Section: Monitoring of natural and anthropogenically disturbed areas
The importance of the “Koigorodskiy” National Park (Komi Republic) for conservation of protected plants and fungi key habitats is demonstrated for the first time. By now, we registered here 367 occurrences of 32 rare species of plants and fungi, included in the Red Data Book of the Komi Republic. Among them, 11 taxons of plants (7 species of vascular plants and 4 species of bryophytes), and 21 taxons of fungi (9 species of fungi, 11 species of lichens and 1 species of lichenicolous fungi) were found. Three species of vascular plants and nine taxons of lichens require monitoring of their nature populations and are included in the Appendix 1 to the Red Data Book of the Komi Republic. Our results confirm the priority of the Koigorodskiy National Park for conservation of biological diversity
Section: Methodology and research methods. Models and forecasts
Polylactide is one of the most environmentally friendly polymers to replace fossil-based materials. In this work we
quantitatively evaluated the effectiveness of new photostabilizers in preventing the photodegradation of polylactide under UVC radiation by using the spectrometric criteria calculated from FTIR spectra. We have proposed a method including a treatment of the samples of polylactide mixed with the photostabilizers by the UV radiation with a wavelength of 254 nm for 4 hours followed by the calculation of the effectiveness of the photostabilizer based on the FTIR spectrometric data. The number of terminal hydroxyl groups increased during photodegradation due to the cleavage of ester bonds in the polymer, this caused the increase of the absorption at 3600–3100 cm -1 in the FTIR spectra. Several photostabilizers of the terpenophenol class were studied, namely 4-methyl-2,6-diisobornylphenol, 2-isobornylphenol, 2-isobornyl-4-methylphenol
and 2-isobornyl-6-methylphenol, as well as bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidyl)sebacate – the well-known hindered
amine light stabilizer. The mass concentrations of these photostabilizers varied from 0.05 to 1.00%.
The best protection effect from the UVC radiation in regard to polylactide was shown by 4-methyl-2,6-diisobornylphenol at the concentration of 0.05% by weight. Its photoprotective activity was almost 2 times higher
than that of bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidyl)sebacate of the same concentration. The high photoprotecting
activity of 4-methyl-2,6-diisobornylphenol was due to the increased stability of the phenoxy radical provided by
bulky isobornyl substituents in the aromatic ring. In the opposite, the strong photosensitizing effect accelerating the photodegradation of polylactide was manifested by 1% concentrations of 2-isobornyl-4-methylphenol and
2-isobornyl-6-methylphenol. In this case, the delocalization of the unpaired electron in the conjugation chain with the formation of many resonance forms contributed to the transfer of the radical to polylactide macromolecules. The protection of polylactide from UVC radiation opens up prospects for expanding the areas of application of polylactide, a polymer synthesized from renewable raw materials.
Keywords: renewable raw materials, polylactide, photoprotectors, infrared spectrometry
Article published in number 3 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-3-026-033
Ecological and demographic characteristics of Cypripedium calceolus L. coenopopulations in the Kirov region
N.Y. Egorova, V.N. Suleymanova, E.V. Ryabova
Section: Population ecology
The results of studying the ecological and demographic parameters of 10 cenopopulations (CP) of Cypripedium calceolus L. in the subzone of the southern taiga in the Kirov region (Slobodskoy, Afanasievsky, Lebyazhsky districts) are presented. In habitats with C. calceolus, the main background of plant groupings is formed by representatives of boreal and non-morale ecological-cenotic groups. The limiting factors affecting the spread of the species are the illumination and acidity of the soil. The generative-oriented type of the ontogenetic spectrum is predominant. According to the “delta–omega” classification, the studied CPs are represented by aging and transitional types. According to the vital state, most CPs are thriving, with the exception of CP 5, 7. A comprehensive assessment of the state of C. calceolus showed that the populations are in a state “close to threatened” or “dependent on conservation”.
Article published in number 3 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-3-166-174
Сhemical land degradation under the influence of animal husbandry waste
N.V. Syrchina, L.V. Pilip, T.Ya. Ashikhmina
Systematic introduction of significant volumes of liquid fraction (LF) of manure effluents into arable land leads to a significant transformation of the physical and chemical properties of agrozems. Under the influence of LF, the content of mobile forms of phosphorus (up to 980–1170 mg/kg), exchangeable potassium (up to 860 mg/kg), and organic matter in the arable horizon significantly increases, and acidity decreases. The LF of manure effluents of cattle contributes to a more pronounced increase рНКСl and a more intensive accumulation of organic matter than the LF of pig manure effluents, which may be due to the different chemical composition of manure. Cattle manure contains more Cа and Mg, which lower the pH, as well as lignin and fiber, leading to the accumulation of humus in the soil. The concentration of all studied heavy
metals (HM) in arable land did not exceed the values typical for agrozems of the Kirov region. The content of gross and mobile forms Cu, Cd, Pb in the surveyed agro-ecosystems turned out to be higher than in the background territories. The amount of HM in corn stalks did not exceed the usual content of these elements in plants of uncontaminated territories. The accumulation indices of all studied HM, except Cu, were significantly higher when growing plants on acidic soils. A possible reason for the increased bioavailability of Cu for plants in neutral soils may be the formation of soluble chelate complexes. To prevent environmental pollution in the area of livestock complexes, it is necessary to improve the existing system of animal waste disposal and introduce technologies that allow waste to be transported over long distances.
