of the dependences of the destruction efficiency of nonionic surfactants, obtained on the basis of photocolorimetric and viscometric measurements, was revealed. The possibility of using the viscometric method for express determination of the most effective mode of ultrasonic exposure has been confirmed.
A more significant effect of the intensity of ultrasonic action on the degree of decomposition of nonionic surfactants was found in comparison with the duration of ultrasonic treatment. The possibility of manifestation of surface-active properties in the decay products of the studied pollutants is shown. Prospective modes of ultrasonic treatment of industrial effluents are proposed. As a result of the research, the most promising from the point of view of economics and purification efficiency was established mode of preliminary ultrasonic treatment of industrial effluents: intensity - 6 W / cm², duration - 1 min. This mode provides a sufficiently high efficiency of decomposition of nonionic surfactants. At significant initial concentrations of nonionic surfactants in wastewater (above 50 mg / dm³), it is recommended to increase the intensity of ultrasonic action.
Article published in number 4 for 2020 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-4-111-116
Adsorption purification of phenol-containing wastewater from oil refineries
L.A. Nikolaeva, N.E. Aikenova
Section: Problems of environmental protection
In this paper, the possibility of adsorptive purification of industrial wastewater from oil refineries from phenols by industrial wastes is considered. It is proposed to use carbonate sludge for water treatment of natural water as one of the most accessible materials, which is a large-tonnage waste of energy, for sewage treatment. A flowchart for the purification of wastewater from phenols is proposed, the calculation of the adsorption filter with the loading of carbonate sludge in the scheme for the purification of wastewater from phenols is performed.
Keywords: adsorption, adsorbent, carbonate sludge, wastewater, phenols, wastewater after treatment
Article published in number 4 for 2020 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-4-136-142
Gas-air emissions from glass container production as a risk factor for public health
T.А. Trifonova, A.А. Martsev, O.G. Selivanov
Section: Problems of environmental protection
Therefore, the purpose of this work was to assess the impact of environmental pollution on the health of the city, which operates a modern enterprise for the production of glass products. The paper uses the statistical data of the official services of the region in the Gorokhovetsky district of the Vladimir region, as well as the data of their own research. Determination of heavy metals in the soil was performed by x-ray fluorescence method on the spectrometer "SPECTROSCAN MAX-G". Determination of anion content in soils was carried out using water extracts of soil samples by capillary electrophoresis on the device "Drops-104". Statistically significant positive correlation coefficients between population morbidity and emission dynamics from stationary sources were obtained. Data on the content of heavy metals (HM) and anions in different parts of Gorokhovets were obtained. It is established that the main stationary source of environmental pollution is a glass plant, by-products of which are primarily nitrogen oxides. Statistically significant correlation between the dynamics of emissions of pollutants from stationary sources and a number of classes of diseases, as well as the excess of nitrates in the soil of the city, in comparison with the control, suggests a possible dependence of the development of pathological processes in the population from the receipt of nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere. The solution to the problem of reducing harmful emissions of glass container production can be innovative changes in the technology of glass cooking and furnace design, the use of new devices for burning organic fuel, the transition to cooking using electricity, which practically eliminates the entry of harmful volatile pollutants into the atmosphere.
Keywords: glass production, heavy metals, nitric oxide, morbidity
Article published in number 4 for 2020 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-4-155-161