ISSN 1995-4301

ISSN 2618-8406

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1 issue of the journal in 2024

4 issue of the journal in 2023

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Reactive oxygen species and antioxidants in living systems: an integrated overview

T.K. Golovko, E.V. Silina, E.A. Lashmanova, A.V. Kozlovskaya
Section: Theoretical problems of ecology
The brief overview is dedicated to the current understanding of the redox metabolism in the aerobic cells. The characteristic of oxygen radicals and information about the mechanisms of their generation are presented. The data on the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cellular signaling and the induction of oxidative stress were analyzed. The excessive ROS accumulation is dangerous for the cells, as oxygen radicals are able to interact with the biologically important molecules (DNA, proteins, lipids, etc.) and damage the cellular structures. The redox balance violation can be caused by negative effects of factors of various nature (abiotic, biotic, anthropogenic), but ultimately their effects are reduced to the occurrence of oxidative stress. In humans, oxidative stress provokes the development of various diseases, causes a decrease in performance, early aging, etc. This is opposed by the antioxidant system, which detoxifies oxygen radicals and suppresses the processes of the macromolecules oxidation. The article summarizes information about the main low–molecular–weight antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes, and role of the antioxidant system in maintaining the redox balance of the living cells. In conclusion, topical issues for further study and their importance for solving practical problems of ecology are noted.
Keywords: oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species, Oxygen radicals, antioxidant system, aerobic organisms, biology, ecology.
Article published in number 1 for 2022
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-1-017-026
Views: 50

Analysis of pesticide load in the Altai Region’s cereal cropping

Y.V. Kalyuta, M.I. Maltsev, N.G. Bazarnova
Section: Agroecology
Based on the statistical data of the Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring, the Federal State Statistics Service, and the Unified Interdepartmental Statistical Information System, this paper analyzes the dynamics of pesticide use in the Altai Region’s cereal cropping from 2010 through 2019. It was found that the amount of plant protection products used in the Region increased and that increased the pesticide load on the soil. In 2010, the cereal crop growers purchased herbicides based on 45 active ingredients, and in 2019 - based on 58 ones. The amount of purchased products based on the above active ingredients ranged from 149 to 286 tons that accounted for 67-75% of the total volume of herbicide products. Throughout this period, 31-71 g per hectare of the basic herbicides per unit of sown area were applied in the Region; generally, this led to increased cereal crop yields; the grain yields ranged from 0.9 to 1.6 tons per hectare. However, the increasing rates of pesticide application were much higher than the rates of yield increase. In the neighboring regions of the Siberian Federal District, the application volumes of the same pesticides were higher than in the Altai Region.
Keywords: pesticides, glyphosate, 2,4-D, yield, cereal crops, Altai Region
Article published in number 1 for 2022
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-1-175-181
Views: 33

Bioassay as a method of integral assessment for remediation of oil-contaminated ecosystems

E.V. Morachevskaya, L.P. Voronina
Section: Methodology and research methods. Models and forecasts
The development of new technologies and improvement of existing ones for the restoration of oil-contaminated lands, the neutralization and disposal of oil drilling waste are important measures to solve environmental problems. Bioassay is successfully used to determine the danger of pollution of environmental objects by oil and oil industry wastes. With the help of biotests, it is possible to assess the state of contaminated objects, which is not always possible to do by chemicalanalytical methods, considering the complex chemical composition of petroleum hydrocarbons. An analytical review confirms the need to develop a biotesting system to assess the state of ecosystem components in the event of oil pollution and to determine the effectiveness of measures to restore them. Taking into account the nature of the pollution, presented in the article by a number of provisions on the chemical characteristics of petroleum hydrocarbons and the duration of the recovery processes, bioassay should be carried out at each stage of the reclamation process, in dynamics. Determination of the degree of neutralization of contaminated objects consists in a step-by-step transfer of the hazard level from a higher class to a lower one. Bioassay, in this case, remains a mandatory method for determining the total toxicity. In the course of sample preparation for biotesting, it is advisable to consider the possibility of increasing the bioavailability of hydrocarbon components. A prerequisite for the use of biotesting is the use of eluate and contact approaches. The main methods that can be included in the abbreviated scheme for determining the efficiency of remediation of oil-contaminated objects can be considered the method of biotesting using hydrobionts in the eluate (water extract) and phytotesting performed using the contact and eluate approaches. The battery of biological tests included in the extended scheme should be developed taking into account the specific case, taking into account the specifics of the ecosystem components, soil and climatic conditions, the methods of reclamation used, etc. The strategy for the development of biotesting is closely related to the solution of issues on the assessment of the real danger of oil pollution and the neutralization of oil drilling waste, which are among the priority ones.
Keywords: bioassay, phytoassay, drilling slurries, reclamation, hazard class
Article published in number 1 for 2022
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-1-034-043
Views: 49

