ISSN 1995-4301
(Print)

ISSN 2618-8406
(Online)

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4 issue of the journal in 2023

3 issue of the journal in 2023

2 issue of the journal in 2023

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Mechanism of biosorption of metals from e-waste by microscopic algae

A.A. Chugainova, L.V. Rudakova
Section: Ecologization of industry
The development of technologies for extracting metals from waste is an urgent task. In this study, a poorly studied technology for the extraction of metals from electronic waste by microscopic algae, based on the biosorption method, was considered. The efficiency of the technology is determined both by the parameters of the biosorption process (properties and dose of biomass, temperature, pH, contact time of the adsorbate with the biosorbent), and the chemical composition of the solution obtained during the leaching of prepared electronic waste and containing metals. In the course of the study, the presence of functional groups in the biosorbent that could enter into chemical interaction with the recovered metals, the chemical properties of metals in the test solution were identified, and the leaching of the sorbed metals from the biosorbent was assessed. Microscopic algae of the species Chlorella sorokiniana, Chlorella vulgaris, Chlorella spirulina, and the genus Scenedesmus sp. were used as a biosorbent. The metal was sourced from mobile phone/smartphone screens and computer monitors. Analysis of the component composition of screens and monitors showed that it is represented by more than 10 different metals belonging to the group of basic metals and 7 metals belonging to the group of rare earth, rare and precious metals. Using the method of IR spectroscopy, the presence of the following functional groups in the cell walls and organoids of microscopic algae was proved: amino groups, hydroxyl and carboxyl groups. The results of experimental studies have established a mixed mechanism of biosorption, including physical sorption and chemisorption. As evidence, we used data on the partial leaching of sorbed metals from microscopic algae after the completion of the process.
Keywords: electronic waste, microscopic algae, biosorption, metal extraction

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Article published in number 4 for 2023
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-4-118-124
Views: 5

Associations of myxomycetes in forest biocenoses (on the example of the Nurgush Nature Reserve)

A.A. Shirokikh, I.G. Shirokikh
Section: Population ecology
Myxomycete communities are an integral component of forest biocenoses. For the first time, a comparative study of the composition and biodiversity of myxomycete complexes was carried out on the example of two sites of the Nurgush Reserve. It was found that the species diversity of myxomycetes is higher at the Nurgush site, and the interspecific associations of these organisms are more diverse at the Tulashor site. An important component of the myxomycete communities are lower and higher fungi. Micromycetes act as parasites, and higher fungi act as organisms that help myxomycetes develop new substrates, in particular, decomposing wood. An important component of communities are bacteria, which are not only a trophic resource for myxomycetes, but also contribute to their adaptation to the environment. Among the bacteria dominating in the composition of myxomycete communities, species synthesizing indole-3-acetic acid – a phytohormone of auxin nature are identified, in connection with which the sporophores of myxomycetes can be potential sources of biotechnologically valuable strains.
Keywords: myxomycetes, taxa, substrate complex, bacteria, micromycetes, fungi
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Article published in number 3 for 2023
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-3-150-159
Views: 32

Monitoring the distribution of Heracleum sosnowskyi in urban areas based on Earth remote sensing data

T.Ya. Ashikhmina, V.V. Rutman, T.A. Adamovich, E.V. Tovstik
Section: Monitoring of natural and anthropogenically disturbed areas
The article deals with the problem of distribution and the possibility of monitoring Sosnowsky’s hogweed (Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden.) in certain areas of the urban environment using Earth remote sensing data. The Sentinel-2 images with a resolution of 10 m were used as the initial satellite information. Identifying, tracking, analysis and mapping the distribution areas of Sosnowsky’s hogweed were carried out using satellite data. The choice of mass growing areas of Sosnovsky’s hogweed for monitoring was carried out during the preliminary field studies of the urban territory of Kirov. The monitoring studies were based on differences in the reflectivity between the hogweed and other environmental objects. Satellite data processing was carried out using the QGIS-3.26 program. Based on the results of the work, maps were obtained, on which areas of mass growth of Sosnowsky’s hogweed were visualized. The built-in tools of the program allowed calculating the area of distribution of the studied invasive species in certain areas of Kirov. The identified areas were represented by plots of continuous overgrowth and its distribution in small groups. The paper describes a technique that makes it possible to calculate changes in the areas of plots of continuous overgrowth of Sosnowsky’s hogweed in the study area. The technique enables to identify periods of maximum growth of hogweed, to determine the trends in the area of its continuous overgrowth.
The results of the work demonstrate the effectiveness of a combination of Earth remote sensing methods and satellite image processing algorithms in monitoring the distribution of Sosnowsky’s hogweed.
Keywords: Heracleum sosnowskyi, invasive species, monitoring, Earth remote sensing, Sentinel-2, processing algorithm, overgrowth area