Keywords: manure runoff, soil pollution, heavy metals, accumulation index, degradation of agrozem
Article published in number 3 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-3-219-225
Seasonal variation of concentration and net CO2 exchange in the spruce forest ecosystem of the middle taiga
S.V. Zagirova, J.F. Mikhailov
Section: Ecology and climate change
Measurements of CO2 concentration in atmospheric air and CO2 fluxes over the forest canopy were carried out to quantify ecosystem net exchange (NEE) in spruce stands during the growing season of 2017. In the conditions of cool and rainy summer, the rate of net CO2 exchange between the spruce forest and the surface atmosphere varied from -15.0 to 15.0 gCO2 /(m2 · day), the cumulative NEE from May to August was -780 gCO2 /m2 . In the second half of August the spruce forest became a source of CO2 release into the atmosphere. The change in the CO2 concentration in the air column was approaching zero and did not affect the accumulation of ecosystem exchange. Measurements at eight heights of spruce stands showed a gradual decrease in CO2 concentration in the first half of the growing season, the minimum values were noted in July and August, during the period of maximum photosynthesis of forest trees. The main source of CO2 is soil, respectively, the maximum concentrations are noted in the ground layer of air. The amplitude of seasonal fluctuations in the CO2 content in the air at a height of 0.5 m was 92 ppm, at 2.5 m – 67 ppm, and in the crown space did not exceed 47 ppm. The rate of turbulent air mixing and photosynthetic activity of the canopy of the stand determined the daily changes in the concentration gradient according to the altitude profile of the phytocenosis. Decrease of CO2 in the air column 0–30 m after sunrise and before noon corresponded to an increase in net exchange in the ecosystem of forest. The results of one year of observations indicate that the spruce forest ecosystem performs the function of a sink of carbon dioxide, however,
to assess the interannual variability of net exchange, continuous long-term measurements are required.
Keywords: spruce forest, middle taiga, surface layer of atmosphere, carbon dioxide net exchange, eddy-covariance
Article published in number 3 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-3-226-234
Survival and reproductive value of different cohorts in the muskrat population (Ondatra zibethicus L.)
N.S. Korytin, V.V. Shiryaev
Section: Population ecology
A few demographic parameters of the muskrat population have been obtained. The study is based on data from trapping muskrat samples (total 2018 individuals) and information on the fertility of 868 females. Variation in the cohort’s survival rate and reproductive value were studied for the first time on the basis of the muskrat population age distribution in the Ili River delta. The females specific survival rate was slightly higher than males in all age intervals. Both males and females survival rate was dramatically reduced starting at the age 1+. Maximal specific survival rate in the 0+ – 1+ age interval is typical for animals of the first cohort, minimal – for the second, which is most numerous. The picture of specific survival rate changes as cohort is growing older. In older age classes, the maximum survival rate turn out to last, third cohort. So, in the last age class the largest part of individuals belong to the third cohort (75%). As a result, the largest number of offspring is brought by females of this cohort (1.24–1.57 times more than representatives of the first and second cohorts). This is indicating the highest reproductive value of the third cohort females. No significant discrepancy in the fertility of females from different cohorts were found. That is, differences in the reproductive value of muskrats belonging to different cohorts arise due to the difference in specific survival rate. The number of representatives of the first two cohorts, which survived for the next year, is quite enough to form the population parent number. The muskrat retains the mechanism of forming next year reproductive core, which is typical to small voles, but it does not have a determining value for it.
Article published in number 3 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-3-175-182
An approach to the development of an integral index of ecological well-being of the territory
A.V. Minkina, S.A. Dvinskikh, T.V. Zueva
Section: Social ecology
The deterioration of the ecological state of all natural components in the territory of the Perm Krai is associated with an intense technogenic impact on the environment and an increase in the incidence of the population. Currently, in the practice of nature management there is no single, generally accepted method of integral assessment of both the ecological state of territories and the social conditions of life of the population. Most of the existing indicators (indices) consider only individual components of the general ecological state and are usually based on monitoring data. We believe that for a large region (for example, for the Perm Krai), it is advisable to take the technogenic impact as the basis for assessing the ecological state of the territory, with the obligatory consideration of the consequences of this impact on public health. To assess the ecological state of the territory, it is proposed to use the integral index of the ecological well-being of the territory. The stages of development of the integrated index of the ecological well-being of the territory are presented, the methodology for assessing the ecological state of the territory, assessing the social conditions of life and the incidence of the population is proposed. For the first time, a conditional norm was used as an evaluation criterion – the value of 50% probability of exceeding the selected calculated indicators. The main results of using the methodology are given on the example of the administrative-territorial units of the Perm Krai are presented.
