ISSN 1995-4301

ISSN 2618-8406

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Migration of pollutants and contamination of groundwater when mining iron ore

Yu. A. Babushkina, N. N. Nazarenko
Section: Monitoring of anthropogenically disturbed areas
The article considers the problem of migration of chemical pollutants into the aquatic environment of iron ore mining area on the example of JSC “Sokolovsko-Sarbaiskoye Ore-dressing Production Association” (Kazakhstan). The materi - als of the study where samples of groundwater selected at the plant for the extraction of magnetite ore, on the border of the sanitary protection zone and beyond. Sampling of water was carried out in accordance with Russian State Standard GOST 31861-2012 in the period 2012–2016 years. Analysis of samples was carried out by an accredited laboratory on such factors as pH, dry matter, suspended mat - ter, calcium, magnesium, sulfates, chlorides, phosphates, bicarbonates, nitrates, nitrites, ammonia nitrogen, total iron, oil, aluminum, lead, zinc, nickel, cobalt, manganese and boron. The results shows that the magnitude of the concentration of sulfates, chlorides, nitrates, dryness, nitrites, ammonia nitrogen, boron, manganese in underground water directly in the production area exceed their maximum permissible values. The critical points of impurities were identified such as a lower sump of quarry, upper sump pit and drainage ditch with the highest rates of sulfates, chlorides, nitrates, dryness, nitrites, ammonia nitrogen, boron, calcium, magnesium and bicarbonates. The main trends of groundwater pollution in the area of the location of the iron ore mining enterprise are revealed. For the vast majority of pollutants, sharp annual fluctuations of indicators are not observed, the level of pollution is stable, and there is no tendency to reduce the level of groundwater pollution. At the same time, no excess of pollutants was detected outside the sanitary protection zone of the enterprise. This indicates that migration of pollutants beyond the sanitary protection zone of the enterprise is not observed
Keywords: migration of chemical pollutants, mining enterprise, iron ore, technogenic pollution, groundwater

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Article published in number 3 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-3-055-061
Views: 16

Ecology and structure of Goodyera repens (L.) R. Br. (Orchidaceae) coenopopulations in the Northern Urals

I. A. Kirillova, S. V. Degteva, Y. A. Dubrovskiy, A. B. Novakovskiy
Section: Population ecology
Data on ecology, phytocoenological preferences and population structure of the species Goodyera repens (L.) R. Br. of Orchidacea family in the Northern Urals are considered. Investigations were carried out during 2000–2016 in the three protected areas: Pechoro-Ilychsky reserve, Un’insky complex sanctuary and Yugyd Va national park. 23 coenopopulations were studied. 72 releves with G. repens were used to study phytocoenotical preferences and eco - logical parameters of the species. The species has wide phytocoenotical range establishing various forest formations and forest types – green moss, herb and sphagnum, being more often in the communities of association Piceetum myrtilloso-hylocomiosum . The species establishes mainly ecotopes with medium humidity and weakly acid poor soils, and refers to the semi-shadow group of plants according to Ellenberg’s scale. The studied coenopopulations are small and full up to 500 individual shoots. Spatial structure of G. repens coenopopulations was determined by occurrence of well-developed isolated clusters resulted from prevailing vegetative reproduction of the model species. In the Komi Republic, such clusters ranging from 1 to 3–6 m 2 size consist of several tens or hundreds of individual plants with an average density from 9 to 224 shoots per m 2 . All the coenopopulations under study were full and their ontogenetic spectra were similar with the prevalence of immature or adult vegetative shoots. Average ontogenetic spectrum of all the coenopopulations under study was as follows: juvenile shoots – 8.7%, immature – 39.8%, adult vegetative – 37.7%, generative – 13.8%. It corresponds to the basic spectrum of the species that is the evidence of the stable population’s state. We suggest that G. repens is well adapted to the Northern Urals where there are many suitable ecotopes in the large arrays of intact forests.
Keywords: Goodyera repens (L.) R. Br., orchids, coenopopulation structure, the Northern Urals

