Structure and productivity of herbaceous plant communities of the Krasnoyarsk forest-steppe
Section: Monitoring of natural and anthropogenically disturbed areas
Forest-steppes zone was often regarded as a passing zone between the forest and steppe types. However, floristic studies conducted in recent years made it possible to identify the forest-steppe as an independent type with characteristic structural features of vegetation cover. On the example of secondary by origin herbaceous plant communities of the Krasnoyarsk forest-steppe (the South of Middle Siberia, left Bank of the Yenisei river, 56°35´12´´N, 93°01´20´´E), their structural organization and dynamics of accumulation of aboveground phytomass during the growing season are shown. The formation of grass stand depends on the type and intensity of anthropogenic influence. On the territory of the research, the zonal upland meadow of the Bromus inermis (Leyss) Holub + heteroherbae association was identified as the leading plant community. On the southern slopes, the meadow-steppe Stipa pennata L. + heteroherbae association is noted. The analysis of the species composition of the study area showed that almost the whole territory belongs to long-fallow lands of the late recovery stage. It is indicated by the dominance of the terminal species of meadow steppes Bromus inermis, as well as the absence of weed species among the dominants. At the beginning of September, due to active development of high grasses in the upland meadow, the maximum productivity of green and dry mass for the season is formed, which is 224.8 and 111.9 g/m2, respectively. In the feather grass meadow steppe, the maximum productivity 338 g/m2 was recorded in June. The structure of phytomass is simple. The predominant botanical groups are cereals and various grasses. Introduction of forest species (Anemone sylvestris L.) and shrubs (Rosa acicularis Lindl.) indicates the restoration of zonal vegetation, as by decrease of the anthropogenic pressure, conditions for formation of productive meadow communities, and for further reforestation, occur.
Keywords: forest-steppe; productivity; species composition; phytomass structure
Article published in number 1 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-1-091-096
The use of carbonate sludge for cleaning karst Lake Bol’shoye Goluboye
L.A. Nikolaeva, R.Ya. Iskhakova
Section: Problems of environmental protection
The technology for cleaning lake Bol’shoye Goluboe (Russian Federation, Republic of Tatarstan) with carbonate sludge, a waste of water treatment generated at thermal power plants is proposed. Inadequate water works, that are held on Bol’shoye Goluboe lake had a strong anthropogenic impact. The destruction of habitats and representatives of aquatic vegetation and benthic organisms themselves, as well as a change in the chemical composition of water are the consequences of the negative impact. The article presents experimental results of Bol’shoye Goluboe lake’s waters in the values changings of total hardness, permanganate oxidizability, concentration of sulfates, iron, pH value, biological oxygen demand five days (BOD5) over 20 years. The surface introduction of carbonate sludge into the lake’s water will allow changing the chemical composition of the water by neutralizing the acidified waters of the lake. It will entail the restoration of the natural flora and fauna of the lake’s waters. The sorption capacity of the sludge with respect to various impurities was also established. It allows to increase the efficiency of the natural biological treatment and the adsorption cleaning of the lake from various impurities.
The article presents a toxicological assessment of waters containing carbonate sludge on the basis of water quality express control for acute lethal toxicity of the fish species Poecillia reticulata Pet. and crustaceans Daphnia magna Str. Based on the results of the conducted biotesting, it was found that the water extract of the sludge does not have an acute toxic effect on fish and crustaceans of these species. The sludge is proposed to be introduced into the lake by surface application using two-disc spreaders. According to the results of the studies, the prevented environmental damage to the reservoir of Bol’shoye Goluboe lake will amount to 390.6 thousand rubles / year.
Keywords: purification of natural waters, carbonate sludge, alkalization of waters, sorption material, calcareous material.
