Urban protected areas in green infrastructure of Khabarovsk City
I.D. Debelaya, G.Yu. Morozova
Section: Social ecology
Urban specially protected natural areas (SPNAs) are an important element of the city’s green infrastructure, which is being formed to support its sustainable development. The aim of the work is to identify the main trends in the functioning of the SPNAs in Khabarovsk. Geobotanic, forest taxation, statistical, cartographic research methods are used. Using the example of the oldest city park, Dynamo, an assessment of ecosystem services was carried out. The total area of SPNAs is 1.5 % of the Khabarovsk area. The system of Khabarovsk SPNAs includes 28 objects of regional and local importance, which are differentiated into 7 categories: natural monuments of regional and local importance, park areas, recreational areas, protected natural objects, squares and natural and recreational complexes. The development of SPNAs in Khabarovsk is influenced by the rapid pace of urbanization, the overall unfavorable environmental situation, high natural and anthropogenic risks and high demands of residents to form a comfortable urban environment. The main problems of the formation of the urban SPNAs system are the lack of a single authority and stable funding; small total area of protected objects; uneven distribution within the city limits; the disparity of protected objects; low representation of natural landscapes, despite the short period of development of the territory; loss of the function of self-regulation of plant communities, loss of biodiversity; multifunctional use of the territory of protected objects. SPNAs are poorly integrated into the economy of the city. The prospects of increasing the total area of specially protected natural areas and expanding the range of their categories due to the reserved urban land are determined. Application of the results: improvement of urban development planning, municipal management.
Article published in number 3 for 2020 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-3-203-209
Environmental monitoring waters of Kumo-Manych depression
E.B. Dedova, V.I. Ivanova, G.N. Konieva
Section: Monitoring of anthropogenically disturbed areas
The reservoirs of the Kumo-Manych depression are of relict origin and function due to leaching of the sea sediments composing the depression by surface and ground waters. The article presents the results of long-term environmental monitoring of reservoirs of Manych group of lakes with high mineralization, which contributes to the formation of a specific biocenosis. The study of ecological features of water bodies under the conditions of limiting influence of salinity showed that a high degree of water salinity (80-200 g/l) contributes to the active development and reproduction of Artemia Salina. in lakes Big Yashaltinskoe and Jama. The main source of nutrition of the parthenogenetic population of Artemia are microphytes Dunaliella salina, Nitzschia, Navicula, Surirella, which have high plasticity and are able to withstand sudden changes in water mineralization. 24 species of diatoms and 1 species of green algae were found. The analysis of the results showed that the composition, dynamics of abundance and Genesis of biota are subject to fluctuations, depending on the cumulative effect of environmental factors. The strongest degree of mineralization of surface waters in the lakes of Manych group formed during the summer period when the value of hydrothermal factor of 0.3-0.4. In lakes the development of two-three generations of crustaceans Artemia salina, the average number of different age crustaceans for the period April – August in the lake Big Yashaltinskoe-23,07 – 61,14 thousand ind./m3, in lake Jama-10,05-23,15 thousand ind./m3. The dependence between the mineralization of water (Y) and the average body length of crustaceans (X) is approximated by the equation of the form: Y=7.88879+0.0109·x (r=0.64).
Keywords: mineralization of water, Kumo-Manych depression, hyperhaline reservoirs, artemia, algae.
Article published in number 3 for 2020 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-3-084-090
Dynamics of vegetation and soil properties of fallow ecosystems
Section: Monitoring of anthropogenically disturbed areas
Data on the vegetation cover transformation on the territory of Primorsky region depending on the fallow period are considered. Studies were conducted on abandoned agricultural fields (15, 20, 30, 35 and 60 years after abandonment). As a reference site, we used a cultivated field in the area and native forest samples. The experiment included 2 soil types: Gleyic Cambisols and Dystric Fluvisol. The study determined that undergrowth Quercus mongolica, which is representative of the native forest appears 15-20 years after the taking the field out of agricultural use. Middle-age fallow fields (20-30 years after abandonment) are characterized by the maximum species diversity. Fallow ecosystems of the Primorsky region are characterized by plant seed shortage and frequent fires. Reedgrass-cereals and wormwood sinusias are the most stable dominant under these conditions. An increase in soil acidity and reduction of humus content, mobile forms of potassium and phosphorus occurs at the stage of active renewal of tree species.