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Article published in number 3 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-3-062-068
Views: 24

Anthropogenic adaptation of reproductive biology of conditional-synanthropic birds

L. Kuchar, Е. S. Ivanov, А. V. Baranovskiy, D. V. Vinogradov, Ja. Leśny, А.V. Schur
Section: Population ecology
The article is devoted to studying mechanisms of synanthropization and ecological segregation of birds in an - thropogenic landscapes. The paper presents data on the adaptability of the anthropogenic specifics of nesting behavior of the spotted flycatcher, a conditional-synanthropic bird species. This species is generally liable synanthropization, however, it does not occur in the most urbanized parts of the cities, preferring moderately modified habitats. It is shown that anthropogenic landscape contributes to the formation of new forms of birds’ behavior, which are a response to the environment. But not all of these forms are adaptive and some are peculiar ecological traps. Such peculiarities of behavior do not increase, but even decrease the reproductive success of birds, which is not always easy to establish, because as a whole the results of the synanthropic population breeding may be higher than in the wild, due to different intensity of the influence of the limiting factors of the environment. Data on the analysis of nesting and reproductive success of wild and synanthropic populations are presented. It is pointed out that the spotted flycatcher has specific main reproductive parameters in the anthropogenic landscape, which is the result of the reaction of birds to the features of synanthropic ecosystems and the unequal effect of the same environmental factors on them in natural and anthropogenic biocenoses. It manifests itself primarily in changing the time of the reproductive period and the widespread use of anthropogenic bases for nests fastening. There is also a higher reproductive success in the anthropogenic landscape, which we associate with more favorable microclimate and the ratio of specialized and non-specialized predators (prevalence of the latter), different than in nature.
Keywords: adaptation, birds’ segregation, ecosysems, nesting, ecology, spotted flycatcher, population
Article published in number 3 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-3-069-077
Views: 16

Specific character of soil “blooming” in agricultural and urbanized territories

L. V. Kondakova, L. I. Domracheva, I. A. Kondakova
Section: Population ecology
Specious content and quantity characteristics of microorganiams which lead to soil “blooming” in natural, anthro - pogenic, and urbanized ecosystems are shown in the article. In natural ecosystems algae and cyanobacteria communities develop in gradual succession stages, from unicellular green algae and Xanthophyta, filamentous green algae and non- heterocyst cyanobacteria to heterocyst cyanobacteria. Agricultural soil “blooming” has some peculiarities, irrespective of the place, season, soil type, dominating groupings. Among the “blooming” dominants cyanobacteria and green algae of the geni Cylindrospermum, Nostoc, Anabaena, Klebsormidium etc prevail. In agro-coenoses there is a direct connection between doses and terms of fertilizer treatment and the stage of development of the surface growth. Urban soils suffer from more intensive and diverse impact, as compared with agricultural and natural ecosystems soils. The specious content of phototrphs shows that in late summer surface biofilms represent many-species communities with different species of cyanobacteria and diatoms dominating. Cell density in “blooming” films is very high, it varies from 18 to 47 million cells per cm 2 . Various city pollutants provide diversity of phototrophic groups.
Keywords: Specific character of soil “blooming” in agricultural and urbanized territories

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Article published in number 3 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-3-078-085
Views: 16

Biodegradation of vegetable waste and obtaining fruit bodies in cultivation of Hericium erinaceus