Streptomyces geldanamycininus Z374 – a novel strain with biocidal activity against cyanobacteria

T.B. Zaytseva, V.I. Safronova, N.G. Medvedeva
Section: Remediation and rehabilitation
The mass development of cyanobacteria causing the “bloom” of water in water bodies, leads to a significant deterioration in the quality of water and the environment of coastal areas, causes great economic losses and poses serious ecological problems. Among the known methods eliminating the growth of cyanobacteria biological method has been recognized as the most efficient and ecologically sound method. As a result of the screening of soil actinobacteria, the strain Z374, producing metabolites with biocide activity against cyanobacteria was isolated. Based on the complex of phenotypic traits and the results obtained by sequencing a fragment of the 16S rRNA gene sequence, we identified the isolate Z374 as Streptomyces geldanamycininus and deposited it in the Departmental Collection of Agricultural Microorganisms of the All-Russia Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology under registration number RCAM 05297. The rrs sequence of the isolate S. geldanamycininus Z374 (RCAM05297) gene was deposited in the GenBank database under the number MT437400. Analysis of the UV absorption spectrum of a 1% methanol solution of crude biocide (CB) Z374 isolated from the cells of S. geldanamycininus Z374 suggested the presence of at least 2 compounds in its composition, one of which has the heptaene structure. Сrude biocide Z374 inhibits the growth of bloom-forming cyanobacteria Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Microcystis aeruginosa, Nodularia spumigena, Planktothrix agardhii and causes a decrease in the content of microcystins in the cells of the toxic cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa and Planktothrix agardhii and a decrease in the total toxins concentrations in the medium. The presented work is the first report on the biocidal activity of soil actinobacterium S. geldanamycininus against cyanobacteria. The obtained results showed that the CB Z374 synthesized by S. geldanamycininus can be considered as a potential regulator of the mass development of bloom-forming cyanobacteria including toxic ones.
Keywords: Streptomyces geldanamycininus, crude biocide, cyanobacteria, microcystins

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Article published in number 1 for 2022
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-1-159-166
Views: 22

Estimate of brown bear (Ursus arctos) spring population size using an aerial census method of bear tracks in tundra

V.V. Anufriev, V.N. Mamontov, E.A. Punantsev
Section: Population ecology
The results of determining the number of brown bears (Ursus arctos (Linnaeus 1758)) in the tundra based on the data of the aerial survey of their tracks after the release of this predator from the dens are discussed. The aerial survey of brown bear tracks was conducted at the time when the maximum number of bears including a females with cubs, left their dens. Thirty-seven tracks of adult brown bears were recorded during air routes with a total length of 2,290 km, of which 34 (92%) were located near rivers, large lakes and sea coasts and were located at an average distance of 1,2 km from the shoreline of these reservoirs. It is suggested that the population density of brown bear can be calculated from the indicators of the density of the shoreline of reservoirs (km/km²) and the number of crossed bear tracks belonging to different individuals are located for the flying transects laid along the shoreline of reservoirs. The population density of the brown bear is calculated as the product of the density of the shoreline of the reservoirs (km/km²) and the number of registered bear tracks belonging to different individuals per 1 km of fly transects along the reservoirs. According to the results of the aerial survey in the spring season, the maximum bear density (3,8 individuals per 1000 km²) in the taiga zone, the minimum (1,8 individuals per 1000 km²) – in the southern tundra. In the northern tundra, the brown bear was absent.
Keywords: aerial census, brown bear, tundra, Ursus arctos
Article published in number 1 for 2022
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-1-153-158
Views: 23

Eco-friendly technology for the processing of livestock manure waste with greenhouse gas absorption

