ISSN 1995-4301

ISSN 2618-8406

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Influence of heavy metals content in water of small rivers used for irrigation of maize of Armenian population

А. R. Sukiasyan
Section: Monitoring of anthropogenically disturbed areas
Ecological safety of small rivers for the population of the region, their role in the formation of biota is largely determined by the chemical composition of water. The intensity of climatic and anthropogenic factors changes, the chemical composition and, as a consequence, the quality of water can be vary significantly. In this regard, the conduct of monitoring studies of the water composition of these sources is very relevant. The features of migration of a number of heavy metals (HM) in the water-soil-plant triad were studied using the example of an annual herbaceous cultural plant – sugar corn (Zea mays L.) growing on the coastal areas of the Shnogh River. As a control plant corn inbred line B73 was used. With a specially equipped air-conditioning system the drought was modeled in climatic room by changing the optimum soil water content in the experimental vases. In the control vases, the optimum soil water content was 54%, in the case of a mild drought – 43%, wherein the wilting of leaves of the plant was not visually observed. During the modeling of severe drought, the optimum soil water content was 34%, and leaf wilting was observed during the day. The content of HM in samples of river water, coastal soil and plant grains were carried out using a portable analyzer “Thermo Scientific™ Niton™ XRF Portable Analyzerˮ. An analysis of the kinetic data of plant growth under simulated drought conditions was carried out. Kinetic parameters of plant growth in three conditions of simulated drought were determined. A correlation was established between the growth rate of biological samples and the drought. The kinetic parameters of plant growth under simulated drought conditions were established. A correlation was found between the water potential and osmotic pressure in the three-day shoots of the fifth maize sheet under conditions of drought. The physiological response of plant growth according to the degree of drought and indicators of water potential and osmotic pressure were considered. A certain spatial dynamics of distribution of some HM in the water-soil-plant triad is revealed. The obtained experimental material will makes it possible to carry out a complex of measures to monitor the degree of contamination of river water which used for irrigation purposes taking into account soil and climatic conditions of growth.
Keywords: plant, drought, growth kinetics, water potential, osmotic pressure, heavy metals
Article published in number 4 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-4-034-039
Views: 50

Assessment of the state of soils in specially protected natural reservations of the Kirov region

T. A. Adamovich, E. V. Tovstik, E. S. Soloveva, T. Ya. Ashikhmina, G. I. Berezin, A. M. Prokashev, V. P. Savinykh
Section: Monitoring of anthropogenically disturbed areas
Проведена оценка состояния особо охраняемых природных территорий (ООПТ) регионального – заказник «Пижемский» и федерального значения – заповедник «Нургуш», распложенных в Кировской области. Преобладающим типом почв исследуемых ООПТ является аллювиальные дерновые почвы, с сильно- и слабокислой реакцией среды. Содержание органического вещества в почвах территории заказника «Пижемский» варьирует от 3,1 до 4,7% для луговых и от 1,2 до 7,3% для лесных фитоценозов. Для территории заповедника «Нургуш» содержание органического вещества в почвах лесных фитоценозов изменяется в интервале от 2,0 до 6,7%. Содержание нитратного азота в почвах исследуемых ООПТ соответствует среднему уровню обеспеченности почв азотом. Для исследуемых территорий отмечено снижение содержания аммонийного азота вниз по почвенному профилю. Содержание в почвах тяжёлых металлов (Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu, Pb, Cd) находится на стабильном уровне в пределах экологической нормы. Во всех изучаемых почвенных образцах основное содержание из металлов составили марганец и железо, как для подвижной, так и для валовой формы. Максимальное содержание подвижных форм марганца и железа установлено в образцах почв верхних горизонтов. Незначительные количества меди, свинца и кадмия свидетельствуют об отсутствии техногенного загрязнения почвы на этих участках. Среди валовых форм тяжёлых металлов отмечено преобладание железа в пробах почвы из верхнего и нижнего горизонтов. Максимальное содержание валовой формы железа было отмечено в образцах с территории заповедника «Нургуш».
Keywords: agrochemical properties, the “Pizhemsky” zakaznik, the “Nurgush” nature reserve, the Kirov Region, soils, phytocenosis, heavy metals

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Article published in number 4 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-4-040-045
Views: 44

Phytoabsorption of radium-226 from technogenically contaminated soils by the example of Chamaenerion angustifolium, Lathirus pratensis and L. vernus

