ISSN 1995-4301

ISSN 2618-8406

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3 issue of the journal in 2023

2 issue of the journal in 2023

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Elimination of fecal indicator bacteria in soils at repeated irrigation with livestock waste

О.E. Chezlova, А.A. Volchak
Section: Social ecology
To determine the survival time of fecal indicator bacteria (coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli and enterococci) in soils, a field experiment was conducted on sod-podzolic gley soil on cohesive sand when disposing of wastewater from livestock farms. During the field season, wastewater was introduced three times by the norms of 90, 180 and 270 m3 / ha. By the end of the vegetation period, the content of coliform bacteria in the soil using the norms of 180 and 270 m3 / ha is 2.17x102 and 2.16x102 CFU / g, respectively; the number of enterococci is 3.94x102 CFU / g and 2.17x102 CFU / g, respectively. To describe the dynamics of the number of microorganisms, a first order approximation was used. During the first irrigation with wastewater, the highest withering rate was observed in E. coli: the extinction constant k was in the range from 0.129 to 0.253 day -1, and the time of a 10-fold reduction in numbers from 17.9 to 10.4 days with irrigation rates of 90 and 180 m3 / ha, respectively. For enterococci, the parameter k ranged from 0.092 to 0.149 day -1, and the time of 90% elimination ranged from 25.1 to 15.4 days with irrigation rates of 90 and 270 m3 / ha, respectively. For coliform bacteria with a watering rate of 90 m3 / ha, k = 0.131 day-1, and the time of 90% elimination is 17.6 days. By the third irrigation with wastewater, the rate of elimination of E. coli, enterococci and coliform bacteria decreased - the constant k decreased by an average of 4.45, 3.79 and 2.12 times, respectively. For an adequate description of the dynamics of indicator bacteria in soils, it is necessary to take into account climatic, soil factors, the amount of wastewater, etc.
Keywords: sanitary-indicative bacteria, sewage irrigation, soil quality, models

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Article published in number 2 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-2-236-242
Views: 9

Ecological condition of the coast of the Maloe More strait and its influence on pollution of Lake Baikal

I.A. Belozertseva, I.B. Vorobyeva, N.V. Vlasova, D.N. Lopatina, M.S. Yanchuk
Section: Monitoring of natural and anthropogenically disturbed areas
In the winter-spring, in the summer and fall of 2016-2018 complex physiographic researches in east Priolkhonye with sampling of snow, soils and a surface water are conducted. Local pollution of snow and atmospheric air near settlements and camp sites of the coast of the Lake Baikal is revealed. Content of ammonium, phosphates and oil products in snow exceed maximum allowable concentration. Pollution of coastal waters of Small Sea Strait and the Sarma River in a recreational zone is established. Ecological, chemical and physical soil properties of meadow and steppe landscapes of Olkhon district in the territory of the east coast of the Lake Baikal which is most visited by tourists are studied. The explored soils have mainly low-power strong and middle stony profile, light particle size distribution, high content of a humus, mainly neutral and weak alkaline reaction. As a result of the conducted researches it is revealed that soils near tourist tracks are polluted by heavy metals. The ecological condition of soils at the present stage can be characterized as average degree of a disturbance as a result of recreational activity. Geochemical barriers are - organic and alkaline. However owing to light particle size distribution of soils there can be a pollution of waters of a coastal zone of the lake.
Keywords: soils, snow, water, pollution, recreation, Maloe More Strait, Lake Baikal

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Article published in number 2 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-2-066-074
Views: 10