Article published in number 1 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-1-109-114
Climate modeling of the potential distribution area of Pulsatilla turczaninovii Kryl. et Serg. (Ranunculaceae) in Eurasia
V.F. Zaykov, V.Vaganov, A.I. Shmakov
Section: Population ecology
Pulsatilla turczaninovii Kryl. et Serg. is an early flowering, ornamental plant species collected actively by people. Due to the medicinal properties of the species, the raw material is used in traditional medicine. In this regard, P. turczaninovii is rare and is listed in some regional Red Data Books of the Russian Federation. A study of the funds of the leading Eurasian Herbaria (LE, MW, B, VLA, NS (NSK), ALTB, PE), special literary sources and personal observations of the authors in nature made it possible to detail the current distribution area of the species. P. turczaninovii occupies the territory of Western and Eastern Siberia, the Far East, China and Mongolia, without going beyond the borders of North Asia. The potential area of P. turczaninovii was obtained using the climate modeling method based on the data of the modern distribution of the species and eight bioclimatic variables (screening of correlating variables was done in the SDMtoolbox application) in the MaxEnt program. According to the AUC index of the test sample, the predictive model showed high quality of the result interpretation. The AUC value was 0.879 ± 0.016. The permutation test revealed the factors with the greatest influence on the distribution of P. turczaninovii. The most important factors were: BIO1 (32.5 %) – an average annual temperature, BIO12 (21.9 %) – an average annual precipitation, BIO15 (16.1 %) – a precipitation seasonality, BIO19 (11.5 %) – a precipitation of the coldest quarter, the lowest factor was BIO8 (0.4 %) – an average temperature of the wettest quarter.
Keywords: climate, distribution area, Herbarium, rare species
Article published in number 1 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-1-140-144
Ecological aspects of contamination of recreational areas with animal excrement
I.N. Lykov, S.A. Kusacheva, V.K. Ilyin
Section: Social ecology
The accumulation of dog feces on city streets and recreation due to the habit of dog owners not to clean dog excrement
can be a serious environmental problem and adversely affect public health. Dog feces contain intestinal nematodes and
microorganisms that are pathogenic to humans and animals. In an urban environment, favorable conditions are created
for the infection of people and animals in contact with contaminated soil and sand in sandboxes. The purpose of this study
was to assess the extent of parasitic and microbial contamination of soils and sandboxes located in residential areas of the
city of Kaluga (Russia). Over the past 19 years, there has been an increase in the number of cats (by 15,060 individuals)
and dogs (by 26,550 individuals) in the city of Kaluga, which are carriers of Toxocara. We have studied 180 soil and sand
samples in various areas of the city. The pollution of soil and sand with Toxocara eggs has been reported in areas with high
population density, including playgrounds and kindergarten areas. The percentage of soil pollution of the boulevards by
Toxocara eggs is 4.9 times higher than the pollution of sandboxes and 1.9 times higher than the pollution of lawns. Most
often, mold fungi of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Mucor, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Candida, Alternaria, and Rhizopus
were sown from the soils of lawns and boulevards. Bacterial microflora is represented by Clostridium, Enterococcus, Enterobacteriaceae, Salmonella and Micrococcus. The average number of microorganisms isolated from soil and sand samples
varied in the range from 1.5 to 3.0 million CFU per 1 g. The presence of micrococci and spores of the cladosporium fungi
characteristic of canine feces microbiome was revealed in the atmosphere of various districts of the city. This may be due to
contamination of the city territory with feces of dogs, which are one of the sources of bacterial pollution of the atmosphere.
Section: Chemistry of natural environments and objects
The subject of the article is to improve the method for determining the content of dissolved organic carbon (DOC)
in seawater by high-temperature catalytic oxidation. The studies were carried out with the help of an elemental analyzer
with infrared C-NDIR detector. The model solutions and samples of Barents sea water were used as objects of study.
We proposed NaCl water solution as a blank sample in order to determine the dissolved organic carbon content in the
seawater with mass concentration range equal to 10–250 mgC/dm3
. The salinity of NaCl solution is equal to the salinity
of the analyzed sample. We proposed to use the standard solutions with fixed salinity in order to build the calibration
dependency for determination of dissolved carbon with concentration up to 10 mg/dm3
. The application of this approach
reduces the error of determination of dissolved carbon in seawater from 20 to 7%. The proposed modification of the
technique allows to determine the content of DOC with a salinity of 35 g/dm3
with a relative measurement error up to
7%. A series of seawater samples from the Barents Sea was analyzed. The obtained values of the organic carbon content
were from 1.60 to 4.20 mg/dm3
. Low concentrations of dissolved organic carbon are observed in places corresponding
to the occurrence of less warm Atlantic water masses or Arctic and Barents Sea waters. In the southern part of Barents
Sea, the maximum carbon concentrations are mainly due to the high productivity of the coastal waters coming from the
continental drain and flowing from the Norwegian Sea with the coastal current along the coast of Norway.
