ISSN 1995-4301
(Print)

ISSN 2618-8406
(Online)

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1 issue of the journal in 2024

4 issue of the journal in 2023

3 issue of the journal in 2023

2 issue of the journal in 2023

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Wheat crops weediness assessment based on geobotanical, ground and satellite spectral data

T.I. Pisman, I.Y. Botvich, M.G. Erunova, D.V. Emelyanov, N.А. Оgorodov, А.А. Shpedt, А.P. Shevyrnogov
Section: Agroecology
The paper describes the possibility of using land spectrometry data and high-resolution satellite images of the PlanetScope grouping to assess weediness of cereal crops. The objects of monitoring were on the territory of the Krasnoyarsk Agricultural Research Institute of Federal Research Center “Krasnoyarsk Science Center of SB RAS” (Middle Siberia, Krasnoyarsk region). For interpretation satellite images, the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) vegetation index was used. Biological assessment of the degree of crops weediness was determined on a four-level scale. As the result of monitoring wheat crops the influence of weed vegetation on the value of NDVI of agricultural crops was revealed. The average NDVI for wheat planting with a low degree of weediness is higher than the NDVI of wheat plantings with a high degree of weediness. As the result of the analysis of the spectra of cultural and weed vegetation on July 09, 2019, a difference in the value of the spectral brightness coefficient in the near-infrared region was noted, which is mainly connected with different structure of plants. For wheat planting with a strong degree of weediness (3 level) in the near-infrared region, the spectral brightness coefficient reaches 50%, while with a weak degree of weediness (1 level) below 40%. The NDVI analysis of wheat plantings with different levels of weediness during the whole vegetation period showed the same dynamics. However, for fields with a low degree of weediness, the NDVI value reaches 0.5 in the middle of the growing season, while for fields with a high degree of weediness, the NDVI value reaches only 0.35. According to the satellite data, spatial distribution maps of NDVI were constructed in different time of growing season (July 09, 2019 and August 02, 2019). The areas of wheat plantings with different degrees of weediness are reliably revealed on them.
Keywords: wheat, weediness, PlanetScope, NDVI, land spectral measurement, spectral brightness coefficient
Article published in number 1 for 2023
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-1-110-116
Views: 17

The development of an industrial environmental control and monitoring system for large-scale industrial waste advanced recycling facility “Maradykovsky”

N.M. Makarova, A.I. Polyakov, G.A. Kuzmina, A.M. Toygildin
Section: Monitoring of natural and anthropogenically disturbed areas
The features of a complex multi-level system of environmental safety for industrial waste treatment facility (WTF) “Maradykovsky’’ are presented. Such a system provides for the industrial environmental control (monitoring), the purpose of which is to assess agreement of the results obtained with environmental standards (pollutant emissions into the air, waste generation standards, noise) and hygienic standards of pollutant content in environmental components (atmospheric air, soil, snow cover, groundwater) at the border of the sanitary protection zone of the waste treatment facility and settlements. The functioning of the environmental control (monitoring) system is expected both at the stage of construction of the WTF and during its operation.
Keywords: industrial waste, waste treatment, waste treatment facility, industrial environmental control, industrial environmental monitoring
Article published in number 4 for 2022
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-4-052-059
Views: 35

A comprehensive study of the components of post-extraction residues of spruce woody greens

Yu.V. Martakova, E.V. Udoratina
Section: Ecologization of industry
In this work, we conducted a comprehensive physicochemical study of the post-extraction residues of woody greens of Picea abies obtained in the production of the commercial biopreparation “Verva-spruсe”. The component composition of spruce woody greenery and its post-extraction residue was determined by chemical methods. It is shown that the biomass of P. abies woody greens and the residue after its emulsion processing are multicomponent system, the composition of which is represented by polymeric (lignocarbohydrate), low-molecular and mineral parts. Cellulose (36 mass.%) and lignin (29 mass.%) are the predominant fractions of post-extraction residues of spruce woody greenery. The functional composition of cellulose and lignin was studied by FTIR spectroscopy, chemical and elemental analysis in detail. It is shown that the spruce wood waste is characterized by a smaller amount of carboxyl and carbonyl groups, compared with woody greens. This is due to the fact that some of the hemicelluloses, pectin and lignin are removed during the alkaline extraction of woody greens. During the water-alkaline treatment of woody greens, a part of the water- and alkali-soluble fractions of proteins is removed, as evidenced by a decrease in the nitrogen content in the post-extraction residue. The supramolecular structure and morphology of the waste was studied by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. It is shown that the extraction of woody greens with a solution of alkali leads to loosening of the surface of the waste cellulose. The particle size of the waste lignin is reduced, and its surface becomes more homogeneous compared to woody green lignin.The obtained information is significant in the search for alternative sources of lignocellulose, which is the basis of valuable chemical and agricultural products, as well as for solving the problem of rational use of wood waste, and in particular coniferous woody greenery.
Keywords: Picea abies, woody greens, post-extraction residue, lignocellulosic complex, chemical composition, supramolecular structure, microstructure

