ISSN 1995-4301

ISSN 2618-8406

Current issues:

3 issue of the journal in 2023

2 issue of the journal in 2023

1 issue of the journal in 2023

4 issue of the journal in 2022

Online version of the journal

ExpandSelect viewing options

Comprehensive chemical-toxicological research of copper(II) sulfate solutions containing reduced glutathione

E. I. Lyalina, A. I. Fokina, T. Ya. Ashikhmina, A. S. Olkova, E. V. Beresneva, L. V. Darovskikh, A. S. Yarmolenko
Section: Ecotoxicology
The composition and toxicological properties of copper(II) sulfate solutions containing reduced glutathione (GSH)have been studied. It was found that complex compounds Cu2+ with GSH are formed in the solution in the Cu(II):GSH molar ratios 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4. Simultaneously with the formation of complexes in solutions, oxidation-reduction reactions occur, accompanied by the formation of active forms of oxygen and oxidized glutathione (GSSG). All the described processes lead to a decrease in the active concentration of Cu2+. The toxicological properties of solutions with a molar ratio of Cu(II):GSH 1:1, 1:2, 1:4 were determined. For this purpose, test objects of different systematic accessory were used: cyanobacterium Nostoc linckia 271, crustaceans Daphnia magna Straus, infusoria Raramecium caudatum Ehrenberg and bioassay “Ecolum” . The chemical composition of solutions was correlated with toxicity. Reduced glutathione has a protective effect on daphnia, which is most pronounced in the variant 1Cu(II):4GSH. However, the level of viability of cyanobacteria, in contrast to hydrobionts, decreases in the 1:1 → 1:2 → 1:4 range. The decrease is due to the bioaccumulation of copper, which increases with the increase in the fraction of reduced glutathione. Such an effect may be formed by complex compounds, which is consistent with the literature data. For D. magna, such a relationship is not observed, the resulting compounds and reduced glutathione do not affect the accumulation of metal.
Keywords: reduced glutathione, copper(II) ions, bioassay, active forms of oxygen
Article published in number 2 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-2-101/2-107/1
Views: 21

Assessment of soil contamination in the recreational areas of the city by the industrial compounds of heavy metals and arsenic

T. A. Trifonova, A. A. Podolets, O. G. Selivanov, A. A. Martsev, A. A. Podolets
Section: Ecotoxicology
The article presents the results of determination of total content of heavy metals (HM) and arsenic in urban soils of recreational areas in the city of Kolchugino of Vladimir Region. The most polluted recreational areas of the city that are close to the industrial area and in the Central area. According to a spatial correlation analysis, the elements Pb, As, Zn,Cu, Ni, Co and Cr contained in the soils of the city are in approximately equal ratio in all reference areas that may indicate the joint intake of these pollutants. With the aim of obtaining justified results of anthropogenic accumulation of HM and arsenic in the soil, an analysis of ratio of the content of pollutants in the upper layer to its content in the bottom was conducted using the radial differentiation coefficient (R). It is established that the pollutants are concentrated mainly in the upper layers of the soil, and their accumulation has an anthropogenic character. To identify priority of pollutants, the index of accumulation was used, which decreases in the series: Cu > Zn > Pb > Ni > As > Co = Cr > V > Sr. On the calculated level of soil pollution by separate pollutants, the the excess over maximum permissible concentration was revealed in the following series: Zn > Cu > As > Pb > Ni. The highest values of the hazard coefficient were noted in the area of the plant “Kolchugtsvetmet”. The correlation analysis between the pollutant concentrations revealed statistically significant positive dependences (p < 0.05) between Pb, As, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co and Cr. Based on this, it can be assumed that these elements enter the soil of the city from one source.
Keywords: heavy metals, gray forest soil, recreational areas, the coefficient of radial differentiation, the rate of accumulation, the hazard ratio
Article published in number 2 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-2-094-101/1
Views: 52

Technology for conversion of whey into organic-mineral fertilizers with amino acids