L.M. Maksishko
Section: Social ecology
A method of chemical absorption purification of manure biogas from harmful gases including greenhouse ones (carbon dioxide, methane, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide) is proposed, which provides its purification to obtain highcalorie combustible biogas with high (95%) methane content. In the process of biogas purification we obtain mineral fertilizers due to the absorption of harmful gases from biogas: liquid nitrogen fertilizer – ammonia water with the possibility of its concentration, ammonium sulfate and soda as a by-product of biogas purification. Biogas passes through a treatment plant with water, where it is purified from ammonia, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide. Moreover, repeated passage of biogas through water and chemical absorbent during several fermentation cycles, starting with the laying of manure for fermentation, increases the concentration of nutrients in water and chemical absorbents. To implement the tested method it is required a tight connection between the elements of the biogas installation and the device for purification of biogas – the first and second chemical absorbers with a storage tank. Water samples through which purified biogas was passed for 10 days contained 8 times more ammonium (20.8 mg/dm3 ), 2.3 times more free carbon dioxide, compared to water samples with biogas for 5 days, the level of hydrogen sulfide increased 10 to 15.6 times. That is, as the time of biogas passing through the water of the treatment plant increases, the water is saturated with ammonium compounds, which are suitable for soil fertilization. After reaching a nitrogen concentration of 16.4–20.5% in the water of the treatment plant through which the biogas passes, the liquid is taken into airtight containers and used for plant nutrition. For the formation of ammonia water, a quick effect will be achieved if the biogas from the fermentation of chicken manure is passed through the water, since it contains 52 times more ammonium than pork biogas. Between all treatment tanks there are discharge pipes with clamps in case it is necessary to check the composition of biogas during the process. Purification of biogas in the first chemical absorber is carried out by conversion carbon dioxide to soda with 10% aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide. Purification in a second chemical scavenger using concentrated sulfuric acid is performed from ammonia to form ammonium sulfate, which will contain 21% nitrogen and 24% sulfur. In the case of acidic soils
Keywords: biogas, biogas treatment, biomethane, greenhouse gases, chemisorption, pH of fertilizer, useful elements, acid soils

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Article published in number 1 for 2022
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-1-205-209
Views: 18

The state of forest phytocenosis after thinning in violation of technology

E.V. Lelekova, I.A. Konovalova
Section: Monitoring of natural and anthropogenically disturbed areas
The article presents the data of a study of forest stands after thinning with violations of technology. These are the control indicators of the state of the phytocenosis in a series of further monitoring works that are currently relevant due to the increased cases of illegal logging. In the course of the work, the authors found a deterioration in the tree stand characteristics. This contradicts the very essence of the ongoing forestry activity. The trees left behind should be the best growing. It is for them that the optimal conditions for development and growth are created. Instead, the completeness in 60% of cases decreased to a critical minimum: 0.4 units. The species composition of the remaining stand is heterogeneous, unevenly distributed, with a large percentage of selection of the target (Pinus sylvestris L.) and the preservation of temporarily target (Betula pendula Roth) species. Instead of weakened and sick trees, healthy individuals were cut down. The overall viability of the remaining stand after care is weakened: the crown is sparse, the annual growth is reduced, there are separate dry branches. At 30% of the test sites, the main species is absent. Natural renewal is mainly represented by reliable young individuals of spruce, fir, birch and linden. Non-viable young individuals of these species were not found in the study area. The growing individuals of spruce were recorded in all the surveyed areas. Their number is 1110 units/ha. Other species grow in groups and are also reliable in terms of development. Young individuals of P. sylvestris L. in the amount of 40 pcs/ha were recorded on 20% of the plots; Abies sibirica Ledeb. – 180 pcs/ha on 10%; B. pendula – 160 pcs/ha on 20%; Tilia cordata Mill. – 120 pcs/ha on 10% of the plots. Taking into account the growth rate and the number of spruce undergrowth, in the future, a change in the species composition of the mother stand from pine-birch to spruce-birch is predicted in this area.
Keywords: thinning of plantings, thinning out, tree stand, fullness of the stand, vital state of the stand, natural renewal, undergrowth

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Article published in number 1 for 2022
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-1-056-063
Views: 33

Urban air pollution modeling: a critical review

T.G. Krupnova, A.V. Bulanova, T.A. Makarovskikh, A.V. Herreinstein
Section: Methodology and research methods. Models and forecasts
Industrial and transport emissions are the main sources of air pollution in large cities, causing significant risks to human health. Minimizing risks requires information on the distribution and physico-chemical characteristics of emissions. Spatial and temporal detailed data are required because the intensity and composition of emissions varies greatly with time of day and local variations in wind, traffic composition and flow. There are modern mathematical models that simulate the behavior of emissions from industrial plants and traffic flows with a high degree of resolution. The chemistry of the simulated emissions has also been largely resolved by taking into account photochemical reactions as well as dry and wet deposition processes. This review present concepts of urban air pollution monitoring, and analyses and summarizes new insights of real-time air pollutants concentrations. This research is expected to open a door for creating smart cities and digital twins for effective management of environmental risks in an urbanized area. Fifty nine articles were included and studies were classified by various modeling approaches such as statistical and analytical models which give the best prediction results. We find that air pollution monitoring and assessment techniques for calculating air concentrations were successfully used to study temporal and spatial changes in pollutant concentrations. In the same time, it is impossible to create a universal analytical model for predicting the concentrations of pollutants anywhere and for any condition. It should be noted that the mathematical models are constantly being scaled to validate, optimize and expand experimental data. The outcome of this study will help engineers and researchers develop air pollution forecasts concept.
Keywords: mathematical models, air pollution, types of pollutants, environmental monitoring methods, air quality.