L. M. Shaposhnikova
Section: Monitoring of anthropogenically disturbed areas
The absorption of radium-226 by Chamaenerion angustifolium, Lathirus pratensis and L. vernus from podzolic soil contaminated with solid radioactive dumps (site 1) and alluvial sod soil contaminated with radioactive water (site 2) has been studied. The concentration of radium was 0.18-63.4 Bq/g of ashed weight (AW) in soil of site 1 and 0.05–21.4 Bq/g of AW in soil of site 2. The univariate analysis of variance did not reveal interspecific differences in the accumulation of the radionuclide by plants. However, the content of radium in plants selected from the area with dumps was higher than in the area contaminated with radioactive waters. Thus, the concentration of radium was 1.08–11.67 and 0.64–8.86 Bq/g of AW for C. angustifolium and L. vernus growing in the site 1 and 0.04–3.35 and 0.04–3.78 Bq/g of AW for C. angustifolium and L. pratensis sampled at site 2. The content of mobile (watersoluble and exchangeable) forms of radium in the soils of both sites was significantly indistinguishable. The obtained results showed that the concentration of radium in the studied plant species depends most on its total content in the soil and, to a lesser extent, on the content of its mobile forms. Multiple regression analysis showed that the total content of radium in contaminated soils depends to the greatest extent on the content of organic matter and phosphorus in them. The content of radium mobile forms is associated with the content of organic matter, as well as exchangeable cations of calcium and magnesium. The correlation between radium content in the plants and these alkali-earth elements was not confirmed. Among the most significant factors which affected radium adsorption by plants was the content of organic matter, phosphorus, potassium, the ratio of physical sand and physical clay.
Keywords: radium-226, biological absorption, radium forms, mobility factors
Article published in number 4 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-4-046-053
Views: 22

The use of glauconite for stabilization and improvement of ammonium nitrate agrochemical properties

Yu. N. Terentyev, N. V. Syrchina, N. N. Bogatyryova, T. Ya. Ashihmina, A. V. Sazanov, M. L. Sazanova, V. A. Kozvonin, A. A. Burkov, V. P. Savinykh
Section: Ecologization of industry
The development of new forms of nitrogen-containing mineral fertilizers comporting with world safety standards is currently quite a relevant problem. Existing forms of combined fertilizers including ammonium nitrate and carbonates have a number of disadvantages (hygroscopicity, caking, partial ammonium nitrogen decline). Therefore active search of new components with certain advantages is conducted. At the same time, their inclusion into the fertilizers’ composition should ensure a high level of plants’ nitrogen assimilation, exclude environmental pollution and comport with Green Chemistry principles; low cost and the possibility of large-tonnage output in Russian Federation is also of great importance. The quartz-glauconitic sandstone from Beloozero deposit (Lysogorsky district, Saratov region) is considered as such a component. Its chemical composition is determined by the mass-spectroscopy with inductively coupled plasma and atomic emission spectroscopy with inductively coupled plasma. The technique of glauconite introduction into the combined mineral fertilizer with ammonium nitrate was tested. The ammonium nitrate and glauconite ratios are selected to ensure the fertilizer thermostability and meet the European Union (EU) standards. The evaluation was carried out by thermogravimetry and differential-thermal analysis. The properties of the obtained fertilizer were tested by bioassay. It was definitely proved that the obtained fertilizer has a favorable effect on the seeds germination and seedlings development. Thus, granulated composition containing 80% of AN and 20% of glauconite allows to decrease the nitrogen content in the fertilizer finished form to 27–28%, which provides the fire-safety and explosion-safety required level, eliminates the risk of pellets caking during storage, promotes an increase in fertilizer’s agrochemical efficiency and allows to decrease the fertilizer’s application rates and, consequently, to reduce the environmental burden.
Keywords: ammonium nitrate, glauconite, explosion-safety, phytotoxicity, bioassay
Article published in number 4 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-4-054-060
Views: 63

Biodegradation of polymeric composite materials by microscopic fungi

E. Kh. Sakaeva, Yu. V. Kulikova, L. V. Rudakova
Section: Ecologization of industry
The objects of research were polymer composite materials (PCM) based on various reinforced materials and binders: fiberglass, organoplastics and carbon plastics. The program of experimental studies included three stages. At the first stage, studies were conducted to identify groups of microorganisms involved in the biodegradation of PCM. The second stage of the research is devoted to determining the generic and species belonging to microorganisms obtained in the first stage. At the third stage, the efficiency of the process of biological destruction of PCM by isolated groups of microorganisms was evaluated. Determination of groups of microorganisms involved in biodestruction was carried out by seeding on liquid nutrient substrates. Fungi resistance was determined in accordance with GOST 9.049-91. The main groups of microorganisms developing on the surface of composites are representatives of the genus Peni� cillium (P. chrysogenum, P. funiculosum, P. cyclopium) and the genus Aspergillus (A. niger, A. terreus, A. oryzae). The evaluation of the fungi resistance showed that the PCM are non-resistance, so the growth of the fungi is estimated at 4‒ to 5 points. The epoxy matrix is the least fungi resistant, whereas the phenol-formaldehyde matrix more resistant to fungal destructors. The results of the study shows the advisability of biodegradation technology with microscopic fungi using for the utilization of polymeric composite materials based on epoxy and phenol-formaldehyde resins reinforced with glass, carbon or organic fibers.
Keywords: biodegradation, mold fungi, fungi resistance, polymeric composite materials