A. А. Shirokikh, Yu. A. Zlobina, I. G. Shirokikh
Section: Agroecology
Development of technologies for biodegradation of plant wastes in order to obtain new useful products can not only reduce pollution of the environment, but also provide a raw material base for biotechnology. The possibility of using the basilial xylotrophic fungus Hericium erinaceus as a destructor of plant wastes with simultaneous production of economically valuable secondary products was studied. As a nutrient substrate for the production of fruiting bodies of the fungus, mixtures of straw, oak sawdust and oat grain were used in various proportions. The productivity of the raw compacted substrate was calculated as the ratio of the mass of fruiting bodies of fungi obtained from one vessel to the initial mass of the substrate. The intensity of decomposition of the substrate was judged by the decrease in its biomass during the period of cultivation of the fungus. It is shown that in order to achieve a high degree of biodegradation of cellulose and lignin-containing waste and to obtain the maximum harvest of fungi, it is necessary to include a readily hydrolysable grain component in an amount of not less than 30% by volume in the nutrient substrate. By varying the concentration of the grain, it is possible to regulate the growth rate of the mycelium, the yield of the fruiting bodies and the degree of biodegradation of the substrate.
Keywords: Hericium erinaceus , lignocellulosic waste, artificial cultivation, nutrient substrate, yield of fruit bodies, productivity of substrate, degree of decomposition

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Article published in number 3 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-3-086-092
Views: 17

Method for processing lignin-containing wastes from the paper industry to produce sorbents for wastewater treatmen

Y. I. Vaysman, I. S. Glushankova, E. S. Shirinkina, S. F. Davletova
Section: Ecologization of industry
Pulp and paper mill requires large amount of resources and energy. Technological processes of pulp and paper mill are associated with high water consumption (10–20 m 3 per ton of final product) and high consumption of wood raw materials and electricity (1080–1100 kg of raw materials and 300–350 kWh of electricity per ton of final product). The most environmentally hazardous objects in pulp and paper mills are cellulose production, which is followed by the formation of liquid waste – waste liquors containing lignosulfonates, the treatment of lignosulfonates is a compli - cated technological problem. Lignosulfonates are practically not subjected to biological degradation and the extraction of liquor together with industrial wastewater into biological treatment facilities leads to a significant reduction in the efficiency of water purification and increase contamination of hydrosphere objects. Despite the possibility of using liquid lignosulfonates as surfactants, reagents for the preparation of drilling muds, a binder in the production of wood chipboards, fiberboards, the scale of their use is limited due to the volatility of the composition and structure of the waste. The disposal of waste at landfill sites leads to long negative impacts on environmental objects, incineration of waste will be followed by emissions of toxic substances and it would be necessary to use expensive waste gas purification technologies. One of the directions of lignosulfonates treatment is their thermal destruction with the production of carbon sor - bents, which allows not only treating waste, but also obtaining cheap sorption materials for wastewater and gas emissions treatment. The paper presents the results of thermochemical pyrolysis process researches of lignosulfonates formed during the production of cellulose from birch chips, the results of obtaining carbon sorbents, determining the main factors affecting the yield of the sorbent, its physicochemical and sorption properties: the pyrolysis temperature, the processing time, the ratio of lignosulfonate: hydroxide potassium. Determination of the sorbents porous structure parameters and the specific surface was carried out on the basis of an analysis of nitrogen adsorption isotherms at a temperature of 77 K (-196 о C) obtained from the Quantum Hydrocarbon Analyzer NOVA 1200e and calculated using the metod BET (Brunauer, Em - mett and Teller) of the polymolecular adsorption theory and the Dubinin-Radushkevich eq
Keywords: lignosulfonates, carbon sorbents, porous structure, sorption activity, ion-exchange capacity, chromium ions
Article published in number 3 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-3-093-099
Views: 11

Modified sorbents based on soda production sludge for extracting ions of heavy metals from aqueous solutions waste water