Yu. N. Terentyev, N. V. Syrchina, T. Ya. Ashikhmina, А. V. Sazanov, M. L. Sazanova, V. A. Kozvonin, D.V. Petukhov
Section: Ecologization of industry
Rational processing of whey is one of the most important problems of the dairy industry. Less than 50% of this waste is processed in Russia. Unprocessed whey is discharged into the sewage systems, which significantly increases the degree of contamination of the process waste water. Basically, processing of whey in commodity products is limited by economic factors. At the enterprises of small and average capacity high costs of introducing processing technologies do not pay off proceeds from realization of the received products. The authors of the research have used the method of cryogenic concentration (freezing) which provided the complete conservation of bioactive substances (proteins, vitamins,enzymes) in whey. Proteins of the received concentrate were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis to free amino acids. The mineral salts complex (which contains plant-available forms of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and trace elements) was dissolved in the hydrolysate. As a result, the researchers have got a marketable product – liquid organicmineral fertilizer with natural amino acids. Whey-fraction that remained after cryogenic concentration contained no more than 1.2% of dry substances. For its removal there was used glauconite-containing efel as sorbent (the waste of phosphorite ore enrichment, it is a quartz-glauconite sand containing up to 45% glauconite). The waste sorbent was dried up and used as the second commercial product – solid organic-mineral fertilizer (S-OMF). The S-OMF included only natural ingredients, which made this product suitable for use as a fertilizer in natural farming systems. The simplicity and high market value of the received marketable products make it economically viable to introduce the proposed technology into practice. The calculated payback period of the offered technology at the enterprises of a mean power is less than two years.
Keywords: whey, organic-mineral fertilizers, fertilizers with amino acids, sorbents, glauconite, non-waste technologies

Click to open

Article published in number 2 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-2-087-093
Views: 14

Modification of the sludge from soda production for producing oil sorbents

E. V. Kalinina, I. S. Glushankova, L. V. Rudakova
Section: Ecologization of industry
At present, the volume of accumulated sludge from soda production is more than 50 million tons and the issue of their utilization is topical. The paper presents the results of studies on the production of oil sorbents based on soda production sludge, the main component of which is calcium carbonate. Reagent modification of sludge from soda production allows obtaining materials that have sorption activity to oil and petroleum products. It is established that the oil capacity of samples of initial sludge of soda production is 0.95 for gasoline; on engine oil – 0,9; for oil – 0.75 g/g. Reagent treatment of soda production sludge by sodium methylsiliconate or potassium methylsiliconate increases the petroleum capacity on gasoline by 30%; on engine oil – by 80%; for oil – by 73%. Obtained sorbents can be used for liquidation of oil and oil product spills from solid surfaces. For the liquidation of oil and oil product spills from the surface of water bodies, soda production sludge of less than 0.1 mm fraction obtained by modification with sodium methyl siliconate or potassium methylsiliconate with a working dose of 1.5–1.8% by weight of active substance and heating to a temperature of 90 °C may be recommended. Based on the results of the research, two environmental objectives can be achieved: new oil sorbents are obtained and a method for the utilization of sludge from soda production is proposed. The cost of oil sorbents based on waste will be low, due to the zero cost of the raw materials – waste products of soda production.
Keywords: оil products, sorption capacity for oil, calcium carbonate, sodium methylsiliconate, potassium methylsiliconate
Article published in number 2 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-2-079-086
Views: 11

Thermotechnical properties of municipal solid waste depending upon component and fractional composition

S. V. Polygalov, G. V. Ilinykh, V. N. Korotaev
Section: Ecologization of industry
Thermotechnical properties of municipal solid waste (MSW), in particular their moisture, ash content and heating value, determine the effectiveness of methods of thermal utilization of waste, interest in which is currently growing in Russia. The MSW heterogeneity leads to difficulties in determining their thermotechnical properties and causes the urgency of carrying out complex researches of MSW fractional and component composition with the isolation of sufficiently homogeneous components, the selection and laboratory researches of samples of such components. The article presents an approved methodological approach to MSW analysis, which includes full-scale field investigation of MSW component and fractional composition and analysis of their moisture and ash content in a laboratory with the subsequent calculation of the thermotechnical properties of the MSW flow as a whole. A distinctive feature of this approach is the provision of representative samples of MSW and individual components, consideration of seasonal and weekly fluctuations in waste composition, as well as the allocation of a large number of MSW components and separate investigation of their moisture and ash content in fractions of different sizes. Moisture and ash content of individual components within the same category differ significantly from each other and depend on the component’s material, properties and size. Heating value an individual component category depends on the component composition within the category and vary with the same water and ash content of the individual components. The obtained results allow modeling of MSW composition, heating value and other properties after different treatment technologies, including mechanical, manual and optical sorting, and select technologies and equipment for achieving specified waste quality parameters.
Keywords: component composition of waste, fractional composition of waste, moisture, ash content, heating value
Article published in number 2 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-2-070-078
Views: 10

Assessment of the composition and the microstructure of aluminiumcontaining waste for the substantiation of the directions of its use