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Article published in number 4 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-4-061-068
Views: 23

Study of migration and transformation of greasing and cooling fluids in the soil of urbanized area

L. M. Shuklina, G. M. Batrakova, T. N. Nurislamova
Section: Ecologization of industry
Relevance of the work is determined by the requirements of ecological safety in the industrial and civil construction in areas with identified technogenic soils’ pollution. The paper considers the use of chromatography-mass spectrometry in a study of polluted soil in order to identify transformation products under natural conditions of multicomponent formulas of lubricating fluids. The identification and search by mass spectra of the component composition of the industrial oil transformation products was carried out, a marker compound is proposed. The possibility of structure and element composition identification on the basis of registration of mass spectra of chemical compounds is shown. The search for characteristic ions of organic compounds was carried out using a bank of the mass-spectral data library. The characteristic ions (basic and sustaining) describing the structure of chemical compounds and the chromatographic retention time are determined. To assess the migration of the marker compound, a quantitative determination of the marker compound was made by capillary gas chromatography in air and polluted soils samples. Soil samples at the bottom of the vessel, samples of oil-retaining tissue and filtrate from the pallet were examined. The results of the research are aimed at justifying the method for assessing the contamination of industrial sites with lubricating fluids, taking into account the transformation of the organic pollutant and recommendations for the recultivation of polluted technozems.
Keywords: lubricating fluids, marker, volatile organic compound, toluene, chromatography-mass spectrometry study, characteristic ions, mass spectrum, soil, technozem

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Article published in number 4 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-4-069-077
Views: 20

Production of environmentally friendly building materials with use of pulp and paper sludge

E. S. Shirinkina
Section: Ecologization of industry
The paper presents the research in the field of using pulp and paper sludge as a resource in the production of environmentally- friendly building materials. During the analysis of scientific and technical information, it was found out that pulp and paper sludge, containing cellulose fiber and secondary sludge, can be used as an additive in the production of composite materials, insulation boards, light aggregates for concretes and combustible additives for production of ceramic bricks. In the laboratory, the possibility of obtaining a ceramic brick with addition of pulp and paper sludge in an amount of 4 and 8% by weight was researched. It was found that when pulp and paper sludge is introduced into the ceramic mass, the density of the bricks samples decreases, linear air shrinkage decreases to 2.7% (for samples with pulp and paper sludge addition in quantity of 4% mass), and 9.1% (for samples with pulp and paper sludge addition in quantity of 8% mass) in comparison with control samples without pulp and paper sludge addition, fire shrinkage decreases from 5.1% to 3.65% and 2.06% for samples with pulp and paper sludge content 4% and 8% mass respectively. Compressive strength of researched samples with pulp and paper sludge content significantly increases (to 90.2%) in comparison with the control samples, which is due to the release of additional thermal energy during the combustion of the pulp and paper sludge in the ceramic mass while the brick firing process. It has also been established that the bending strength of researched samples is reduced in comparison with the control samples, but with an increase of firing temperature to 1070 оC, an increase in bending strength has also been achieved. A comparative analysis of the obtained data on the strength of ceramic brick samples with the requirements of National State Standard showed that when the pulp and paper sludge is introduced into the ceramic mass in an amount of 4–8% by weight, as a combustible additive, it is possible to obtain solid ceramic brick suitable for building.
Keywords: pulp and paper sludge, secondary sludge, primary sludge, cellulose fiber, combustible additive
Article published in number 4 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-4-078-085
Views: 23

Biomonitoring capabilities of microorganisms when assessing the degree of toxicity of synthetic surfactants

L. V. Kondakova, L. I. Domracheva, V. S. Simakova
Section: Ecotoxicology
High sensitivity of the two species of cyanobacteria (Nostoc paludosum and Fischerella muscicola) as test-organisms by means of stating their hydrogenase activity with the tetrazolium-topographical method was proved; presence of formazan in cyanobacteria living cells served as a marker. It was stated that decrease in specious composition of algae and cyanobacteria can serve as a bioindication sign of synthetic surface-active substances in the environment. Formazan accumulation decreased considerably under the influence of car wash of three trade-marks. When cyanobacteria cultures are incubated in solutions of car shampoos with a recommended dose concentration, the number of viable cells drops sharply. Bioassay with the help of bacilli was carried out by means of bacterial suspension inoculation on nutrient agar with preliminary added sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). The toxicity criterion consisted in decreasing number of the grown bacilli colonies in experimental variants. It is shown that the degree of toxicity of SLS can be tested using bacteria of the genus Bacillus, judging from decrease of the percent of soil-balls encrusting with bacteria of the genus Azotobacter. The representatives of Xanthophyta and Eustigmatophyta were the most sensitive to soil pollution with SLS. The number of algae species was the most in the control variant and in the variant with 0.5 recommended dose of SLS. The results showing negative influence of the tested synthetic surface-active substances on microorganisms with different systematic characteristics proved the fact that it is necessary to carefully use car wash and to avoid car wash getting into soil.
Keywords: synthetic surface-active substances (SSAS), car wash, bioassay, bioindication, cyanobacteria, Bacillus, algoflora, Azotobacter
Article published in number 4 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-4-086-089
Views: 18

