In vitro adaptive responses of Fragaria ananassa Duch. plantlets induced by the mechanocomposite based on amorphous silica and flavonoids of green tea
E.V. Ambros, O.V. Kotsupy, E.A. Karpova, E.G. Trofimova, Y.G. Zaytseva, T.I. Novikova
Section: Ecologization of industry
For the first time, morphological and physiological characteristics of Fragaria × ananassa microclones of two cultivars (Alpha and Solnechnaya polyanka) under the influence of rice husks-amorphous silica- and green-tea-flavonoid-based mechanocomposite (2.5; 5.0 and 10.0 mg/L in the medium) during the rooting stage in in vitro conditions were studied. The advantage of mechanochemical technology of raw materials is the obtaining of biologically active compounds without using any chemical solvents with the least impact on the environment. The growth-stimulating effect of all tested mechanocomposite concentrations on the development of the plantlets root system was revealed. Root length, root number per microshoot, and the wet and dry weight of the roots were significantly increased by 1.5, 1.4, 1.6 and 2.5 times, respectively. Moreover, the treatment resulted in increase of leaf number per microshoot, leaf area, and wet and dry weight of aerial parts appropriately by 1.3, 1.3, 1.2 and 1.9 times. Concentrations of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls a and b, and carotenoids), and their ratios (chlorophyll a/b, chlorophyll (a+b)/carotenoids) indicated a high physiological state of the plantlets at mechanocomposite concentrations of 2.5 and 5 mg/L. At a concentration of 10 mg/l, chlorophylls a and b in the leaves of the plantlets of both cultivars and the ratio chlorophyll (a+b)/carotenoids in the leaves of the plantlets of cultivar Alpha decreased to the control level and below, which indicated stress level of this mechanocomposite concentration. The concentrations of 2.5 and 5.0 mg/L are optimal for adaptation of plantlets with high physiological state to ex vitro environment. In the composition of phenolic compounds, ellagic, gallic, p-coumaric, ferulic, and cinnamic acids, and their derivatives, were found. The mechanocomposite contributed to an increase in the content of most phenolic compounds in both cultivars. The contents of some constituents had not significantly changed or decreased (including ellagic acid in both cultivars). The results may be used for the development of production systems for a healthy planting material using biotechnological approaches and recommended for commercial strawberry micropropagation.
Section: Monitoring of anthropogenically disturbed areas
The pollution of the environment with oil and oil products is one from the serious problems of the present time. The degradative activity of fungi contributes an important part in the self-cleaning of the natural ecosystems and is the basis of the development of environmental biotechnologies (mycoremediation). The selection of the fungi that can utilize pollutants and survive in adverse environmental conditions is the most important stage of the development of such technologies. We showed the ability to degrade of the oil hydrocarbons by 10 strains of basidiomycetes (genera Agaricus, Bjerkandera, Pleurotus, Schizophyllum, Stropharia, Trametes), and 4 strains of ascomycetes (genera Cladosporium, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Lecanicillium) at high temperature. The all studied fungi metabolized oil both in the rich medium and as the sole carbon source. The most active degraders were the basidiomycetes P. ostreatus, S. commune, and T. versicolor. Ascomycetes, with the exception of G. candidum, utilized oil by more than 80%. All oil fractions, including hard PAHs and resins, are available in the rich medium. Their decrease reached 82-97% by P. ostreatus Florida, S. commune, and T. versicolor DSM, and was 60-88% by ascomycetes L. aphanocladii and F. oxysporum. All the studied fungi, with the exception of P. ostreatus and F. oxysporum, used mainly alkane-naphthene fractions and the low molecular weight aromatic compounds during the utilization of oil as the sole carbon source. We found the production of ligninolytic enzymes (which catalyze the key stapes of the degradation of aromatic compounds) and the emulsifying compounds (which increase the bioavailability of oil). It can be considered as adaptation of the fungi to the oil pollution. The highest activities of ligninolytic enzymes (laccase and Mn-peroxidase) were detected in P. ostreatus Florida which is the most active degrader of the aromatic compounds. Ascomycetes, with the exception of G. candidum, produced only Mn-peroxidase. Basidiomycetes P. ostreatus Florida, S. commune, T. versicolor DSM11269 and ascomycetes F. oxysporum and L. aphanocladii were selected for the further studies and the development of the mycoremediation technologies.
