ISSN 1995-4301

ISSN 2618-8406

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1 issue of the journal in 2024

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Ecologization of agricultural science and production – agricultural ecology – agricultural econology (in the light of the scientific heritage of N. F. Reymers)

A.V. Kaverin, A.V. Kiryushin, D.A. Masserov
Section: Agroecology
The article substantiates the relevance of further improvement of ecological professionalism in agriculture. The dominant environmental problems in the agricultural sector, the authors see the following: extensive agriculture and cattle breeding – everywhere in the world leads to desertification; intensive management causes acute environmental conflicts associated with pollution of soil, water and air, deterioration of the quality of agricultural products, etc.are the proposals of a prominent domestic theorist of environmental science N. F. Reimers on the greening of agricultural science and practice. The importance of studying by students of agricultural specialties of natural-scientific fundamental ecological bases of conducting agriculture-the laws, rules and principles of Agroecology defining "rules of behavior" in agricultural environmental management is considered. It is pointed out that there is an urgent need for new methodological, methodical and purely practical approaches to solving environmental prob-lems of agriculture. As a new, ecologically oriented worldview in agricultural science the inte-grative discipline economic ecology – the science of ecological and economic systems is offered. Among the main directions of agricultural economic ecology is the greening of planning and management of agricultural environmental management. Under the environmental planning of agriculture, the authors, after N. F. Reimers, understand, first of all, ecological land planning and establishment of forms, methods and restrictions of use of land resources. The article presents the results of economic and environmental studies and practical recommendations for environmental and economic optimization of the structure of agricultural land in the Republic of Mordovia over the past 28 years. Such spatial optimization allowed to increase a number of important indicators (crop yields, water availability, etc.) by 30-50%. At the same time, it expanded the recreational and waste-absorbing (assimilation) opportunities of the region by about the same amount.
Keywords: agricultural ecology, agricultural economic environment, agricultural land use, ecological theory, ecologization
Article published in number 2 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-2-102-106
Views: 14

Optimization of the conditions of microbial cells immobilization for the creation of hydrocarbons-degrading biopreparations

A.A. Samkov, N.N. Volchenko, А.A. Khudokormov, S.M. Samkova, E.V. Karaseva
Section: Ecotoxicology
The dependence of the adsorption efficiency on the oil sorbent surface on the pH of the immobilization medium, Al3+ concentration and the duration of the suspension of cells and carrier contact, was investigated for oil-oxidizing actinobacteria Rhodococcus erythropolis F1 (ВКМ Ac-2271) by the full factorial experiment method. Tolerance of growth and hydrocarbon-oxidizing activity of rhodococci to selected experimental factors in the used ranges of values was experimentally proved. The obtained optimized conditions of immobilization provide the increasing of R. erythropolis F1 immobilizing cells proportion from 34.0 to 69.7%. A similar increasing was also found for five different strains of genus Rhodococcus and Gordonia, significantly distinguishing in terms of cell surface hydrophobicity (hydrophobicity index vary from 10% in the case of Rhodococcus sp. J12 up to 88% in case of Rhodococcus sp. J8). Modeling of biodegradation of crude oil in sea and freshwater conditions using immobilized R. erythropolis F1 cells has shown greater hydrocarbon concentration reduction efficiency in comparison with free non-immobilised cells and empty carrier, applied separately.
Keywords: actinobacteria; adsorption; oil-oxidizing bacteria; Rhodococcus; biodegradation; immobilization; biological preparation.
Article published in number 1 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-1-194-202
Views: 82

Faunistic characteristics and monitoring of vertebrates on the territory of the State Nature Reserve “Bylina”