Applying songbird population dynamics models to conservation biology needs

A. L. Podolsky
Section: Population ecology
Proper understanding of the reproductive biology traits and population dynamics patterns of declining songbird species is crucial for ensuring their effective protection and recovery. Metapopulation dynamics may cause the extinction of local populations in some landscape patches regardless of the habitat quality and undertaken conservation measures. At the same time, the source-sink type of the population dynamics could saturate lower quality habitat patches with dispersing individuals from the population sources. Hence, poorer quality habitats presumed to yield population sinks could eventually maintain population sources. Consequently, an effective recovery strategy for declining species should include high quality suitable habitats along with some poorer quality patches in the regional network of protected natural areas. I developed the mathematical model for songbird reproductive strategy based on the case study of my three-year field research conducted on the Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla L.) in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (U.S.A.). Breeding Bird Survey detected multiannual negative population trends in this species in pristine landscapes of the Southern Appalachians, whereas its growing populations were found in some of the adjacent areas strongly affected by human activities. I modified basic Pulliam’s (1988) model of population growth rates for this species by including assumptions about annual female survival and annual fecundity. I also applied productivity data from 110 active nests to determine an average successful brood size and nesting success. Finally, I added probabilistic variables accounting for renesting rates after unsuccessful breeding attempt and double-brooding rates to the model while assuming equal sex ratio among the breeding individuals. Computer simulations based on actual data and assumed range of values of the model variables yielded population growth rates well below 1, thus confirming the declining status of the national park populations. Therefore, the best pristine habitats in the study area were not ecologically significant sources, and in fact they were ecological traps for this species. Such unpredictable population dynamics in high quality habitats vs. low quality patches could be caused by the “paradox of predation”: high quality landscapes of the national park attracted, in addition to birds, a variety of mammalian and reptilian nest predators. Most of these predators were absent or scarce in low quality
Keywords: annual fecundity, annual survival, renesting rate, double-brooding rate, population growth rate, Seiurus aurocapilla
Article published in number 4 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-4-092-100
Views: 14

About the promotion of natural restoration of Pinus sylvestris L.

N. P. Savinykh, E. V. Lelekova, M. N. Shakleina
Section: Population ecology
The research was carried out in the pine forest of the specially protected natural areas “Medvedsky Bor” in the Nolinsky District of the Kirov Region. One can meet there both typical boron and boreal plant species and some representatives of broad-leaved forests and steppes. We researched the composition of vegetation and flora, as well as the state of Pinus sylvestris L. of the overgrown strip that had been formed after the gradual next-but-one belt logging, with contribution to renewal (mineralization) and care (clarification-logging with removal of non-target species). Green-moss and reed vegetation associations prevail there, as it was stated. Vascular plants are analyzed in relation both to humidity and the spectrum of ecologo-coenotic groups. Predominance of mesophilic and xeromesophilic groups was stated, which indicates moisture degree sufficient for seed germination of the xeromesophilic P. sylvestris species. Boreal, boron, as well as non-moral and steppe species prevail, which confirms conservation of biodiversity in these forests. The pine undergrowth was analyzed as for its number, vitality; vegetation influence on these indicators was stated. It was found out, per hectare there are 21 thousand young pine plants aged from 4 to16 years. This 84 times exceeds the required number of trees in the mature community (250 trees per hectare). The vitality of the pine undergrowth is estimated according to the original method, taking into account the age of the plants, their height, the length of last annual increment and the mean annual increment, deviation of lateral shoots from the major axis, presence of re-crowning and yellowed leaves. It is established that there are 17 600 young plants with a high degree of vitality per hectare. It 4.4 times exceeds the plants number required for artificial restoration of pine forests (4000 trees per hectare). These are the trees which can form pine forests with a high appraisal index in the future.
Keywords: reforestation, logging, mineralization, undergrowth, real vitality, forest care, biodiversity
Article published in number 4 for 2018
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2018-4-101-106
Views: 26

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