Article published in number 4 for 2022
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-4-151-158
Views: 17

The assessment of potential risks of solid municipal waste landfill

V.V. Elsakov, E.M. Lapteva, M.I. Vasilevich, E.V. Gabova, D.A. Kaverin, S.K. Kochanov, E.V. Panyukova, T.P. Mityusheva, T.N. Pystina, N.A. Semenova, T.V. Tikhonova
Section: Monitoring of natural and anthropogenically disturbed areas
The field ecosystem studies of researchers by Komi Federal Research Center in the area of the proposed construction of solid industrial and household waste landfill (ecotechnopark “Shies”, near railway station Shies, Arkhangelsk Region) have revealed limitations and possible potential risks in the implementation of the project. The characteristics of soil and vegetation cover, features of the chemical composition of surface waters (high content of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu related with swamping and peat water saturation) of the area were established on the territory. The peat thickness according to geo-radar sounding at bogs exceeds 1.5–2.0 m. Thematic mapping of the work areas based on the materials of modern and archival satellite images demonstrates the ratio of the areas of the dominant landscape complexes and classes of vegetation cover. A model of potential atmospheric circulation and transfer of pollution was made for the assumed source of atmospheric emission. The identified limitations are mainly associated with a high watering of the territory and the dominance of old-growth spruce stands with the presence of indicator species of intact areas, often including rare species of plants, animals and lichens of different levels of protection. Four species of lichens included in the Red Book of the Russian Federation (2008) are presented at the planning polygon area. There is a probability to meet with representatives of 15 species of rare and protected animals. A preliminary calculation of damage to the environment shows that loss of ecosystem services exceeds the economic benefits.
Keywords: municipal solid waste landfill, old-age forest communities, red book species, swampiness, remote sensing

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Article published in number 4 for 2022
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-4-072-079
Views: 40

The content of extractive substances in the products of destruction of bark-woods wastes generated during long-term storage, taking into account the vertical gradient

K.G. Ufimtsev, I.V. Beshley, T.I. Shirshova
Section: Ecologization of industry
The content of extractive substances in the products of the destruction of bark-wood waste (BWW) from the bark dump of JSC Syktyvkar LDK, located in the microdistrict Lesozavod of the Syktyvkar was determined. The chemical composition of the phenolic complex isolated from ethyl acetate extract after removal of resinous substances when infused with hexane was studied. Using the methods of thin-layer and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, the change in the content and component composition of phenolic compounds depending on the depth of occurrence was traced.
Samples were taken from different depths of the BWW dumps, the thickness of which is 20 m (borehole 1) and 27 m (borehole 2). Extractive substances were extracted from crushed samples by extraction with ethyl acetate at the boiling point of the solvent for four hours. Resinous substances were isolated from the dry residue obtained after distillation of ethyl acetate by infusion with hexane for three days. Quantitative indicators of the content of extractive substances extracted by ethyl acetate from BWW, depending on the depth of occurrence, lie mainly in the range of 1.8–2.9% of dry matter (borehole 1) and 1.4–4.4% (borehole 2). The content of phenolic compounds in ethyl acetate extract after removal of resinous substances mainly lies in the range of 49–64 (borehole 1) and 45–57% (borehole 2).
The phenolic fraction (6–7 m, dump 2) containing the maximum amount of the substance was separated on a column with silica gel using a mixture of chloroform-acetone as an eluent with an increase in the proportion of the latter (from 0 to 100%).
Based on the data of thin-layer and high-performance liquid chromatography, it was found that the composition of the phenolic fraction includes 4 to 8 compounds, one of which is identified by chromatographic and spectral characteristics as dihydroquercetin, considered as a reference antioxidant, and four compounds are classified as hydroxycinnamic and phenolic acids.
Keywords: bark-wood wastes, ethyl acetate, hexane extracts, phenolic compounds, quercetin, dihydroquercetin, apigenin, gallic acid, rosemarinic acid
Article published in number 4 for 2022
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-4-144-150
Views: 17

Problems of neutralization and utilization of highly toxic industrial wastes, their processing with obtaining valuable components

V.А. Brodskiy, D.A. Sakharov, А.V. Kolesnikov, T.Ya. Ashihmina, K.N. Ivanov
Section: Ecologization of industry
For the enterprises of the Russian Federation, an urgent task is to maximize the use of available natural resources in order to create low-waste and waste-free production. This approach will not only make rational use of the available raw material base, but also solve environmental problems inherent in places where natural resources are being extracted. Modern technologies allow for deep processing of mineral raw materials. Huge reserves of useful components are contained in man-made waste arising from the extraction, enrichment and processing of ore dressing products of many non-ferrous and rare metals. In the tailings of the enrichment of non-ferrous metal ores, the proportion of untreated components from their amount in the initial ore is, respectively (average and maximum values) in %: zinc – 26 and 47; lead – 23 and 39; copper – 13 and 36; nickel – 10 and 25. The recovery rate of the main minerals in Russia is 65–78%, and associated elements (in non-ferrous metallurgy) – 10 to 30%. Modern trends of deep processing of waste of I and II classes for obtaining secondary products suitable for further use are presented in the article.
Keywords: industrial waste, state policy, ecology, environmental management, secondary resources