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Article published in number 3 for 2023
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-3-073-080
Views: 17

Influence of various types of surfactants on gas emissions and microbiota of the liquid fraction of manure effluents

L.V. Pilip, N.V. Syrchina, E.P. Kolevatykh, V.V. Rutman
Section: Monitoring of natural and anthropogenically disturbed areas
Various surfactants are widely used in modern industrial animal husbandry. As part of detergents and pharmacological veterinary preparations, surfactants inevitably fall into manure effluents (ME), resulting in a change in the properties of ME. The study of the effect of various types of surfactants on the gas release and microbiota of the liquid fraction (LF) of ME was carried out on the example of surfactants with different biocidal activity: sodium laureth sulfate – anionactive surfactant (AS), lauryldimethylamine oxide – nonionic surfactant (NS) and benzalkonium chloride – cationic surfactant (CS). The studies were conducted under laboratory conditions. The total observation time since the introduction of additives in the LF (0,01 g per 1 liter) was 14 days. The obtained data shows changes in the dynamics of greenhouse gases (CH4 and CO2) and odor-forming substances (H2S, NH3, RSH) emission, as well as in the composition of the microbiota of biofilms and bacterioplankton, under the influence of surfactants. The dynamics of the CH4 emission differ from those of other gases. The use of CS leads to a gradual increase in CH4 emission a week after application. This may be due to increased permeability of the cytoplasmic membranes of methanogenic archaea with increased chemical resistance. The application of various types of surfactants into the LF has different effects on the dynamics of the odor-forming substances emission, and the active emission period of mercaptans becomes longer. The highest level of ethyl mercaptan was observed in the option with NS. There was no significant difference in the effect of low concentrations of various surfactants on the microbiota of LF, however the AS has a more pronounced bacteriostatic effect on set of indicators. The most tolerant to the effects of all types of surfactants were Clostridia, which dominates the microbiota biofilms and bacterioplankton. Fungi were the second most abundant in biofilms of the LF.
Keywords: manure effluents, surfactants, microbiota, biofilms, bacterioplankton, greenhouse gas emission, odor

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Article published in number 3 for 2023
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-3-059-072
Views: 15

Gelatin films containing plant extracts

E.S. Shirokova, E.V. Tovstik, A.I. Fokina
Section: Ecologization of industry
Polymer films based on traditional synthetic polymers are widely used throughout the world. However, the impossibility of biodegradation of synthetic polymers in the environment and, as a result, the accumulation of polymeric waste stimulates using biodegradable bio-based polymers instead of traditional ones. One of them is gelatin. Gelatin is biodegradable, it has good mechanical and barrier properties, high film forming ability and widely distributed.
Presented research includes results of a investigation of gelatin films based on aqueous extracts from the leaves of sea buckthorn leaves, plantain leaves, pine needles (film based on distilled water used as a control). The qualitative and quantitative composition of polyphenolic compounds (the sum of polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins) that make up the extracts was determined using physico-chemical methods of analysis. The antioxidant activity of plant extracts has been established. The highest amount of antioxidants (64 mg/100 сm 3 ) was found in extracts from sea buckthorn leaves. Using plant extracts in the composition of gelatin films did not cause significant changes in their thermal stability; it was confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis. Significant changes in properties compared to the control were noted for samples containing sea buckthorn leaf extract. Thus, the value of the stress at break was 11.6 MPa, and the elongation at break was 100% (11.4 MPa and 65% for control, respectively). For all the studied samples, there was a lower water absorption (200–223% after 60 minutes) compared to the control (254% after 60 minutes) and vapor permeability values comparable to the control. Such combination of film properties, with a high content of antioxidants in plant extracts, allows us to consider these materials as promising for the creation of biodegradable packaging films with antibacterial activity.
Keywords: Plantago major L., Hippоphaе rhamnoides L., Pinus sylvestris L., polyphenols, biodegradable polymers

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Article published in number 3 for 2023
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-3-129-139
Views: 15

The factors of forming the floristic structure of railway stations embankment (on the example of the Republic of Bashkortostan)