Article published in number 4 for 2019 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-4-069-075
Effect of salt stress on the expression of genes of K+/Na+ -transporters HKT, SOD and Nfn in Triticum durum and Triticum aestivum
The problem of determining the potential of salt tolerance of wheat is one of the most pressing in the selection practice for areas with primary and secondary salinity. One of the ways to overcome the negative impact of the salinity factor is the use of saline-tolerant breeding lines and wheat genotypes. Expression of HKT transporter genes is important for characterizing the salt tolerance of wheat. In genotypes of durum and aestivum wheat Orenburgskaya 10 and Orenburgskaya 22 under salt stress, an increase in the expression of the K+/Na+ genes of transporters of the HKT1 and HKT2 families is observed by 3-4 times. The expression level of SOD and Nfn increases by 2-4 times, which indicates the high adaptive properties of these wheat genotypes to salt stress. Probably, the expression of the HKT, SOD and Nfn genes are interconnected. An increase in the level of expression of the NKT, SOD and Nfn families in roots and leaves under salt stress conditions are associated with the rapid recovery of the K+/Na+ ion balance and the removal of toxic Na+ and ROS ions, i.e. protective function.
The methodology of evaluation and quality management of components of the urban ecosystem, based on the use
of new information methods, substantiation of marker biological objects and methods for assessing their response to
anthropogenic impact, and ways of data arrays folding used for evaluation has been developed. The presented methodology takes into account the processes of receipt, accumulation and response of biological objects to the effects of marker
substances. The approach for the simultaneous recording and analysis of heterogeneous and different-sized data having
different degrees of influence on the state of the studied urban ecosystem components using the cluster analysis method
is presented. The territory of the urban ecosystem was zoned using the neural self-organizing networks of Kohonen,
implemented in the author’s model of neural network filtering. A method for determining the probabilities of exceeding
the threshold values of concentrations of marker substances-metals in the studied components of the urban ecosystem
is proposed. We estimated the probability that in the territory to which a particular observation belongs, an excess of a
given threshold will be marked by at least one of the studied indicators. As thresholds for these events, we have taken
the medians of continuous series of observations of metal concentrations. As a result, we calculated the probabilities of
exceeding half of the studied parameters of the specified thresholds in each zone. The facts of exceeding the thresholds
(events) established in this way were recorded in the totality of observations selected in the form of clusters formed by
neural network classification. At the same time the spatial distribution of selected observations with specific address
bindings forms the corresponding territorial zones. Recommendations on the use of the obtained results for operational
and planned quality management of the urban ecosystem components at the local level are given.
Keywords: urban ecosystem, risk assessment, response of the human body, biosubstrates, neural network technologies, metals
Article published in number 4 for 2019 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-4-031-036
Distribution of microfungi in the permafrost peat soil of the flat-hilly bog of the forest-tundra
The micromycetes complex was studied in the permafrost affected peat soil of the forest-tundra peatland (lower course of the Pechora river, forest tundra). Taxonomical list of microscopic fungi contains 42 species (including two forms of sterile mycelium). Division Zygomycota contains eight species (19%) from genera Mucor, Mortierellа, and Umbelopsis; division Ascomycota – 32 species (76%). Penicillium genus contains the highest number of species (21). The other genera – Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Pseudogymnoascus, Chrysosporium, Cephalosporium, Fusarium and Trichoderma are presented by single species. The highest number of fungi species was found in the upper part of the active layer (depth 0-20 cm) – 38 species (H=2.53), the lowest – in the lower part of the active layer (20-55 cm) – 11 species (H=0.90) and permafrost layer (55-115 cm) – 9 species (Н=1.31). The number of micromycetes varied depending on the used media and temperature of cultivation from single units to hundreds of thousands of colony forming units (CFU) per one gram of substrate. The highest number (51-84 thousands CFU per g of soil) of microscopic fungi was found in the upper part of the active layer (depth 0-4 cm). In the lower part of active layer, high number of micromycetes (60-104 thousands CFU per g of soil) was found only at rich by hydrocarbons media (worth agar, Sabouraud’s medium). In the permafrost layer, this number was lower by 1-2 orders of magnitude (0.2-3.7 thousands CFU per g of soil). Psychrotolerant species growing at temperatures 4-25°С are the basis of the micromycetes complex in the seasonally thawing and permafrost layers in the soil of the frost peat mound. According to the species abundance, the structure of micromycetes complex is presented by rare species – 60%, abundant species count 12-29%. Penicillium simplicissimum (23.6-48.3%), Pseudogymnoascus pannorum (12.0%), and Mycelia sterilia (light colored) (19.9%) were the most abundant in the active layer; Penicillium implicatum (32.3%) and Penicillium simplicissimum (19.4%) and Mycelia sterilia (light colored) (17.7%) – in the permafrost layers.