A. A. Martynova, G. M. Batrakova
Section: Ecologization of industry
Complex recycling of industrial wastes involves the extraction of valuable components and the use of waste as secondary material resources. Implementation of resource-saving technologies reduces the anthropogenic load on the environment. In the process of thermal destruction of calorific materials, waste with a high content of aluminum oxide is generated. In order to determine the directions of usage of alumina-containing waste the initial study of its composition and structure was made. The methods of scanning electron microscopy and quantitative physicochemical analysis were used. The following samples were studied: construction samples with waste additives (15 and 30%), and a series of samples purified with mineral acids and water. The mineral composition of the alumina waste corresponded to the requirements for raw materials for use as a reinforcing additive in cement mixtures, heat-resistant concretes and for the manufacture of binders. Compaction of the structure by spherical particles Al2O3 affects the strength characteristics of gypsum binder samples. A comparison is made between the physico-mechanical characteristics of samples with different waste content and control sample of gypsum. A study of the microstructure and element analysis of waste, purified by mineral acids, was made. The analysis showed an inhomogeneous composition of impurities. Treatment of waste with acids and water is effectively remove impurities, at the same time mass content of aluminum in the purified samples is increasing. The results of evaluation of waste structure and composition can be used for explanation of materials formation with new structure on aluminum-oxygen basis and ceramic materials formation that can be manufactured using this type of waste.
Keywords: aluminum-containing wastes, aluminium oxide, sludge, energy-dispersive microanalysis

Click to open

Article published in number 2 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-2-062-069
Views: 7

Production of organic matter and carbon stock in ground vegetation of spruce and birch phytocenoses in the Foothills of the Subpolar Urals

T. A. Pristova, S. V. Zagirova, A. V. Manov
Section: Monitoring of anthropogenically disturbed areas
The reserves of phytomass and carbon in the ground cover of spruce and birch phytocenoses in the foothills of the Subpolar Urals in Komi Republic are determined. The concentration and carbon stocks of these forests are currently poorly understood. Three types of forest were studied: bilberry green moss spruce forest, sphagnum spruce forest, polytric birch forest. These forests consist of spruce, birch and fir, stands of different ages and low productivity. It is established that the concentration of carbon in plant species varies from 39 to 50% of absolutely dry matter. High concentration of carbon in bilberry shrubs, low in horsetail, medium in herbs. Carbon content in plants of one species or group of species growing in different forests was similar. Ground vegetation plants accumulate 512–960 g/m2 organic matter, including carbon 250–409 g/m2. Carbon accumulation in ground vegetation plants of the sphagnum spruce forest was the highest. More than 50% of the phytomass carbon concentrated in aboveground part of plants. The aboveground parts of shrubs accumulated carbon 8–49 g/m2, herbs – 54–68 g/m2, mosses – 62–140 g/m2. Aboveground phytomass contents 44–62%,underground phytomass – 31–36% of the total carbon reserve in annual production, 86–95% of it returns to the litter. The leading role in the accumulation of carbon in the growth of ground cover belongs to grasses. Annual carbon stock in ground vegetation of spruce forests is 11–20 gC/m2, in birch forest – 9 gC/m2. Thus, a significant part of the carbon accumulated in annual production of plant cover is included in the destructive process of the carbon cycle.
Keywords: Subpolar Urals, spruce and birch forest, ground vegetation, organic matter, carbon stock
Article published in number 2 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-2-053/2-061
Views: 13

The response of lichens to the environmental pollution under the bauxite mining in the taiga zone

T. K. Golovko, M. А. Shelyakin, I. G. Zakhozhiy, G. N. Tabalenkova, T. N. Pystina
Section: Monitoring of anthropogenically disturbed areas
The activity of the mineral complex enterprises resulted in the pollution of the biosphere by the products of mining and processing of minerals. The open method of mining is the most vulnerable for the landscapes. Northern ecosystems have relatively low capacity of self-purification and self-healing, which increases their vulnerability to anthropogenic impact. The functional status of the three lichen species (Hypogimnia physodes, Lobaria pulmonaria and Peltigera aphthosa)from the areas with different degree of pollution in the zone of influence of the largest in Eurasia Middle Timan bauxite mine was studied. It is shown that the bauxite dust pollution led to the accumulation of metal compounds in the thalli,especially aluminum and iron. Their content in the lichen samples collected on the plot located near the concentrating mill, reached 16000–20000 μg/g of dry weight (DW). It is 40 times more compared to relatively clean (background)site. The significant part of the metal compounds was localized in the surface fraction. In the intracellular fraction it was detected from 3–10% (Mn, Fe, Al, Cr, Pb) to 40% (Cu) of their total amount. The content of organogenic elements (carbon, hydrogen and oxygen) was lower by 10–15% in the thalli from impact areas. These thalli showed a high level of lipid peroxidation and increased activity of antioxidant enzymes that indicate the development of oxidative stress. The lipid peroxidation, and superoxide dismutase, and peroxidase activities were increased by 1.5–2 times. Judging by these parameter values, the reaction of three-component cyano-lichens L. pulmonaria and P. aphthosa to pollution were expressed more strongly in comparison with chloro-lichen H. physodes. It was concluded that the application of physiological approaches increases the efficiency of lichenoindication and allows us to identify the first signs of defects long before significant reduction in vitality and taxonomic diversity of lichens will become apparent.
Keywords: lichens, lichen-indications, bauxite dust, metals, compartmentalization of elements, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase

Click to open

Article published in number 2 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-2-044/2-053/1
Views: 11

Characteristics of cryogenic calcite from cave Grandioznaya (V. A. Anufrieva), Southern Ural

O. I. Kadebskaya, Y. V. Dublyansky
Section: Monitoring of anthropogenically disturbed areas
Cave Grandioznaya, discovered in 1999 in Republic Bashkortostan is one of the largest natural caves in Ural Mountains.Speleological research of the cave is conducted by the Salavat club of speleologists (Republic of Bashkortostan).Unusual calcite formations were found in the cave in 2016, as on large blocks, and on a clay bottom in free space were discovered. Using the temperature data logger HOBO Water Temp Pro v2, it was found that stable positive temperatures are observed throughout the year in the grotto where calcite was found (fluctuations do not exceed 0.5 оC). On the basis morphological, chemical and stable isotope studies, as well as the 230Th/234U dating, this calcite was found to be of cryogenic origin. Crusts are aggregates (up to 6 cm in size) of differently oriented calcite crystals with clay primers. The color tone of the crusts depends on the amount of clay particles. Finding of such calcite, formed on the transition from Younger Dryas to the Preboreal stage of the Holocene epoch is indicative of the presence of degrading permafrost in this part of Ural at the time. During this, rather sharp, warming of the climate, an active thawing of the permafrost existed, which is a prerequisite for the formation of cryogenic calcite in caves. Methods of identification of cryogenic calcite, as well as other speleothems that remained after disappearance of underground ice, developed by the authors allows assessing the extent of ancient permafrost and its effect on karst ecosystems in the study region.
Keywords: carbonates, caves, cryogenesis, isotope composition, geochronology, paleoclimate

Click to open

Article published in number 2 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-2-038-044/1
Views: 11

Identification of the thickets of Heracleum sosnowskyi using Earth remote sensing data

E. V. Tovstik, T. A. Adamovich, V. V. Rutman, G. Ya. Kantor, T. Ya. Ashikhmina
Section: Research methods. Models and projects
Sosnowsky’s hogweed (Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden.) is one of the most dangerous invasive plant species,common in the European part of Russia and some European countries. Its spread threatens the biological diversity of natural ecosystems. The danger of H. sosnowskyi for the human health lies in its ability to cause skin burns. Large populations of H. sosnowskyi can be found in uncultivated fields, meadows, on the banks and in the vicinity of watercourses and reservoirs, on the outskirts of forests, and along roads. Currently in Russia, in connection with the massive spread of H. sosnowskyi, the question is raised about the need to create a special federal target program to control this dangerous species. The data of the Earth remote sensing can provide essential assistance in planning the measures to control the spread of H. sosnowskyi. Satellite imagery provide information about localization and areas of plant communities in large areas. To monitor the distribution of H. sosnowskyi, it is possible to use multispectral as well as monochrome satellite images of high and medium resolution. In our study we used images from the Sentinel-2 satellitewith a resolution of 10 m. The detection of the foci was carried out on the territory of certain districts of the Kirov region of Russian Federation. The populations of Sosnowsky’s hogweed are well recognized visually on synthesized color images using either three channels of the visible range (blue, green, red), or two visible (blue and green) and near infrared channel. Both variants give very close results, providing reliable identification of thickets of the hogweed.
Keywords: Heracleum sosnowskyi, invasion, remote sensing data, Sentinel 2

Click to open

Article published in number 2 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-2-035-037
Views: 23

Pages: previous 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 next


36, Moskovskya street, Kirov, 610000, Editorial Board "Theoretical and Applied Ecology."

Phone/fax: (8332) 37-02-77


The journal was founded in 2007