S.A. Gareeva, A.F. Khusainov, L.M. Abramova
Section: Monitoring of natural and anthropogenically disturbed areas
Railroad embankments are special types of ruderal ecotopes in human-transformed areas. Railways are active channels for transzonal plant migration and are open to colonization by alien plant species. The aim of the research was to identify the factors of formation as well as the comparative analysis of the activity of partial floras species at six railway stations of the Republic of Bashkortostan located in three natural and climatic zones of the Southern Urals: the forest-steppe Cis-Urals, the steppe Trans-Urals and the Mountain-Forest Urals. The total flora comprised 288 species of vascular plants, including: 125 at the Kandry station, 124 at Buzdyak, 105 at Beloretsk, 128 at Inzer station, 157 at Sibai, 115 at Almukhametovo. A four-point scale of species activity was used for the comparative analysis of the flora of railway stations. It is shown that 21 species are found in all zones with the same degree of activity (“often” and “very often”). 125 species of vascular plants occur exclusively on the railway embankments of one of the studied stations. The flora of railway stations have similarities from 0.50 to 0.71 on the Sørensen-Czekanowski coefficient, which is provided by a common core of anthropotolerant species with a wide ecological amplitude. The differences reflect the zonal nature of vegetation and are formed through the participation of native flora species adapted to the specific substrates of railway embankment. Also the contribution of accidental drift of plant seeds is significant. The contribution of the zonal factor in various natural and climatic zones differs: the less difference between the railway ecotopes and the landscape and vegetation conditions of adjacent natural areas of the respective natural zone, the higher the participation of apophytic species in the forming of partial flora, and vice versa.
Keywords: Southern Urals, railway embankments, plant migration, flora, species activity, Sørensen-Chekanowski coefficient, zonal factor

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Article published in number 3 for 2023
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-3-081-087
Views: 12

Long-distance movements of small mammals during the autumn-winter period

E.B. Grigorkina, G.V. Olenev
Section: Population ecology
First time in the East Urals radioactive trace zone (EURT) (Chelyabinsk region, Southern Urals) small mammals from natural population with rhodamine B (RB) label, received in last year were revealed. The aim of this study was to estimate long-distance movements (LDM) of small mammals during the autumn–winter season by method of group marking with bait containing RB. One-time ingestion of bait with RB ensures systemic marking, which fixed in keratin-containing structures (hairs, claws, vibrissae). Retention time of RB-label for wood mouse (Sylvaemus uralensis Pallas, 1811) was 338 days, for common shrew (Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758) – 312 days, for red-backed vole (Myodes rutilus Pallas, 1779) – 251 days. It has allowed for the first time to estimate LDM of wintering individuals during autumn–winter season from EURT zone to adjacent territories and vice versa. It was found that S. uralensis are able to settle within 10800 m, M. rutilus – 9500 m, S. araneus – 9300 m. These data are the maximum recorded distance for these species. There is a predominance of females both among wintering settled animals and distant migrants. Probably LDM of females is evolutionary more favorable to population as they serve as the potential reserve of a genetic variety. LDM provides spatial and functional connectivity of mouse-sized mammal’s populations and possibility of genetic information exchange between population groupings on both the impact and background territories. The technique of group marking with bait containing RB has shown the efficiency at research of spatial structure of small mammals during the autumn-winter period. It is advisable to include it in monitoring system in areas of local technogenic pollution as well as to use it to calibrate samples of animals in the study of remote effects of radiating and other toxic effects.
Keywords: East Urals radioactive trace zone, group marking, small mammals, dispersal, autumn-winter period
Article published in number 3 for 2023
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-3-186-196
Views: 28

Altitudinal variation in ecological strategies across plant communities of different vegetation types

A.B. Novakovskiy, Yu.A. Dubrovskiy, E.E. Kulygina, S.V. Degteva
Section: Population ecology
Grime’s CSR (competition-stress-ruderality) theory has found widespread use in modern ecology for the analysis of vegetation worldwide. This study aimed to verify if vegetation behavior predicted by this theory coincided with field observations along a highly pronounced altitudinal gradient and to determine if this behavior is the same for different vegetation types. We studied the 275 plots of different vegetation types in the Northern and Subpolar Urals (Russia). Based on the community-weighted mean approach, we allocated the CSR status of each plot. Then, we used generalized additive models and linear modeling to find relationships between CSR statuses, vegetation types and altitude. The plant communities were characterized by a predominance of species with competitor (C) and stress-tolerant (S) strategies and a small share of ruderal (R) species. According to the decrease in the share of competitors and the increase of stress-tolerators, the vegetation types were ranked as follows: forest (С: 47, S: 44), meadow (С: 47, S: 37), bush (С: 44, S: 46), mire (С: 42, S: 49) and mountain tundra (С: 35, S: 58). The different vegetation types showed different responses to elevation changes in the CSR terms. Meadows, bushes and mountain tundra showed the most corresponding behavior with Grime’s CSR theory predictions: a significant decrease of the C scores and an increase of S component (4–5% for every 100 m increase in elevation). Finally, forests and mires did not show notable changes in the CSR status.
Keywords: Grime’s CSR, functional traits, altitude gradient, mountain vegetation
Article published in number 3 for 2023
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-3-160-170
Views: 19