Keywords: total organic carbon, sea water, elemental analysis, catalytic oxidation
Article published in number 1 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-1-097-101
Purification of model waters from aluminum ions by wastewater from the soda pulping of cellulose from the shells of cereals
S.V. Stepanova, A.A. Alekseeva
Section: Ecologization of industry
Aluminum ions contained in water do not belong to substances with a pronounced toxic effect. Solutions of aluminum salts
are highly stable, but with gradual accumulation in human and animal organisms have a harmful effect, especially in the presence of dysfunctions of the excretory system. Therefore, the problem of industrial wastewater treatment and water treatment for
technical and drinking purposes is becoming more and more important every year. The authors have studied the possibility of
using alkaline wastewater formed while obtaining cellulose from agricultural waste (shells of wheat, oats, and barley) by the natron
method as flocculant reagents for wastewater treatment from contamination with aluminum ions. The pH values at which the
most complete deposition of aluminum hydroxocomplexes occurs are determined: when using alkaline wastewater, the pH is 6.0,
and for a NaOH solution, the pH is 5.0. An increase in the precipitation rate of particles formed during the purification of model
waters from aluminum ions with alkaline reagents from waste cereals and the enlargement of the resulting floccules by 35% is
shown. It was determined that the efficiency of removing aluminum ions from the model water from the proposed reagents is not
inferior to traditional alkaline wastewater from the production of cellulose from oat husks (at low concentrations of aluminum
ions it is 20% higher). Water purification occurs due to the interaction of Al3+ ions with the functional groups of lignin and cellulose, pentosans, and other polysaccharides, as well as unreacted NaOH, which gives alkalinity to reagents from waste cereals.
Section: Methodology and research methods. Models and forecasts
The work considers the safety of the use of springs in the Saratov region as alternative sources of water supply. The
objects of the study were 31 springs. Due to the increased anthropogenic load, special attention was paid to 11 springs
in the city of Saratov. Studies were conducted during 2018 for 25 chemical indicators, according to Sanitary Regulation
SanPiN 1.2.3685-21. The water quality of 65% of the springs surveyed by chemical indicators corresponds to sanitary standards, 35%
of the springs studied exceed the MAC at least one indicator, the percentage of samples with excesses on several indicators was 23. Most often, the excess of the established standards is noted for the sanitary and chemical indicators of arid
territories: total hardness (31%), the content of manganese (31%), nitrates (23%), total iron (8%). According to the
contribution to the risk of olfactory-reflex effects, the priority pollutants of the springs of the Saratov region can be arranged in descending order: manganese, hardness, chlorides, nitrates, iron. Spring water pollution in the Saratov region
is associated with the interaction of stratal waters with sedimentary rocks of aquifers, as well as agricultural activities.
Keywords: springs, sanitary and chemical indicators of water quality, organoleptic risk, manganese, iron, nitrates
Article published in number 1 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-1-050-055
Production of pigments for concrete based on iron-containing industrial waste
N.V. Syrchina, L.V. Pilip
Section: Methodology and research methods. Models and forecasts
Iron-containing industrial waste (Fe-waste) can be used as secondary raw materials for the production of iron oxide pigments (PIO). The basis of PIO is hematite Fe2O3 (red), goethite FeOOH (yellow), magnetite Fe3O4 (black). Pyrite cinders, spent iron oxide catalysts, waste of synthesis pigment TiO2, acid mine waters, gas cleaning sludge of converter production, waste from processing bauxite into alumina, spent pickling solutions and others can be used for processing in PIO. The main consumer of PIO is the construction industry. A variety of colors, resistance to sunlight, atmospheric factors, alkalis and weak acids, good hygienic characteristics will make it possible to use PIO as fillers for painting concrete, brick, paving slabs, tiles in various shades of red, yellow, orange, brown. The color range of PIO can be expanded due to the inclusion of additives in the composition of pigments: oxides of various metals, organic chromophores and others. The classic processes of Laux and Penniman, methods of precipitation and thermal decomposition, simplified process solutions based on the calcination of iron-rich waste can be used for convert waste in pigments. Pigments obtained by classical methods are characterized by a stable composition and higher quality than pigments obtained by simplified methods. The advantages of simplified technologies are the minimum amount of secondary waste generated, low costs for the introduction of technologies into practice, and the moderate cost of the resulting PIO. The main disadvantage of the classical and simplified technological solutions proposed by various authors is the poor study of issues related to the disposal of the resulting secondary waste. Rational way out of this problem will make it possible to successfully implement an integrated approach to the processing of raw materials and return thousands of tons Fe-waste stored at landfills to the economic turnover.
