ISSN 1995-4301

ISSN 2618-8406

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Content of heavy metals in urban surface water bodies

E.G. Riabova
Section: Population ecology
Today urban territories became the main habitat for people, but together with the rising level of economic and social advantages, they also have some ecological problems. And one of them is the pollution of urban water bodies with different toxicants, such as heavy metals. In this study, the analysis of surface water bodies carried out to containing of some heavy metals, such as: Pb, Fe, Mn, Sr, Zn, Cd and Cu, as well as comparison of obtained results with the results of previous research in 2006. During the research it was found that the main heavy metal contaminating town water bodies is cadmium (Cd), which average concentration is thirtyfold higher then allowed statutory level of contaminants for water bodies to amenity needs. Maximal concentration of Cd is 37 MPCan (maximum permissible concentration in water bodies to amenity needs) was evidenced in the pond inside the industrial area. The other heavy metals found in water bodies and benthic sediments in concentrations 2–5 MPCan were Pb, Fe and Mn. The results were compared with the previous research data in 2006, and it should be noticed, that during the eleven years concentrations of Pb and Mn lowered a bit, but they are still higher than MPCan. At the same time, concentrations of Fe and Cd have slightly increased. In regards to heavy metals’ concentrations in sediments, their dynamics changed a little. Basing to the obtained data, the specific combinatorial water pollution index (SCWPI) was calculated. This index characterizes water pollution rate, and for water bodies in Dzerzhinsky town SCWPI was 11 points, which indicates that surface waters in the town could be classified as “strongly polluted waters”.
Keywords: surface water bodies, heavy metals, benthic sediments, specific combinatorial water pollution index, Dzerzhinsky town

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Article published in number 1 for 2019
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-1-036-040
Views: 38

Content of toxic elements in water and macroalgae of the Argun River (Russia) basin water courses

A.P. Kuklin, G.Ts. Tsybekmitova
Section: Chemistry of natural environments and objects
The Argun River, as a transboundary stream flow between Russia and China, is an indicator of the existing pollution in its catchment area. The estimated content of 12 toxic elements in water and in macro-algae of eight tributaries of the Russian part of the basin of the Argun and in the Argun (seven sections), showed the greatest pollution of the waters of the river Srednyaya Borzya. The content of toxic elements in the water of the Srednyaya Borzya, below the gold washing areas, is (mkg/dm3): Mn – 171, Fe – 4994, Cu – 66, Zn – 102, As – 7, Mo – 3, Hg – 0.02, Pb – 13, which is several times higher than maximum permissible concentration of these metals. The high content of Fe and Mn among heavy metals in the rivers of the basin is connected with the specific features of the rocks in the study area. The marked toxic elements can be transported with solid runoff over long distances, settle in bottom sediments, thereby subjecting stream flows to secondary pollution. For most of the stream flows, it was exceeded the number of toxic elements in Cladophora fracta from the basin of the river Argun, relative to the background concentrations, typical for the water bodies of Zabaikalsky Krai. The greatest differences were recorded in samples of algae from the reserve reservoir of Krasnokamensk (Zn, As, Ni), in the river Srednyaya Borzya (Mo, Cd, Pb), in the river Kalga (Mn, Co, Mo). In the reservoir of Krasnokamensk in wintertime, water is pumped from the river Argun, which has the highest mineralization in this period. The obtained results can be used in monitoring of water pollution by toxic elements and for making managerial decisions.
Keywords: minerals, pollution, surface water, monitoring, Cladophora fracta

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Article published in number 1 for 2019
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-1-030-035
Views: 17

Environmental aspects of sulfate turpentine refining (review)

Е.S. Izmest`ev, S.А. Rubtsova, А.V. Kutchin
Section: Theoretical problems of ecology
The burning of sulfate turpentine, formed as a by-product of pulp and paper mills during the kraft pulping process, causes irreparable environmental damage, as it contains a large number of toxic sulfur-containing compounds generating sulfur dioxide when being combusted. It is for this reason that the search for methods of removing sulfur compounds from the sulfate turpentine, which can make the purified product a valuable source of terpene compounds suitable for industrial processing, is being actively pursued. The problem of complex refinement and rational utilization of turpentine is mainly to establish a waste-free use of feedstock for obtaining useful products. However, the lack of selectivity in the conversion of terpenes which are the main components of turpentine, and the complexity of their separation hinder the development of effective methods for refining turpentine. In this regard, the refined turpentine is used mainly as a solvent for varnishes and paints. At the same time, it is a valuable biofuel, capable, with proper approach, of partially replacing fuels produced from mineral oil. Terpenes from turpentine and their derivatives are widely used in the organic synthesis of biologically active substances, antioxidants, pesticides, herbicides, in the perfume industry for producing fragrances (linalool, geraniol, nerol, citronellol), and also for obtaining compounds with a pronounced insecticidal , repellent, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic and other types of biological activity. Sulfur-containing compounds can achieve widespread use in organic synthesis to manufacture solvents, ion-exchange resins, dyes, in the synthesis of detergents and reagents for the chemical industry (sulfochlorides, thiosulfonates, sulfoxides).
Keywords: sulfate turpentine, α- and β-pinenes, sulfur compounds, terpenes, terpenoids