Translocation of heavy metals into plants from the soil near the Alaverdi copper smelting enterprise

A.R. Sukiasyan, T.A. Jhangiryan, S.A. Hunanyan, A.A. Kirakosyan
Section: Chemistry of natural environments and objects
The levels of heavy metals (HMs) in soil samples and plants grown on experimental plots near the Alaverdi copper smelting enterprise has been studied. The studies were conducted during the period of the enterprise’s operating in incomplete capacity (spring – summer 2022). The wind direction in the region was taken into account. The brown forest soils were taken from the topsoil horizon at a depth of 0–25 cm on the selected pilot plots located within 3; 10; 30 km from the enterprise. Potato, beet, carrot, pepper and eggplant were grown in field plots. The contents of HMs in soil and plant samples were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. A comparative series of Cu > Pb > Zn > Co > Mn was established according to the gross HMs content in soil samples from plots close to the enterprise (3 km). In this series of experiments the comparative series of mobile forms of HMs follows the same sequence but with lower values. The mobility of Cu, Pb, Zn and Co in soil samples was on average 15.5%, in the case of Mn – 25.5% (3 km). The highest mobility in soil samples from distant plots (30 km) in the wind-rose direction was detected for Cu, Co, and Mn (14.3% on average), and the mobility of Pb and Zn was 8%. Calculations of bio-ecological and geo-ecological coefficients showed that the studied plants are characterized by individual scenario of metabolic processes, but a common adaptation strategy to the stressor. It has been shown that HMs accumulate more in the reproductive organs of plants than in the vegetative ones. This explains the differences in plant tolerance to chemical elements.
Keywords: soil, plants, heavy metals, anthropogenic pollution, mobility, concentration factor, biological accumulation factor, mobility index
Article published in number 3 for 2023
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-3-120-128
Views: 18

Macrophyte thicket ecosystems in the Neva Bay: a response to hydraulic construction impact

V.A. Zhigulsky, V.F. Shuisky, E.Yu. Chebykina, D.V. Zhigulskaya
Section: Monitoring of natural and anthropogenically disturbed areas
The first stage results (2016–2020) of the scientific research programme of macrophyte thickets ecosystems (socalled “reed beds”) in the Neva Bay of the Gulf of Finland have been summed up. The programme is carried out by the environmental design company “Eco-Express-Service” LLC (initiator, coordinator, sponsor and main executor) with the participation of a group of St. Petersburg biologists. Observations are carried out at 16 model parcels of thickets (the area of each plot is about 1 km2 ). Maps of phytocenoses, fish spawning places, migratory stopovers for aquatic and semiaquatic birds, as well as summary maps of the resulting ecological value were compiled.
According to main indicators, the macrophyte thickets ecosystems that have appeared before and during Saint Petersburg Flood Prevention Facility complex construction (1979–2011) turned out to be the most environmentally valuable. The last ones have some advantages, since they are still less dense, more mosaic, and therefore available for fish and birds settlement not only along the periphery of plant massifs, but also inside them. Younger thickets that have appeared in new biotopes in the past decade are much less actively used by the biota, but they represent a valuable reserve for future macrophyte thickets ecosystems. The sensitivity of macrophyte thickets to hydraulic works and their consequences increases with the age of thickets: the youngest ecosystems formed under the conditions of technogenic impact are the most resistant. On the whole, it should be noted that macrophyte thickets are highly resistant to hydraulic works, except their direct mechanical destroying. The projective cover degree of biotopes by vegetation depend much less on the ongoing hydraulic works, than on the general trend of its technogenic succession.
Keywords: macrophytes thickets, reed bed, Neva Bay, Eastern part of the Gulf of Finland, hydraulic works, aerial survey
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Article published in number 3 for 2023
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-3-088-093
Views: 10

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