V.M. Ryabov, Т.Ya. Аshikhmina
Section: Monitoring of natural and anthropogenically disturbed areas
Based on many years of research (2004-2014), an inventory of vertebrates of the State Nature Reserve "Bylina" was carried out, one of the most significant both in terms of area and biosphere significance of the regional PA in the Kirov region. The main wealth of the reserve is the massifs of old-growth forests and vast areas of raised bogs that have escaped reclamation. The faunistic value of the territory lies in the fact that the taiga fauna is represented here in a fairly complete volume, there are places of natural concentration of wetland avifauna. The vertebrate fauna of the Bylina State Reserve includes 234 species, of which 23 species are included in the Red Book of the Kirov region. GPZ "Bylina" is a reserve of species of economic importance, which plays a significant role in maintaining a relatively high number of species of resource animals in the north-west of the Kirov region. The data of the inventory works are today the initial basis for monitoring studies and the development of a strategy for preserving the biodiversity of natural complexes of the Bylina Gas Processing Plant.
Keywords: preserve, biota inventory, vertebrates, monitoring
Article published in number 1 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-1-079-084
Views: 49

The effectiveness of oil gathering devices in ice conditions and methods for its increase

А.V. Salnikov
Section: Theoretical problems of ecology
The article presents the world experience of testing to assess the effectiveness of oil gathering devices (skimmers) of various designs during their operation at low temperatures and in ice conditions. The conditions and factors affecting the efficiency of skimmers during such operation and methods for increasing it are considered. The relevance of the article is associated with the constant need to improve industrial safety when working in water (marine) facilities and water areas and the use of the energy value of waste oil waste. The novelty is due to the consideration of modern existing oil gathering devices with an indication of their effectiveness in ice conditions.
Keywords: oil spill response, icy seas, ice concentration, sludge ice, broken ice, skimmers, oil gathering equipment
Article published in number 1 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-1-030-039
Views: 32

Effects of humus compounds stabilization by influence of bentonite rock as criteria for environmental sustainability of sod-podsolic soil agroecosystems

A.V. Kozlov, A.H. Kulikova, I.P. Uromova, R.I. Rumyantsev
Section: Agroecology
The article contains an analysis of physical and chemical changes in system of “humus substances – bentonite”, which occurred in sludge and colloidal fractions of sod-podsolic light loamy soil during 3 years of interaction with bentonite clay (Zyryan deposit) in the conditions of the agroecosystem (northern subzone of forests, Nizhny Novgorod region). The 3-year microfield experiment (2015–2017) has been conducted on the territory of Elitkhoz LLC in the Borsky municipal district. Bentonite was added to the divisions (accounting area of each is 1 m2 ) during July of 2014 in doses at rate of 3, 6 and 12 ton/ha, on which varieties of winter wheat, barley and seed peas adapted for the Volga-Viatka region were grown. Infrared analysis of soil colloidal component showed presence of new silicon-containing organomineral complexes in studied samples, and identified types of chemical compounds directly indicate participation of silicon in their formation. The use of bentonite contributed to preservation of natural content of humus in soil, which can also confirm presence of silicon substances interaction of the rock (mono- and polysilicic acids, silicic-oxygen packets) with the organic part and, as a result, to keep it from mineralization. The physicochemical effects of silicon substances imteraction with organic substance of soil-absorbing complex described in work, leading to strengthening of elementary humus particles and increasing their resistance to degradation, can be regarded as criteria for environmental stability of podzolic agrosoils under conditions of using bentonites as meliorants of complex stabilizing effect.
Keywords: sod-podsolic light loamy soil, bentonite clay, spectroscopic infrared analysis, sludge and colloidal soil fractions, silicon-containing reaction-active centers, stabilization of organic substance, ecological stability of agroecosystem

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Article published in number 1 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-1-133-138
Views: 23

Effect of aerotechnogenic impact of pulp and paper production on the pigment complex of Scots pine