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Article published in number 1 for 2019
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-1-012-022
Views: 12

Multivariate statistical analysis of ecological communities (review)

V.K. Shitikov, Т.D. Zinchenko
Section: Theoretical problems of ecology
The modern approach to the study of communities’ ecology involves the integration and joint processing of large arrays of observations. This usually involves a variety of indicators (population, phenotypic, genetic, environmental, chemical, landscape and geographical) which are characterized by significant temporal and spatial variability. The purpose of the analysis is to identify significant statistical relationships of the taxonomic structure with the characteristics of biotopes and environmental factors. It is based on multivariate methods that allow optimal projection of data with a large number of variables into low-dimensional spaces. The article focuses on the evolution of algorithms for multivariate analysis, starting with the classic unconstrained ordination based on principal components (PCA) up to modern integrated symmetric methods used in omics technologies. A class of algorithms, such as metric (PCoA) and non-metric (NMDS) multidimensional scaling, based on the calculation of distance matrices, is distinguished and the advantages and disadvantages of their use are considered. The dependence of the results of redundancy analysis (RDA) and canonical correspondence analysis (ССA) on the distribution law of the empirical data is discussed and recommendations for their preliminary transformation are given. It is shown the role of such symmetric methods as the two-block algorithm of partial least squares (2B-PLS) and the co-inertia analysis (CIA), which allow to establish by decomposition on axes of multidimensional covariations what species from different complexes of observations are most associated among themselves. Procrustean analysis (PCIA) can be widely used to identify changes in the species composition of the study region before and after some event (e.g., anthropogenic impact). Generalized Procrustean algorithms and canonical analysis (GPA, RGCCA, DIABLO) allow you to work with a large number of tables and explore the dynamics of community structure for several sequential periods of time or to form a consensus configuration by the best way. References to numerous examples of the use of ordination methods in domestic and foreign literature are given. The main prospects and directions of development of multidimensional methods in relation to the ecology of communities are shown.
Keywords: multivariate ordination, principal component analysis, correspondence analysis, non-metric scaling, canonical analysis, two-block algorithms, Procrustean analysis, co-inertia analysis
Article published in number 1 for 2019
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-1-005-011
Views: 27

Algological analysis of soil state in the vicinity of the plant “Maradykovskiy” after it finished functioning

L.V. Kondakova, К.А. Bezdenezhnykh, Т.Ya. Аshikhmina
Section: Monitoring of anthropogenically disturbed areas
The article presents the analysis of monitoring research of soil algoflora of forest and meadow ecosystems in the vicinity of the plant “Maradykovskiy” for the period before the start of its operating and till after stopping its functioning. Specious diversity of forest phytocoenoses algoflora before the start of its functioning accounted for 71 species. After the plant stopped functioning there were found out just 60 species. In meadow phytocoenoses the number is 123 and 95 species accordingly. The number of microphototrophs varies in forest ecosystems from 59.3 to 280.5 thousand cells per 1 g of air-dry soil. Green algae prevail in number (41.3 to 263.3 thousand cells per 1 g of soil). At the monitoring sites of meadow phytocoenoses the index of algoflora varies from 71.6 to 447.1 thousand cells per 1 g, green algae prevailing. The structure of algoflora of the monitoring sites is presented by the soil algae groups Chlorophyta, Bacillariophyta, Ochrophyta, as for species diversity, green algae prevail. Cyanobacteria (CB) are represented in coniferous forest ecosystems by a small number of species, they are rare there, and in meadow ecosystems they account for 29% species. Specious diversity of yellow-green algae and CB also decreased during the period of the plant’s functioning, still it is likely to increase after the plant stopped functioning.
Keywords: algoflora, soil algae, cyanobacteria, soil algae life forms, number of cells, biomonitoring
Article published in number 1 for 2019
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-1-023-029
Views: 45

Pectic polysaccharides of callus tissue of the stem of Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden

Gordina E.N., Zlobin A.A., Martinson E.A., Litvinets S.G.
Section: Chemistry of natural environments and objects
The uncontrolled growth of Sosnovsky’s hogweed (Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden.) in the central regions of the Russian Federation is a pressing problem, because areas occupied by this plant significantly increase each year. The methods used for the destruction of Sosnovsky’s hogweed (mowing, the use of herbicides, the use of geotextile, etc.) are not effective enough, because the hogweed seeds remain viable for a long time, and its roots penetrate deep into the soil. These methods do not involve the use of Sosnovsky’s hogweed biomass, which can serve as a source of physiologically active substances, including pectin polysaccharides, whose content in the plant is 10 to 17%. In addition, the structure and properties of water-soluble glycans of the Sosnovsky’s hogweed are not fully understood.Cultures of plant cells and tissues are a model object for the synthesis of phytopolysaccharides, therefore we used the callus tissue of the Sosnovsky’s hogweed stem to obtain water-soluble polysaccharides. We used partial acid and enzymatic hydrolysis, ultrafiltration, ion-exchange chromatography, and methylation, in order to study the composition and structure of water-soluble polysaccharides of the Sosnovsky’s hogweed callus tissue. We have found that water-soluble glycans from Sosnovsky’s hogweed callus are reserve polysaccharides – arabinans, galactans and/or arabinogalactans content of uronic acids with up to 24%, and pectic polysaccharides – linear gomogalakturonan (ramnogalakturonan) and ramnogalakturonan-I, with a galacturonic acid content of 70.5–73.9%. We obtained the results of methylation which suggest that the carbohydrate chains of the reserve polysaccharides are formed by 1,5-linked L-arabinofuranose residues 1,6-and 1,3,6-linked D-galactopyranose residues, 1,4- and 1,4,6-linked residues of D-glucopyranose and 1,3,6-linked residues of D-mannopyranose, and terminal residues of D-xylopyranose and D-glucopyranose are located at the non-reducing ends of their carbohydrate chains. The carbohydrate side chains of pectin polysaccharides include 1,5-linked L-arabinofuranose residues, 1,6-and 1,3,6-linked D-galactopyranose residues, 1,4-linked D-glucopyranose residues, 1,4- linked D-xylopyranose residues, 1,3,6-linked D-mannopyranose residues, as well as 1-linked D-glucopyranose and D-xylopyranose residues.
Keywords: Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden., callus tissue, water-soluble polysaccharides, pectin polysaccharides, monosaccharide residues, ion exchange chromatography, chromato-mass spectrometry, methylation
Article published in number 1 for 2019
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-1-041-046
Views: 17

Combined calculation schemes in mathematical modelsthe fractionation of grain

V.A. Sysuev, A.V. Aleshkin, Y.V. Sychugov, A.Y. Isupov
Section: Research methods. Models and projects
Agricultural ecology offers new methods and approaches to the implementation of production processes that will reduce the harmful effects on the environment. The article describes approaches to the formation of a combined calculation scheme of the process of grain materials fractionation by air flow in a horizontal channel. The main idea of the method is a consistent clarification of the mutual influence of grain and air flows in the calculation of the field of air velocities and trajectories of dispersed particles. The mathematical model of air flow motion is based on the finite element solution of the Laplace equations for a plane potential flow with variable porosity. Differential equations of motion of dispersed particles were solved numerically, using the method of average acceleration, with iterations at each step and taking into account the distribution of the air velocity field in the channel.The combined calculation scheme is constructed from several iterations with a step-by-step approach to the simulated process of pneumoseparation. At the first stage, the finite element model of the air flow is constructed without taking into account the influence of the flow of grain material. In the second stage the differential equation of grain material particles motion are solved. According to the solutions of these equations, the zone of greater or lesser porosity is determined. The next step is to recalculate the air flow rates in the channel taking into account the porosity of the various finite elements. The result of solving the differential equations of motion of dispersed particles varies depending on the air flow velocities. Thus there is a consistent approach to the description of the process of interaction of grain and air flow.According to the proposed algorithm the computer program in C# language has been developed. It provides the ability to graphically and numerically control the results of the calculation. The program interface contains three screens with tabular data and layout of finite elements, which, after calculations, is applied to the vector of air flow velocity and trajectories of particles with desired aerodynamic properties. Examples of calculation are presented. According to their results, a change in the value and distribution of air flow velocities at the inlet to the channel is proposed, the positions of the fraction receivers in the lower part of the horizontal pneumatic separation channel are determined.
Keywords: grain heap, flattened grain, finite element model, Laplace equation, porosity, pneumatic separation, fractionation
Article published in number 4 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-4-024-030
Views: 8

Prokaryotic test models for environmental ecotoxicological research: prospects and classification