Section: Monitoring of natural and anthropogenically disturbed areas
Russia ranks first in the world in the area of land taken out of agricultural use. In some regions, fallow areas account for more than 50% of the total agricultural area. Currently, the main part of these areas is in the process of naturalecosystem restoration, with significant changes in vegetation composition, soil formation, and soil properties.
Land withdrawal from the fallow state to arable land is becoming a worldwide trend and also significant in the fareastern region of Russia. Data on the vegetation cover transformation on the territory of Primorsky region depending on the fallow period are considered. Studies were conducted on abandoned agricultural fields (15, 20, 30, 35 and 60 years after abandonment). As a reference site, we used a cultivated field in the area and native forest samples. The experiment included 2 soil types: Gleyic Cambisols and Dystric Fluvisol.
The study determined that members of the genus Salix are the first settlers of woody plant. They grow singly or form microgroups. The undergrowth Quercus mongolica Fisch. ex Turcz., which is representative of the native forest appears 15–20 years after the taking the field out of agricultural use. Middle-age fallow fields (20–30 years after abandonment) are characterized by the maximum species diversity. Fallow ecosystems of the Primorsky region are characterized by plant seed shortage and frequent fires. Reedgrass-cereals and wormwood sinusias are the most stable dominants under these conditions. An increase in soil acidity and reduction of humus content, mobile forms of potassium and phosphorus occur at the stage of active renewal of tree species.
In the fluvio-glacial woodland landscape of the Zvenigorod biological station (located within the mixed forest subzone, in the center of the Russian Plain), in order to identify ecological differences between syntaxa of coniferous and mixed forests referred to the classes Carpino–Fagetea and Vaccinio–Piceetea, 536 geobotanical relevées were analyzed those were collected in 2004–2016. Resulting from ecological-floristic classification (according to the Braun-Blanquet approach), 5 associations were established in this woodland (including 2 subassociations, 3 variants, particularly new xeromesophytic variant, named Vaccinium vitis-idaea, of zonal subass. Rhodobryo–Piceetum caricetosum pilosae and new sub-taiga variant named Asarum europaeum of south-taiga subass. Melico–Piceetum typicum) and 1 derivative community. Multidimensional ordination based on the similarity of floristic composition, phytoindication of the ecological regime using rank scales of H. Ellenberg, and analysis of the syntaxa localization in ecotopes at different positions in the river valley and with different soil characteristics (using a geographic information system based on large-scale maps). The results of ordination and phytoindication showed that floristic differences between forest classes are consistent with soil reaction and nitrogen content, and at the level of associations in the same class - with a moisture regime. Frequency analysis of the syntaxa distribution by ecotopes revealed that the forests of the zonal syntaxon (subass. Rhodobryo–Piceetum caricetosum pilosae var. typica) have a tendency to grow on well-humified soils without gleyzation, whereas the forest syntaxon of the more northern range (subass. Melico–Piceetum typicum var. Asarum europaeum) do on gleyed soils. The specific confinement connected with the granulometric soil composition has not been revealed for the studied forests. In the surveyed fluvio-glacial woodland landscape, xeromesophytic mixed forests dominate at the local watershed, those combine features of two classes, but basing on floristic criteria have to be referred to the nemoral class Carpino–Fagetea.
Keywords: hemiboreal forests, Braun-Blanquet classification approach, multidimensional ordination, fluvio-glacial landscape in the center of the Russian Plain
The review discusses the existing approaches and algorithms used to assess the water quality of inland water bodies in various climatic zones, provides formulas for calculating the most commonly used spectral indices (Chl-a, MCI, NDVI, Turb). The possibilities of using data of remote sensing of the Earth from various sensors (Modis-Terra, Modis-Aqua, Landsat-5, Landsat 7, Landsat 8, Sentinel-2, Sentinel-3) to study the quality of water in inland waters are described. Many researchers note the great potential of the Sentinel-3 satellite for studying inland waters with complex optical conditions (high turbidity, color, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and total suspended matter). It is shown that the optical properties of inland waters differ depending on the trophic status of the reservoir, on the season of the year, the physicochemical composition of water, the species composition of phytoplankton and other factors. Currently, both traditional methods and new, improved algorithms are used to monitor the state of water bodies with complex optical conditions. Various methods of atmospheric corrections and calibrated spectral indices are used, classifications of reservoirs by the presence of phytoplankton particles, suspended particles of organic and inorganic matter, and CDOM are developed. It was noted that the concentration of chlorophyll a and the turbidity of the water are the most important biophysical parameters used to assess the quality of water and determine the ecological status of inland waters.