V.V. Tuzhilkina
Section: Monitoring of natural and anthropogenically disturbed areas
Here we present the results of studying the effect of aerotechnogenic emissions of pulp and paper production of Mondi Syktyvkar JSC on the pigment system of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles in blueberry and lichen pine forests over a 25–year observation period. We conducted comparative analysis of the indicators of the pigment complex of the pine in background and impacted areas. In 1993––1995, aerotechnogenic pollution of the environment was 20–100 times higher in the area of strong impact compared to the background and had a negative impact on the Scots pine pigment complex. Pollutants were found to inhibit the synthesis of pigments. After the decrease in volume of industrial emissions in 2015 and 2018, several changes occurred in the pigment apparatus of pine needles in the impacted area. In view of a significant reduction in industrial emissions, chloroplasts demonstrated an increase in pigment content even in the area adjacent to the emission source. With a weakening technogenic impact (in the area of moderate contamination), the photosynthetic and respiration abilities of the needles do not undergo changes. This indicates that the basic processes of pine vital activity are stable, and its to the resistance to pollution.
Keywords: , pulp and paper industry, air pollution, pigments, needles, photosynthesis, respiration

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Article published in number 1 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-1-090-096
Views: 26

The study of Lake Aslykul (Southern Cis-Ural) area dynamics by processing the satellite images on the basis of the algebraic approach

B.I. Kochurov, R.F. Malikov, A.R. Iskhakov, G.T.-G. Turikeshev, A.R. Usmanova, E.B. Kratynskaya
Section: Methodology and research methods. Models and forecasts
We use the remote sensing data demanding appropriate processing and special mapping technolo-gies. A mathematical model of image processing is proposed, based on numerical optimization of a multi-parameter nonlinear function with linear constraints with respect to the standard, the latter be-ing set by the expert for the selected image at the beginning of processing. As the image, the satel-lite imagery data, obtained by the LandSat-5 satellite during 10 years since 1987, are used. The pa-rameters of the measuring function of the technical vision system, which also performs numerical measurements of the water body, are determined. Due to the multimodality of the objective func-tion, there can be variety of solutions. The expert keeps freedom in selecting a set of parameter val-ues. To determine a set of parameters for the measuring function of the technical vision system, we carry out "calculation of the lake area" and data collection. The data are processed by algebraic and statistical methods. The results of the study showed that the lake area increased by 2.5-3 We suggest that one of the reasons of changing the lake area is tectonic activity.
Keywords: lake area, satellite image processing, Landsat 5, vision system, remote area measurement, modified descriptive image algebras.
Article published in number 1 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-1-058-064
Views: 23

Mouse-modeled change in the toxicity of manganese(II) ions when using activated carbons

O.M. Plotnikova, A.V. Sharov
Section: Ecotoxicology
The content of manganese ions (Mn2+) in the rivers and lakes of the Kurgan region (Russia) reaches 3–6 mg/L, reaching 10 mg/L and more in winter, which is significantly higher than the permissible concentrations. The article presents the results of studying the effect of Mn2+ ions on the blood biochemical parameters of three generations of laboratory mice after drinking solutions containing Mn2+ ions (20 mg/L). In mice of the first generation, an increase in the products of lipid peroxidation (LPO) by 1.4 times was observed while the activity of aminotransferases decreased by 20–30% and carbonyl protein products (CPB) by 15–25%; in the 3rd generation, Mn2+ -induced protein oxidation increased, as the aldehyde and keto derivatives increased 1.4 and 1.7 times, aerobic processes of glycolysis were activated, which was accompanied by a decrease in lactate and glucose and an increase in urea. The waviness of the effect of Mn2+ ions on chronic exposure is noted – the effect in the first and third generations is more intense than in the first. And also assessed the possibility of using activated carbons obtained from birch wood (AC) for cleaning from water from excess Mn2+ ions. Synthesized in the course of the study, ACs are characterized by high adsorption activity: the specific surface area is 560 m2/g, the pore radius is 2–7 nm, the amount of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups is 0.8–0.9 mmol/g. The number of Mn2+ ions on the surface of the AC was 0.60 mmol/g (calculated from the adsorption isotherm of the manganese sludge solution). The biochemical blood parameters of mice were determined after oral administration of a solution containing Mn2 + ions (20 mg/L) and after oral administration at a dose of 7.5 μmol/g Mn2+ ions, as well as extracts from AU with adsorbed Mn2+ ions. The extract from AU with adsorbed Mn2+ ions increased lipid and protein oxidation products and the activity of aminotransferases 1.3–1,4 times, the amount of urea 1.7 times, and the solution in the maximum dose of Mn2 + - POL and reduced the level of keto-derived proteins.
Keywords: manganese(II), activated carbon, biochemical blood parameters, laboratory mice