N.V. Dudchik, S. I. Sychik, V. V. Shevlyakov
Section: Theoretical problems of ecology
Biological modeling in system ecology is an effective technology for assessing the biological effects of environmental factors. We provided the conceptual justification for the development of prokaryotic laboratory-analytical models, assessed the advantages and limitations of their experimental use. The classification of prokaryotic test models according to the level of the structural and ecological organization, the properties of the test object (cells, communities, populations, microbiocenosis) and a set of test reactions (bioindicators and biomarkers) is proposed. The definitions of the test model as a unified system including a test organism, a biomarker / bioindicator system, a test procedure in accordance with guidelines of good laboratory practice (GLP), a criteria apparatus for qualitative / quantitative assessment of environmental factors are given. The concepts of subpopulation and suprapopulation test models based on the properties of microbial communities as integral biological units regulating vital activity parameters depending on external factors are substantiated. Have been shown that microorganisms are relevant test objects for the development of innovative methods for assessing the impact of the physical, chemical and biological environmental factors on organism, which is based on the structural and ecological organization and the variety of metabolic, dynamic, morphological, molecular-genetic and other properties of microorganisms, integrity microbial culture as a system, cyclical development of populations of microorganisms in environment as well as their complex interaction with environmental factors.
Keywords: microbiotests, prokaryotic test-models, classification, biomarkers, bioindicators, associations of microorganisms

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Article published in number 4 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-4-005-012
Views: 76

Impact of forest fire on soil properties (review)

A. A. Dymov, E. V. Abakumov, I. N. Bezkorovaynaya, A. S. Prokushkin, Ya. V. Kuzyakov, E. Yu. Milanovsky
Section: Theoretical problems of ecology
We examined changes in the morphological, physicochemical properties and features of the organic matter of forest soils impacted by wildfires on the territory of Russia. Morphological signs of pyrogenesis (pyrogenic horizon formation, partial charring of litter and illuviation of organic compounds) are most evident detected in the first decade after a fire. Ground fires in lichen pine forests, formed on Albic Podzols lead to complete burning of litter. Low intensity ground fires in sphagnum pine forests, developing on Histic Podzols, contribute to partial burning of litter (charring). Fires change the hydrothermal regime of soils, which is most clearly demonstrated for soils formed on permafrost soils / cryosols. Fires lead to hydrophobization of the upper mineral horizons, estimated from the contact angle of wetting. Resistant products of pyrogenesis (charcoals, soot) are retained in soils for several centuries. The most common changes in the physical and chemical properties of soils after fires are a decrease in acidity by 1–2 units of pH, an increase of saturation with base saturation. Fires increase aromaticity of soil organic matter. After fires, the content of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in soils increases, and the concentrations of water-soluble organic compounds decrease. Restoration of soil properties to the prefire state takes a decade to several centuries. The introduction of a universal subtype “pyrogenic” is proposed in describing the morphological characteristics of forest soils.
Keywords: fires, forest soils, soil organic matter, secondary successions, black carbon

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Article published in number 4 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-4-013-023
Views: 95

Soil formation on technogenic lake sediments

E. V. Dabakh
Section: Monitoring of anthropogenically disturbed areas
The article is devoted to soils of the technogenic landscape (Technosols according to WRB) formed on contaminated man-caused lake sediments that have come on the daylight area after a change in the hydrological regime and the stopping of contaminated sewage into the lake. The investigated territory is located in the Vyatka Valley in the tailing pits of chemical enterprises in Kirovo-Chepetsk (Kirov Region, Russia). The thickness of the soil profile is limited by a dense gypsum crust lying at a depth of 30 cm and contributing to waterlogging of soils. Unlike the surrounding acidic alluvial soils, they are characterized by an alkaline reaction, contrast of the upper and lower parts of the young soil. The participation of the alluvial process and moisture-loving vegetation in the formation of the profile leads to a change in the composition and properties of the soil, especially the upper horizons. In comparison with the bottom sediments and the lower layers of soils in the upper horizons, the share of the aluminosilicate component in the mineralogical and chemical compositions is higher, the alkalinity is lower, and the pollution level sharply decreases. According to biological indices, the decayed litter and humus horizon are close to the humus horizons of surrounding alluvial soils. The soil and vegetation cover formed on technogenic lake sediments in the floodplain prevents active erosion of the underlying undeveloped contaminated sediments during the flood time and the dissolution of gypsum crusts, which inhibit the mobility of contaminated technogenic deposits.
Keywords: soil formation, technogenic sediments, gypsum crust, chemical soil contamination
Article published in number 4 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-4-024-033
Views: 58

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