The purpose of the work is to select the most informative spectral indices for determining the boundaries of reservoirs and diagnosing the processes of eutrophication of water bodies in the Kirov region. Five satellite images obtained
from the Landsat 5 satellite were decrypted. The water color index, turbidity index, chlorophyll concentration index а,
normalized vegetation index (NDVI) and normalized index of water refractive index (NDWI) for four reservoirs in the
Kirov region were determined: Belokholunitskoye, Omutninskoye, Bol’shoye Kirsinskoye and Chernokholunitskoye.
To confirm and correct the data of deciphering the images, we used the results of bathymetric surveys, algological and
chemical analyzes of water from the reservoirs of the Kirov region, obtained during ground-based field observations in
water bodies. To build index maps, we used the QGIS software product, versions 2.18 and 3.8. Scales for indices were
selected empirically, highlighting areas with similar indices. The minimum and maximum values of the index in the
reservoirs were taken as the boundaries of the scale. It is noted that with high turbidity (more than 8 units of turbidity
by formazine) and high water color (from 42 to 398 degrees of color), the most informative indicators for identifying the boundaries of water bodies are the NDVI and NDWI indices. On satellite images taken in the spring, water color indices,
NDVI and NDWI are lower than in the summer. In the Omutninsk reservoir, an increase in the turbidity index during
the mass development of phytoplankton was noted. The ability to assess and compare the degree of development of phytoplankton, its spatial distribution over the water area of the Kirov region reservoirs using the turbidity indices and the
concentration of chlorophyll а in water is shown. When analyzing index charts, it was noted that the maximum values of
the chlorophyll concentration index а correspond to areas of the water area occupied by thickets of higher aquatic plants
(Omutninskoe reservoir) and shallow areas with delayed water exchange (Omutninskoye, Belokholunitskoye reservoirs).
Keywords: eutrophication, remote sensing of the Earth, Landsat 5, normalized difference vegetation index, normalized difference water index, color index, turbidity index, chlorophyll concentration index а, algae “bloom”
Article published in number 3 for 2019 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-3-028-033
Ecotoxicological characteristics of oil-contaminated soils (sludges) after their reagent treatment
The article presents the results of an experimental processing of the ground oil sludges from the territory of the Variogan oil field (Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug – Yugra, Tyumen Region), using surface-active reagent for decreasing. toxicity. The efficiency of the chemical reagent treatment of the oil sludge samples (OS), 7.92–18.67 wt% oil contented, was characterized. The treatment was carried out at a mass ratio of oil sludge: reagent = 1: 10 for 30 minutes at 60 °C and 120 rpm. The effect of the oil sludges treatment by the BOK-6 reagent, analyzed in a battery of biotest systems, showed a decrease in the toxicity level of the samples. This tendency is evidenced by a decrease in the No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC) of aqueous extracts from the treated samples in biotests with crustacea Daphnia magna and infusoria Paramecium caudatum, as well as a decrease of negative phytoeffect caused by treated samples versus untreated. In the process of phytoassay with the applicative method (upon contact of seeds with a solid mass of samples), the observed sensitivity of Raphanus sativus, Avena sativa, Sinapis alba seeds was higher than with the eluate (interaction with water extract) testing method. In general, the conducted studies showed that the physicochemical treatment methods with surfactants solutions contribute to the neutralization of oil sludges, reducing the content of petroleum products.