Influence of microbiological preparations on yield of spring soft wheat

I.U. Ivanova, D.A. Dementiev
Section: Agroecology
Thousands of tons of chemical products are used annually in the world industrial production of agricultural products, both mineral fertilizers and toxic chemicals, aimed at combating diseases, pests and weeds. These chemicals actively influence not only the object of the struggle, but also the soil flora and fauna. The inhabitants of the soil, which loosen the soil, as well as the microorganisms involved in the processes of humification and mineralization of humus, are dying. The vacant ecological niches are occupied by organisms pathogenic for plants. This leads to the need to apply disinfectants and fungicides in even larger quantities. One way to break this destructive chain is to replace chemical fungicidal drugs with microbiological ones. In these preparations, microorganisms are natural competitors of phytopathogens, which have an antibiotic effect, protecting the cultivated crop from diseases. In addition, these microorganisms are able to assimilate free nitrogen of the air, supplying them with plants and soil, transfer inaccessible phosphorus compounds to plants that are readily available for plants, produce growth stimulants and other biologically active substances that positively affect the growth, development and productivity of the crop. Also, the soil is saturated with microflora useful for the soil and plants. On the experimental base of the Chuvash Research Institute of Agriculture, the effect of microbiological preparations on biometrics, yield and economic efficiency of cultivation of spring soft wheat varieties Moskovskaya 35 was investigated. The greatest increase in yield on average for 2 years was given by the joint use of preparations based on nitrogen-fixing and phosphate-mobilizing microorganisms - up to 1.5 t / ha. At the same time, the cost of bio-fertilizers amounted to 1.9-5.4% of the total cost structure. The profitability of cultivation increased from 14.4% with the use of only one strain of microorganisms, up to 43.5% with the use of 2 types of microbiological fertilizers, in comparison with the control.
Keywords: microbiological fertilizers, growth stimulants, spring soft wheat, yield

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Article published in number 2 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-2-128-133
Views: 8

Estimation of Dunaliella salina Teod. maximum productivity under natural illumination

A.S. Lelekov, A.B. Borovkov, I.N. Gudvilovich, T.M. Novikova, A.L. Avsiyan, O.A. Memetshaeva, R.P. Trenkenshu
Section: Population ecology
The research deals with theoretical calculation of the maximal growth rate of green halophilic microalga Dunaliella salina in the conditions of natural illumination at South regions of Russia (Sevastopol city as an example). The calculation is based on the concept that microalgae growth rate is defined as the difference between gross productivity and endogenous biomass expenditure rate. Gross productivity is a function of PAR, absorption coefficient and energy utilization efficiency. For maximal productivity calculation it is suggested that all incident of the pond surface light energy is absorbed by microalgae culture. As far as photobiosynthesis efficiency value depends on illuminance in a complex way, we used average value 5.58 %. The rate of endogenous biomass expenditure was determined based on the value of night losses, which for D. salina was about 5 %.Computations showed that for D. salina maximum biomass gain makes 26 g DW/(m2•day). It is shown that the maximum observed productivity of D. salina in the conditions of natural light in the southern regions of Russia cannot exceed 26 g DW/(m2•day).
Keywords: Dunaliella salina, natural lighting, efficiency photobiosynthesis, productivity, modeling

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Article published in number 2 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-2-202-207
Views: 9

The biodisposal of organic waste by larvae of the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens and the possibility of using the formed zoocompost against phytonematodes

N.A. Ushakova, S.V. Zinovieva, Zh.V. Udalova, A.I. Bastrakov, A.I. Butenko
Section: Remediation and rehabilitation
Larvae of the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens effectively use fruit and vegetable mixtures as a feed substrate-waste of retail chains, including those infected with nematodes. It is shown that the larvae are capable of high speed to dispose of the potatoes (for the 12 day it reached 70% conversion of substrate) and completely eliminated in the affected root as the potato plant pathogenic nematode Ditylenchus destructor and saprobiotic nematode Rhabditis spp., which impair the commercial properties of potatoes and other root crops during storage. In the control substrate without larvae of the black soldier fly phytopathogenic nematodes were preserved during the study period, and saprobiotic nematodes multiplied. Introduction derived from fruit and vegetable waste zoocompost (excrements of the larvae with the remains of undigested substrate) to the soil reduces the infectivity of tomato root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. The introduction of compost under the root system immediately before the infection of the 2-month tomato seedlings reduced the negative impact of the nematode, the plants were more powerful than the infected control. Plants treated with zoocompost at a dose of 6.5 g / plant were particularly distinguished: the mass of their above-ground part and the height of the stem was close to uninfected control. Shown the prospects of using to compete to stimulate growth and development of plants, especially of plants suffering from nematode infestation.
Keywords: fruit and vegetable waste, larvae, Hermetia illucens, bioutilization, nematodes, Ditylenchus destructor, Rhabditida, Meloidogyne incognita, tomatoes