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Article published in number 1 for 2022
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-1-027-033
Views: 58

Strengthening of carbon sorbents by the introduction of mineral additives

E.S. Ushakova, L.V. Solovyova, A.G. Ushakov
Section: Ecologization of industry
The existing methods of strengthening carbon sorbents are considered, the method of introducing mineral additives is analyzed in detail. The research was carried out on carbon sorbents made on the basis of carbon-containing waste: sawdust and excess active sludge of biological treatment facilities. Mineral additives were added to the sorbent at the mixture preparation stage, after which the mixture was granulated. Preparing granules were dried and pyrolyzed at 600–650 о C. Hot sorbent were cooled to 200 о C by inert gas (CO2 ) and air to room temperature. The introduction of mineral additives in an amount of 4% by weight of the mixture, had a significant influence on the properties of sorbents: a 2-fold increase in the ash content and the density of the sorbents, because of increasing content of mineral impurities (calcium oxide, silica, alumina, iron and magnesium oxides), which have the relative dense lattice structure. Сompressive strength rose from 0.40 to 1.02 kg per granule due to the content of tricalcium silicate (for cement) and kaolinite (for clay) increasing. The moisture sorption decreased from 2.1 to 0.54 g/g for sorbent with cement and to 0.03 g/g for clay. The introduction of cement and clay in the sorbent composition in an amount of 4% by weight of the mixture greatly increases their strength, which can solve the problem of their destruction during water treatment, the collection of oilproducts and transportation, reduces the moisture sorption. It is necessary for collecting oil-products from water surface. But at the same time, the oil capacity of the sorbent decreases to 2.1 g/g for sorbent with cement and to 1.55 g/g for clay. The further research will be aimed at studying ways to increase the sorption capacity of hardened sorbents (modification with organic functional groups; demineralization with acid treatment and so on).
Keywords: carbon sorbent, waste, strengthening, oil

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Article published in number 1 for 2022
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-1-129-133
Views: 12

Assessment of snow cover pollution in urban ecosystems of the Kola North in the zone of influence of railway branches

N.V. Saltan, Е.А. Sviatkovskaya, N.N. Trostenyuk
Section: Monitoring of natural and anthropogenically disturbed areas
The chemical composition (pH, the content of the principal cations and anions, Ni, Cu, Pb, Fe) of snow cover on the territory of railway stations in the cities of the Murmansk region (Murmansk, Olenegorsk, Apatity, Polyarnye Zori, Kandalaksha) and in the background area was first studied. The snow sampling was carried out from late March to early April 2019 at a distance of 3–6 m from the railway track. It has been revealed that the acidity of urban melt water corresponded to weakly acidic and neutral values. Compared to the melt water of background territories, the concentrations of ions such as Na+, Са2+, НСО3-, Cl- significantly were increased, especially in Murmansk and Olenegorsk. Two forms of the presence of heavy metal (dissolved and solid) in the snow were analyzed. It has been established that metals during the winter period were received to the atmosphere mainly in solid form, which indicates the technogenic origin of their sources of supply. The highest proportion of solid phase is typical for Fe (>98%). Ecological and geochemical indicators (values of the concentration coefficients, the total contamination index - Zc) of snow pollution were considered. It has been found that the total concentrations of elements of hazard classes 1(Pb) and 2 (Ni, Cu) are 3–28 times higher than background values. According to the total contamination index, railway station territories of the cities Polyarnye Zori (Zc=19), Apatity (Zc=25), Kandalaksha (Zc=28) were characterized by a low level of pollution, Murmansk (Zc=77) – medium, Olenegorsk (Zc=183) – high (due to the functioning of the iron ore concentrate production plant). It has been shown that railway transport contributes to the entry into the atmosphere of solved forms of heavy metals, mainly Fe.
Keywords: snow cover pollution, urban ecosystem, railway transport, Kola North.

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Article published in number 1 for 2022
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-1-078-083
Views: 27

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