Article published in number 3 for 2019 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-3-120-126
Environmental aspects in the production of mayonnaise
E.I. Rakhimova, А.S. Sirotkin
Section: Ecologization of industry
Wastewater from the production of mayonnaise is water from washing equipment and contains fats and oils as a
dominant impurity in an average concentration of 0.8 to 3% (mass.). It was noted that in the process of disposal, acid
and alkaline wastewater undergoes an ultrafiltration process, and the separated fats are fed to the soapstock, formed at
the stage of alkaline refining during processing and production of sunflower oil and containing water, soap, absorbed
neutral fat, excess alkali. Further use of soapstock in soap making with the production of natural products is relevant.It
has been experimentally shown that in the production of mayonnaise, a comprehensive 3-stage washing of technological
equipment and pipelines, consisting of an alkaline, acid washing and disinfecting solution treatment, with the inclusion
of additional treatment with hot steam at a temperature of 110 о
C and an overpressure of 0.7 bar for 15 min allows you to
increase the production cycle between equipment washes, reduce the amount of industrial wastewater, and also reduce their
pollution by fats and oils by 3-4 times.It was noted that the frequency of washing, including the processing of equipment
and pipelines assembled with hot steam, should be implemented 1 time in 5 days, which allows to reduce the amount of
wastewater generated by 33% and to reduce costs for these technological operations. In addition, it has been shown that
the additional processing of equipment with hot steam during its complex washing ensures the microbiological safety of
the finished product over the shelf life.
The article presents the results of a study of an ecotoxicological characteristics dynamic effected by reagent treatment of ground oil sludge (OS), 7,92–18,67 wt% oil contented, using solutions of surface-active substances. The effectiveness of the treatment by different reagents at a mass ratio of oil sludge : reagent = 1: 10 (60°C and 120 rpm for 30 minutes) differs for different oil sludges. To analyze changes in ecotoxicological characteristics, samples of the original oil sludge and BOK-6 reagent treated were selected. The ecotoxicity dynamic has been studied by biotesting using standardized test cultures of different taxonomic affiliation (crustaceans, ciliates, bacteria, and higher plants). The ecotoxicity study using standard methods for the mortality of Daphnia magna crustacean and Paramecium caudatum infusoria showed that the original and treated oil sludge samples remained toxic to all test cultures, except for bacteria. However, shifts in the positive direction of the values of the «no observed effect concentration» NOEC10 are noticeable, which indicates a decrease in the toxicity of aqueous extracts after reagent treatment. It was established that oil sludge samples in all dilutions are safe for bacteria, since at all investigated dilutions the toxic limit in the Ecolum test system was not exceeded. The phytotesting was carried out by eluate and applicative methods using higher plants: radish Raphanus sativus L., white mustard Sinapis alba L. and oven Avena sativa L. – in the Phytoscan test system. The results showed a general decrease in the oil sludge ecotoxicity after its reagent treatment, as well as a higher sensitivity of the applicative method in comparison with the eluate method.
The effect of CuSO4 solutions with Cu2+ ion concentrations equal to 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mg/dm3 with the addition of reduced glutathione (GSH) and without it to soil cyanobacteria (CB) of Nostoc paludosum 18 was studied. The duration of exposure of the culture with solutions was 72 hours. During the experiment, the formation of biofilms of the CB from the homogenate was observed, as an indicator of the recovery of the initial population; measured the concentration of dissolved O2 in suspensions of the CB; determined the proportion of CB cells capable of forming formazan from 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride as an indicator of the viability of the culture.
Under the action of CuSO4, the culture of the CB violated the ability to form biofilms in solutions with concentrations of Cu2+ 1 mg/dm3 or more without the addition of GSH and at Cu2+ concentrations equal to 3 or more mg/dm3 in the presence of tripeptide. By changing the concentration of dissolved O2, it was not possible to diagnose the toxicity of the solution with a concentration of 1 mg Cu2+ /dm3 throughout the experiment. In a solution with a concentration of 2 mg Cu2+ /dm3, the average degree of toxicity was established after three days of exposure. The medium and low degrees of toxicity were detected in solutions with Cu2+ concentrations of 3–5 mg/dm3 after one day of exposure. With an increase in the concentration of Cu2+, the dehydrogenase activity of the CB decreased by 50% or more compared to the control. Solutions with GSH are less toxic than similar solutions without the addition of GSH. The most acceptable test function for the action of copper(II) ions with their concentrations in the solution exceeding the MPC is the dehydrogenase activity of the N. paludosum CB with a titer of 2•107 cells. /cm3.
Keywords: cyanobacteria, copper (II) ions, glutathione, toxicity