I. S. Glushankova, E. V. Kalinina, E. N. Demina
Section: Ecologization of industry
The purification of industrial and surface wastewater from heavy metal ions (HMI) to requirements for the discharge of treated wastewater into natural waters is one of the most complicated environmental and technological problems. For the deep purification of waste water from the HMI, the use of cheap sorbents obtained from production waste is the most promising. One of the many-tonnage wastes of technology of inorganic substances is the sludge formed in the production of soda by the ammonia Solvay,s method. Currently, sludge is stored in sludge accumulators and is a long-term source of pollution of environmental objects. Scientific developments in the utilization of slimes with the production of building materials, etc., have not found wide practical use, which is due to the heterogeneity of the granulometric and chemical composition of the waste. Carried out X-ray phase analysis and studies of the physicochemical and chemical properties of waste samples showed that its main components are calcium carbonate (calcite) and calcium hydroxide (portlandite). It is known that the natural mineral limestone efficiently extracts HMI from aqueous solutions with the formation of less soluble basic salts, carbonates, and hydroxy carbonates of HM. It has been established that sludge samples have high sorption activity when copper(II) and zinc ions are extracted from low concentrated solutions (sorption capacity for copper ions is 35.0 mg/g, sorption capacity for zinc ions is 40 mg/g). To increase the operational properties, a method has been developed for the production of a modified granular sorbent based on the sludge of soda production, consisting in treating with sodium silicate. The effect of a dose of sodium silicate in the sorbent composition on the mechanical strength and sorption properties of the obtained samples was studied. It has been established that the introduction of 8,6% SiO2 into the sludge leads to an increase in the mechanical strength by 50–80%, and does not have a significant effect on the sorption activity of the material. The kinetic and sorption regularities of extraction of copper(II) ions and zinc on modified sorbents are revealed. Based on the analysis of the adsorption isotherms obtained, the adsorption equilibrium constants and maximum adsorption values (Amax (Cu2+) = 50.8 mg/g; Amax (Zn2+) = 97.1 mg/g) were determined. Obtained sorption materials can be recommended for wastewater treatment from HMI.
Keywords: heavy metals ions, soda production sludge, calcium carbonate, sorbents, sorption capacity
Article published in number 3 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-3-100-108
Views: 16

Production of environmentally safe building materials on the basis of the waste foundry sand

Ya. I. Vaisman K. G. Pugin, L. V. Rudakova, I. S. Glushankova, K. Y. Tyuryukhanov
Section: Ecologization of industry
The object of the research was the waste foundry sand of one of the typical steelmaking enterprises. Estimation of pollutant emissions from the composition of waste foundry sand has shown their low emission and biological activity, which allowed to develop a technology for its utilization with obtaining environmentally safe construction material. The granulometric composition of the waste foundry sand was determined with an average grain size of 0.38 mm. Based on the results of the analysis of buffer extracts, the content of heavy metals in the samples of waste foundry sand in mobile form was determined. Heavy metals (lead, zinc, chromium, nickel, manganese), as well as phenol and formaldehyde, were chosen as the indicators. Samples of waste foundry sand contain formaldehyde in mobile form exceeding the limits for soil. It has been proposed to use formaldehyde-containing sand in a dense and hydrophobic structure, such as asphalt concrete, to reduce the formaldehyde emission. Investigations of the physical and mechanical properties of waste foundry sand showed that it is suitable for use as a mineral aggregate in the production of asphalt concrete mixtures. The conducted studies of asphalt concrete samples in the composition, which as a fine mineral filler used waste foundry sand, showed that it meets the requirements of Russian standard GOST 9128-2013. Physico-mechanical characteristics of the asphalt-concrete mixture correspond to asphalt concrete of B type I grade. The proposed recycling technology is possible without significant capital investment in most steel mills. The implementation of this technology will reduce the industrial impact on the environment in the locations of the steel plant.
Keywords: sand waste, recycling, asphalt, industrial waste, construction materials
Article published in number 3 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-3-109-115
Views: 11