Keywords: iron-containing waste, pigments for concrete, iron oxide pigments, technology of iron oxide pigments
Article published in number 4 for 2021 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-4-050-057
The review presents relevant data on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): physical and chemical characteristics,
sources of release into the environment, impact on human health, sanitary and hygienic regulation, methods of sample
preparation and detection. PAHs are found everywhere in nature: in geological sediments, soil, air, water, snow, plant
and animal tissues. Many of the PAHs exhibit carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic activity. The content of PAHs,
as a class of organic pollutants with a complex mechanism of action, should be mainly controlled during environmental
monitoring. All measures to reduce the level of environmental pollution in Russia are based on control over the content
of harmful substances, which is regulated by sanitary and hygienic standards.
The wide distribution of PAHs in trace concentrations and their ability to accumulate in various objects necessitates
the development of effective methods for their control. Special attention in the review is paid to modern spectroscopic
methods for the determination of PAHs in environmental objects: spectrophotometry, low-temperature Shpol’skii luminescence, molecular fluorescence analysis, micellar-stabilized and solid-phase luminescence, phosphorescence at room
temperature, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer. A comparative analysis of the methods allows us to conclude
that the sensitivity of the methods of molecular luminescence analysis, as a rule, exceeds the methods of spectrophotometry. The main limitations of the methods of molecular luminescence analysis are associated with insufficiently high
versatility and selectivity.
Further studies to improve spectroscopic control methods aimed at eliminating interfering influences and improving
the selectivity and sensitivity of methods for analyzing multicomponent PAH mixtures in environmental monitoring
Keywords: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), sources of PAHs, effect on human health, spectroscopic methods, absorption, luminescence
Article published in number 4 for 2021 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-4-012-019
Possibility of disposal of plastic waste using micromycetes Fusarium solani and Trichoderma lignorum
The effect of micromycetes (MM) Fusarium solani and Trichoderma lignorum on the biodegradation of plastics (sevilene, polystyrene, polyethylene, polyamide, polycarbonate, fluoroplast-4) after 10 years of exposure in an aqueous medium in a closed system was investigated. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that destruction was most complete in the case of polyamide, and less intense in the case of sevilen.
The cultivation of MM with these polymers led to a significant alkalization of the medium, an increase in the specific electrical conductivity and the concentration of inorganic ions in the aqueous suspension, which is associated with the vital activity of microbial cells. In a suspension of three polymers (polyamide, polystyrene, and polycarbonate) favorable conditions are created for the life of MM, especially for T. lignorum, which may indirectly indicate the possibility of using the products of destruction of these polymers by fungi as nutrients.
The maximum values of the content of suspended solids and the minimum coefficient of light transmission in the suspension, which indirectly indicate a greater mass of mycelium, are established for the variants of polyamide, polycarbonate and polystyrene with micromycetes.
The maximum content of organic substances in suspensions, determined by the COD index, was noted for samples of sevilene, polystyrene and polyethylene (control and with MM), the minimum – for samples of fluoroplast-4.
The proof of the MM viability after 10 years of exposure was the powerful growth of mycelium on the surface of the nutrient medium in all variants during their microbiological inoculation, which indicates that the studied polymers served as a carbon source for fungi for a long time.
The results of the study showed that the polymers most utilized by the studied types of ММ were polyamide, polycarbonate and polystyrene. To accelerate the biodegradation of polymers, it is necessary to optimize the conditions, in particular, to carry out the process with the introduction of certain nutrients that accelerate the growth of MM.