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Article published in number 1 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-1-188-193
Views: 13

Phthalates – a strange delusion of ecologists

A.A. Semenov, A.G. Enikeev, T.A. Babenko, T.N. Shafikova, A.G. Gorshkov
Section: Theoretical problems of ecology
The environment is polluted with orthophthalic acid esters (phthalates). There is a steady and generally accepted opinion that the reason for this is human production activities. The global annual production of phthalic esters is estimated at 4.9 million tons. It is believed that part of this amount enters in the environment as a harmful industrial pollutant and has an adverse effect on the health of the human population. However, from a large number of publications it is clear that phthalates, as natural metabolites, are also produced in living nature: bacteria, algae, fungi, plants and other organisms. Dibutyl phthalate and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate are the main ingredients among natural phthalic acid metabolites. The green cover of the planet simultaneously contains these substances many times more than their annual industrial production. The unicellate inhabitants of the oceans, soils, and other planetary spaces make a big contribution to the phthalates entering in the nature. The lifetime of phthalates in the environment is short and their long-term accumulation is impossible. The observed level of these pollutants in the environment is the result of a dynamic equilibrium process with the participation of natural biosynthesis and industrial production, on the one hand, and biota absorption and natural degradation, on the other. The proportion of biosynthesis and degradation in this equilibrium is seen to be predominant. Therefore, the recommended measures and efforts to limit the production and use of o-phthalic acid esters are of little use and make little sense. The observed level is supported by constant feeding from wildlife. Throughout human history, people have received and are receiving phthalates with plant foods without visible consequences. Their harmful effects on the health of the human population are exaggerated. And in the process of evolution, effective endogenous ways of detoxification have been developed.
Keywords: ortho-phthalic acid esters, environment, natural origin
Article published in number 1 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-1-016-021
Views: 31

Changes in the amino acid composition of humic substances of podzolic soils during forest regeneration after harvest cutting

N.N. Bondarenko, Е.М. Lapteva
Section: Agroecology
We studied how cuttings affects the amino acid composition of humic and fulvic acids isolated from the upper horizons of podzolic texture-differentiated soils. Amino acid fragments of the hydrolyzable part of humic acid macromolecules were identified and quantified in soils of spruce bilberry forest and different aged deciduous forests, forming during the post-cutting succession in the middle taiga subzone. We found that mass fraction of amino acids in the humic acids isolated from podzolic horizons of cutting places was higher than that in the intact bilberry spruce forest. In fulvic acids, an increase of the proportion of amino acids was found in the organogenic horizons only at the initial stages of reforestation. The regularities of changes in the amino acid composition of humic substances in the relative molar fractions of identified amino acid groups (acidic, basic, neutral polar and nonpolar) were revealed at different stages of the reforestation after cuttings of blueberry spruce forests. Initial stages of forest regeneration are characterized by a decrease in the ratio of hydroxyamino acids to heterocyclic acids, which indicates a depressed state of the zoomicrobial complex as a result of contemporary waterlogging of podzolic soils. Fulvic acids react most sensitively to changes in the synthesis and destruction of soil organic matter under forest regeneration through a change of species, which is characterized by the largest shifts in the ratio of the molar fractions of both individual amino acids and amino acid groups in the composition of their hydrolysates as a whole.
Keywords: cuttings, different aged deciduous forests, podzolic soils, humic and fulvic acids, amino acid composition.

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Article published in number 1 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-1-126-132
Views: 18

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