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Article published in number 2 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-2-163-169
Views: 6

Binding capacity of humic substances of peats in the relation to petroleum products in the presence of microorganisms of the genus Rhodococcus in aqueous media

M.M. Gertsen, E.D. Dmitrieva
Section: Ecotoxicology
The biotesting method was used to study the effect of humic substances separately and together with oil degrading microorganisms of the genus Rhodococcus on a test object - duckweed in the relation to oil products. The maximum growth of duckweed blades in the presence of humic substances of black alder fen peat is 42%, the minimum - humic substances of sphagnum transition peat 24%. It was found that humic substances of peats can reduce the toxic effect of model pollutants: hexadecane by 3–23%; diesel fuel - 8–40%; oil - 6-16%. The detoxifying ability of humic substances and microorganisms of the genus Rhodococcus in the relation to oil hydrocarbons was determined: the maximum values ​​of the detoxification coefficients of microorganisms Rh. erythropolis S67 and humic substances of reed fen and sphagnum high-moor peat 95–79% and 84–68%; Rh. erythropolis X5 and humic substances of sphagnum high-moor and sphagnum transition peat 82–68% and 71–63%. Humic substances are able to stimulate the growth of oil degrading microorganisms, activating their enzymatic system, thereby contributing to the maximum oxidation of oil hydrocarbons. Due to its surface and biologically active properties, the combined use of humic substances and oil degrading microorganisms can provide environmentally friendly and effective remediation of contaminated water areas.
Keywords: humic substances, petroleum, petroleum products, oil–destructive microorganisms, binding capacity, detoxification coefficients

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Article published in number 2 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-2-142-148
Views: 7

Ecologization of agricultural science and production – agricultural ecology – agricultural econology (in the light of the scientific heritage of N. F. Reymers)

A.V. Kaverin, A.V. Kiryushin, D.A. Masserov
Section: Agroecology
The article substantiates the relevance of further improvement of ecological professionalism in agriculture. The dominant environmental problems in the agricultural sector, the authors see the following: extensive agriculture and cattle breeding – everywhere in the world leads to desertification; intensive management causes acute environmental conflicts associated with pollution of soil, water and air, deterioration of the quality of agricultural products, etc.are the proposals of a prominent domestic theorist of environmental science N. F. Reimers on the greening of agricultural science and practice. The importance of studying by students of agricultural specialties of natural-scientific fundamental ecological bases of conducting agriculture-the laws, rules and principles of Agroecology defining "rules of behavior" in agricultural environmental management is considered. It is pointed out that there is an urgent need for new methodological, methodical and purely practical approaches to solving environmental prob-lems of agriculture. As a new, ecologically oriented worldview in agricultural science the inte-grative discipline economic ecology – the science of ecological and economic systems is offered. Among the main directions of agricultural economic ecology is the greening of planning and management of agricultural environmental management. Under the environmental planning of agriculture, the authors, after N. F. Reimers, understand, first of all, ecological land planning and establishment of forms, methods and restrictions of use of land resources. The article presents the results of economic and environmental studies and practical recommendations for environmental and economic optimization of the structure of agricultural land in the Republic of Mordovia over the past 28 years. Such spatial optimization allowed to increase a number of important indicators (crop yields, water availability, etc.) by 30-50%. At the same time, it expanded the recreational and waste-absorbing (assimilation) opportunities of the region by about the same amount.
Keywords: agricultural ecology, agricultural economic environment, agricultural land use, ecological theory, ecologization
Article published in number 2 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-2-102-106
Views: 14