Population and biological preconditions for the cattle retroviruses` expansion

D. Abdessemed, E. S. Krasnikova, V. A. Agoltsov, A. V. Krasnikov
Section: Social ecology
This research was aimed at studying of population and biological aspects of cattle retroviruses’ expansion, such as breed and age of animals, form of head ownership, retroviruses biology. Bovine leukemia virus ( BLV ) and bovine immuno - deficiency virus ( BIV ) are retroviruses which cause chronic incurable diseases of cattle. These agents have a phylogenetic relationship with similar pathogens in humans. There is a possible danger of viral entry to humans through the consump - tion of infected foodstuffs. 773 blood samples from Black-and-White, Holstein, Simmental, Kazakh White-headed and crossbred cattle of different districts of the Saratov region were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Studies reveal that bovine immunodeficiency and bovine leukemia viruses are spread widely in cattle of the Saratov region: 30.5% and 39.8% on average, respectively. The infection rate varies considerably depending on age-sex group affiliation and cattle ownership. BIV and BLV infection rates increase with the animals age, especially among farm herd. Significant epizootic feature of retroviral infections in cattle in the Saratov region is a high level of retroviral coinfection – 25.2% on average. The clinical complications of BIV infection, confirmed by laboratory studies, were most frequently recorded in cattle aged 5–10 years. For analysis of diagnostic accuracy of serological and molecular genetic methods for enzootic bovine leucosis diagnosis, 271 cattle blood samples were studied by PCR and AGIDT (agar gel immunodiffusion test) in parallel. The comparative analysis shows that diagnostic efficiency of AGIDT in comparison to PCR is 30.8%. Taking into account the retroviruses biological features, the PCR assay can be recommend as a screening method for BLV -infection revealing, especially when the imported cattle are quarantined at the place of keeping. In herds with high BLV -infection level, cattle should be tested for BIV presence to stop the cattle retroviruses’ expansion.
Keywords: polymerase chain reaction, agar gel immunodiffusion test, retroviruses, enzootic bovine leucosis, bovine immunodeficiency, expansion, diagnostics
Article published in number 3 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-3-116-124
Views: 13

Formation and assessment of the phytoregulatory potential of multispecies biofilms based on Fischerella muscicola

L. I. Domracheva, I. G. Shirokikh, E. V. Tovstik, S. G. Skugoreva, E. N. Reznik
Section: Chemistry of natural environments and objects
The results of experiments on the study of the features of the formation of biofilms on the basis of two- and threecomponent associations of microorganisms with the participation of Fischerella muscicola 300 cyanobacteria, Streptomyces wedmorensis streptomycete 38.11 and Fusarium avenaceum 7/2 micromycete are presented in the article. When microorganisms are introduced into sterile soil, over the three months of exposure to light, in variants with a monoculture of cyanobacteria and with a three-component association, growths (biofilms) with a population density of a phototrophic component exceeding 50 million cells/cm2 are formed. In biofilms formed by two-component associations, cyanobacteria experienced inhibition by partners, reducing the number of cells 2.4–7.0 times, and the length of filaments 3.6–7.0 times, depending on the nature of the associate. The growth of the fischerella was limited by the streptomycete culture to a greater degree than by the fungus. In ground biofilms formed on the basis of cyanobacteria Fis. muscicola, the phytopathogenic fungus F. avenaceum, in the saprotrophic phase of development, is able to unite into single structured complexes with other participants in the multi-species consortium of microorganisms, including their antagonists. Aggregation of cells in biofilms is associated not only with the isolation of polysaccharide mucus cyanobacteria, but also with the creation of a net-thread structure of growth due to threads of cyanobacteria and mycelium of heterotrophic partners, the total length of which can reach values exceeding 400 m/cm2. The development of such biofilms on the soil surface significantly increases its ability to retain moisture and prevent erosion. The two-component association of cyanobacteria and streptomycete can be considered as promising for biocontrol of fusarium infection. At the same time, under specific conditions of the rhizosphere, the nature of the interaction of the cultures of microorganisms under investigation may differ from that described for sterile soil lacking root exudates. Nevertheless, in experiments with the inoculation of Triticum aestivum L. seeds, it has been established that the two-component association of Fischerella muscicola + Streptomyces wedmorensis in perspective can be used as a biological agent to limit the development of fusarium infection in the higher plant rhizosphere.
Keywords: cyanobacteria, streptomycetes, micromycetes, biofilm, density of populations, rhizosphere, microbial inoculation
Article published in number 2 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-2-117-124
Views: 72

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