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Article published in number 4 for 2022
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-4-088-095
Views: 20

Photocatalytic degradation of azo dyes in aqueous solution by using highly ordered titania nanotube films

A.N. Morozov, Z.P. Thant, I.A. Pochitalkina
Section: Ecologization of industry
The heterogeneous process of photocatalytic degradation of azorubine in aqueous medium on coatings of highly ordered TiO2 nanotube (NT) matrix was studied. The photoactive coatings consist of TiO2 NTs with an inner diameter of 115±10 nm, a wall thickness of 10±2 nm, and a length of 17.2±1.1 µm. Using X-ray diffraction, it was shown that the studied TiO2 coatings have a nanosized polycrystalline anatase structure. It was found that the saturation of the nanotube coating with substrate played the key role in determining the rate of the photocatalytic process. The degree of saturation itself can be determined either by the intensity of mass transfer or by the surface area of the photocatalyst. Using electron spectroscopy, it was shown that the process of photocatalytic oxidation of azorubine on the surface of TiO2 NTs occurs without desorption of intermediate organic compounds into the reaction volume. Based on the obtained results, recommendations for the water purification application of TiO2 NT films as photoactive coatings in microchannel systems were formulated.
Keywords: titanium dioxide, photocatalysis, nanotubes, azorubine, degradation

Article published in number 4 for 2022
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-4-111-118
Views: 10

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Article published in number 4 for 2022
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-4-065-071
Views: 33

Evaluating perspectives for the forming an eco-industrial park in the Nizhnekamsk industrial hub

I.O. Tikhonova, E.M. Danilova, V.A. Maryev, E.M. Averochkin
Section: Methodology and research methods. Models and forecasts
Various types of industrial wastes formed in the Nizhnekamsk industrial hub are considered. Requirements to the development of eco-industrial parks are discussed, and a typical scheme for making decisions concerning setting such parks is suggested. Two types of wastes characteristic for the considered industrial hub are identified, namely: low-tonnage (less than 500 tons per year) and large-tonnage (over 500 tons per year). While assessing qualitative characteristics of waste formation, alternative waste management ways are recognized. The priority attention is paid to petroleum-containing wastes, wastes of rubber technical goods and tires, as well as spent oil wastes. Options for waste processing are considered – of both secondary energy resources and secondary material resources, which are preferable for a circular economy. The following methods of waste processing have been selected: pyrolysis for petroleum-containing wastes; production of rubber crumb and bitumen-rubber composition – for wastes of rubber technical goods and tires; production of refined technical oils for spent oil wastes. Based on the results of the consolidated financial assessment, authors suggest the most feasible solution, namely: the technological scheme with the production of 3 products – rubber crumb, bitumenrubber composition and refined technical oils. It is evident, that at the initial stage, this solution requires investment in capital equipment. The least expensive is the technological scheme with obtaining only purified oil, when other wastes are pyrolyzed. Although this scheme is expected to be less profitable, the authors believe that this scheme should be se
Keywords: eco-industrial park, secondary resources, industrial waste, recycling, circular economy, utilization, pyrolysis
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Article published in number 4 for 2022
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-4-045-051
Views: 11

Recycling of waste from primary chemical power sources

S.L. Fuchs, S.V. Devyaterikova
Section: Ecologization of industry
Nowadays, due to a great quantity of spent chemical sources of electric energy (batteries) (up to 0.25% of total waste in big cities), the issue of their recycling is very topical. Batteries are not to be utilized with solid household waste, as after destruction of battery cases in conditions of high humidity in solid waste refuse dumps, alkali and heavy metals get into the environment. Toxic substances get into soil and then into ground water and into water bodies. Besides, if solid waste dumps get burned, batteries emit dioxins into the atmosphere. Nevertheless, a spent chemical source of electric energy is a concentration of metals which could and should be recycled. The residue after metal winning (spent slurry) is also to be properly recycled. The paper offers the conditions of recycling primary zinc-manganese chemical sources of electric energy. We crushed spent chemical sources of electric energy, then we divided their components into metal (a steel case, a zinc current lead) and non-metal ones (active mass). From the active mass we extricated hydroxides and salts of ferrum, zinc, and manganese, and the residual matter was dried in а drying oven till it had a fixed weight. In active mass powder, the residue after extracting metals, we stated the particles’ morphology and element composition using a scanning electron microscope with an internal energy-dispersive analysis sensor. After heat treatment at 250–300 оС and fractionating, active mass powder was used in composites on the basis of high-pressure polyethylene. With the ratio of high-pressure polyethylene and active mass equal to 2.75 : 1, we got a high hardness composite. The average value of the microhardness of the composite is almost 2 times higher than that of the reference materials, and is 70.99±0.04 kg/mm2.
Keywords: chemical sources of electric energy, utilization of chemical current sources, active mass

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Article published in number 4 for 2022
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-4-119-123
Views: 19

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