Optimization of the conditions of microbial cells immobilization for the creation of hydrocarbons-degrading biopreparations

A.A. Samkov, N.N. Volchenko, А.A. Khudokormov, S.M. Samkova, E.V. Karaseva
Section: Ecotoxicology
The dependence of the adsorption efficiency on the oil sorbent surface on the pH of the immobilization medium, Al3+ concentration and the duration of the suspension of cells and carrier contact, was investigated for oil-oxidizing actinobacteria Rhodococcus erythropolis F1 (ВКМ Ac-2271) by the full factorial experiment method. Tolerance of growth and hydrocarbon-oxidizing activity of rhodococci to selected experimental factors in the used ranges of values was experimentally proved. The obtained optimized conditions of immobilization provide the increasing of R. erythropolis F1 immobilizing cells proportion from 34.0 to 69.7%. A similar increasing was also found for five different strains of genus Rhodococcus and Gordonia, significantly distinguishing in terms of cell surface hydrophobicity (hydrophobicity index vary from 10% in the case of Rhodococcus sp. J12 up to 88% in case of Rhodococcus sp. J8). Modeling of biodegradation of crude oil in sea and freshwater conditions using immobilized R. erythropolis F1 cells has shown greater hydrocarbon concentration reduction efficiency in comparison with free non-immobilised cells and empty carrier, applied separately.
Keywords: actinobacteria; adsorption; oil-oxidizing bacteria; Rhodococcus; biodegradation; immobilization; biological preparation.
Article published in number 1 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-1-194-202
Views: 82

Faunistic characteristics and monitoring of vertebrates on the territory of the State Nature Reserve “Bylina”

V.M. Ryabov, Т.Ya. Аshikhmina
Section: Monitoring of natural and anthropogenically disturbed areas
Based on many years of research (2004-2014), an inventory of vertebrates of the State Nature Reserve "Bylina" was carried out, one of the most significant both in terms of area and biosphere significance of the regional PA in the Kirov region. The main wealth of the reserve is the massifs of old-growth forests and vast areas of raised bogs that have escaped reclamation. The faunistic value of the territory lies in the fact that the taiga fauna is represented here in a fairly complete volume, there are places of natural concentration of wetland avifauna. The vertebrate fauna of the Bylina State Reserve includes 234 species, of which 23 species are included in the Red Book of the Kirov region. GPZ "Bylina" is a reserve of species of economic importance, which plays a significant role in maintaining a relatively high number of species of resource animals in the north-west of the Kirov region. The data of the inventory works are today the initial basis for monitoring studies and the development of a strategy for preserving the biodiversity of natural complexes of the Bylina Gas Processing Plant.
Keywords: preserve, biota inventory, vertebrates, monitoring
Article published in number 1 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-1-079-084
Views: 47

The effectiveness of oil gathering devices in ice conditions and methods for its increase

А.V. Salnikov
Section: Theoretical problems of ecology
The article presents the world experience of testing to assess the effectiveness of oil gathering devices (skimmers) of various designs during their operation at low temperatures and in ice conditions. The conditions and factors affecting the efficiency of skimmers during such operation and methods for increasing it are considered. The relevance of the article is associated with the constant need to improve industrial safety when working in water (marine) facilities and water areas and the use of the energy value of waste oil waste. The novelty is due to the consideration of modern existing oil gathering devices with an indication of their effectiveness in ice conditions.
Keywords: oil spill response, icy seas, ice concentration, sludge ice, broken ice, skimmers, oil gathering equipment
Article published in number 1 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-1-030-039
Views: 32

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The journal was founded in 2007