Keywords: Perm Krai, ecological state, index of ecological well-being, social conditions, morbidity of the population, assessment of the state of the territory
Article published in number 3 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-3-235-240
Study of the properties of local isolates of Parastagonospora nodorum
A.V. Bakulina, D.V. Popyvanov, A.V. Kharina
To study the cultural, morphological and pathogenic properties of fungi that cause Septoria blotch of wheat in the conditions of the Kirov region, phytopathogenic fungi were isolated from the affected plants. Of the 38 fungal isolates selected in pure culture, eight were identified by cultural and morphological features as Parastagonospora nodorum which causes Septoria nodorum blotch (SNB). To confirm the species identity, the DNA of fungi was used for real-time
PCR using the commercial test system “Septorioz zlakov (Stagonospora nodorum)” (“AgroDiagnostika”, Russia). Based on experimental data, a modification of the method for isolating fungi that cause Septoria blotch of wheat is proposed. Cultural and morphological properties of local P. nodorum isolates (TR1, TR2, P12, H7, H9, KR, SB, TC) were characterized on potato-glucose agar (PGA). The use of malt-yeast agar as a medium in comparison with PGA stimulated the growth rate of the P. nodorum KR isolate and did not affect the growth rate of other fungal isolates. Evaluation of the pathogenic properties of local P. nodorum isolates on wheat plants showed that TC and H9 isolates are highly pathogenic. These isolates can be used to screen the resistance to SNB of a wide range of wheat genotypes grown in the Kirov region.
Keywords: Septoria nodorum blotch, Parastagonospora nodorum, cultural and pathogenic properties, pycnidospores, growth rate
Article published in number 3 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-3-212-218
Heavy metals in snow cover and urban soils
E.A. Gornostaeva, G.I. Berezin, E.V. Dabakh
Section: Chemistry of natural environments and objects
The pollution of snow cover and soils of different functional zones of the city of Kirov with heavy metals (HM) has been assessed. Judging by the state of the snow cover, the level of air pollution with Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cd in winter in different functional zones of the northern part of the city and in the background territory differs slightly, but varies significantly over the years of observation. A correlation was found (r = 0.98–0.99) between the content of HMs in the snow cover and their total content in the soil.
It is shown that the level of soil pollution depends on the selected background indicators. In the absence of excess of gross forms of HM over approximate permissible concentrations, the indicator of total pollution (Zc ) corresponds to the average level of soil pollution in the industrial zone. Pollution is diagnosed by the accumulation of mobile HM compounds, and the mobility coefficients (indicators that do not depend on the selected background) make it possible to assess the risk of accumulation of Pb and Cd in soils in exchangeable and carbonate-related forms in the industrial, as well as in the recreational areas of the northern part of the city, as very high.
Keywords: heavy metals, accumulation snow cover, urban soils, urbanized areas, atmospheric air
Article published in number 3 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-3-110-117
NDVI – alpha diversity relationship in tropical montane cloud forest of Ecuador
S. Llerena, G. Toasa, A.I. Kurbatova
Section: Monitoring of natural and anthropogenically disturbed areas
In tropical forest the biodiversity is in a constant threat, some species are listed in the IUCN as vulnerable, endan-
gered or threatened with extinction. Thus, a fast method for biodiversity determination or monitoring can contribute to
its conservation. Remote sensing has demonstrated to be a powerful tool, and together with the vegetation indexes, can
determine the vegetation state of forest. Recently researches have correlated the normalized differentiated vegetation
index (NDVI) with species richness, structure and biodiversity of forests obtaining successful results.
This study, conducted in a Tropical Montane Cloud Forest (TMCF) of Ecuador, aims to correlate NDVI with alpha
diversity estimators to understand its relationships. NDVI of Landsat OLI 8 Level 1 images in five months was determined. We considered a scene as valid in case of cloud coverage in the areas of interest below 25%. Radiometric and atmospheric corrections, with flaash tool, and the delimitation of the study site (ROI) were developed in ENVI 5.3 program. NDVI was calculated with ENVI 5.3 program (histograms allowed the determination of mean, maximum and minimum NDVI), and with ArcGIS 10.3 (for classification index). In field, species richness, Chao1, Shannon index, Simpson index, and biomass of three plots were quantified for trees with DBH ≥ 10 cm. Then, we calculate Pearson coefficient to correlate and disentangle the effects of altitude, diversity, richness, biomass and NDVI. A positive relationship was observed between Mean NDVI and Chao1 (p < 0.10) and Mean NDVI – richness (p < 0.05). In conclusion, NDVI can be considered useful to estimate richness and biodiversity and even to detect ecotone as was the case in this research. The application of this methodology could allow biodiversity assessment and monitoring in real time and low cost, which contributes in forest conservation programs.