Keywords: inland waters, eutrophication, trophic status of a reservoir, phytoplankton, turbidity, transparency, remote sensing of the Earth
Article published in number 2 for 2020 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-2-014-025
Septoria tritici and Stagonospora nodorum blotch of wheat: genetic control of host resistance (review)
A.V. Bakulina, A.V. Kharina, A.A. Shirokikh
Section: Theoretical problems of ecology
The review provides up-to-date information about the biology of fungi that cause Zymoseptoria tritici and Parastaganospora nodurum, the taxonomic status of these species, symptoms of Septoria tritici and staganospora nodorum blotch diseases, and the spread and harmfulness of these pathogens in our country. Considerable attention is paid to the genetic control of wheat resistance to Z. tritici and P. nodurum, summarized data on qualitative and quantitative stability, valuable wheat genotypes and campaigns to implement the accumulated data in wheat breeding to obtain resistant cultivars.
An important condition for obtaining new pharmacological drugs with immunomodulatory effect is the search for active producers in natural habitats. The identification and isolation of new species and strains of fungi from the natural environment opens up prospects for the replenishment of collections of active producers and using them to develop new biotechnological products. The mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr.) Pers. has long been known as a source of polysaccharides with a wide spectrum of biological action. The purpose of this work is to assess the ability of polysaccharides from frozen and dried fruitbodies of the artificially cultivated mushroom H. erinaceus to influence the phagocytic activity of human neutrophils.
From the fungus fruitbody selected in nature, which is similar in phenotypic characters to Hericium erinaceus, was isolated mycelial culture BP 16. Based on the analysis of the fragment including the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1), the 5.8S rRNA gene and ITS2 found close (99.68%) resemblance of the BP 16 strain to the H. erinaceus CBS 202.31 MH855186.1 strain which is deposited in the NCBI.
The isolated strain (BP 16) during laboratory cultivation was distinguished by an increased ability to produce fruits.
Four fractions of polysaccharides were obtained from frozen and dried fruitbodies of artificially cultivated BP 16 by extraction with a 5% solution of hot alkali. Depending on the method of pretreatment of fruitbodies (drying or freezing) and the aggregate state (sediment and supernatant), the polysaccharide fractions differed in combination and quantitative ratio in their composition of individual monosaccharides (glucose, galactose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, fucose and rhamnose), protein content and galacturonic acid.
It was established by light microscopy that the polysaccharides of each fraction of H. erinaceus BP 16 (at a concentration of 1.2%) equally increase the phagocytic activity of neutrophils, and fraction 3 (the most enriched in xylose) has a similar effect at a concentration of 0.6%.
Low toxicity, high biological compatibility and physiology activity of polysaccharides from H. erinaceus have undeniable advantages over other classes of chemicals. In the context of the search for new natural immunomodulators, further structural and functional study of H. erinaceus polysaccharides is very promising.
The content of total and water-soluble fluoride in large-leaf tea and packaged tea sold in the Moscow region has been studied. Using the ionometric method, the content of total and water-soluble fluoride was determined in 18 samples of widespread tea brands. The contents of fluoride ions in infusions of tea, obtained by the classical method of infusion, were 1.1–4.5 mg / dm3, with an average value of 3.1 mg / dm3. Fluorine in the investigated samples of tea is mainly in water-soluble form. The share of water-soluble fluoride in large-leaf and packaged teas was 81 and 76%, respec-tively. The average values of fluorine concentrations in infusions of large-leaf and packaged teas were close and amounted to 3.3 and 2.8 mg / dm3, respectively. The total fluorine content in the studied samples varies in the range of 290–760 mg / kg and averages 409 mg / kg. Using the example of the «Maysky tea» was showed, it was shown that in the first 5 minutes from the beginning of brewing, about 75% of the maximum possible amount of fluoride extracted into the aqueous phase. The calculation of the hazard quotient and comparison of the amounts of fluoride entering the human body with recommended standards showed that daily consumption of 1 dm3 of tea provides on average 80% of the daily norm of fluoride, which helps to prevent caries and is characterized by a low probability of negative effects of fluoride on the body in the long term.
Keywords: water-soluble fluorine, total fluorine content, tea, ionometry, hazard quotient
Article published in number 2 for 2020 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2020-2-180-186
Early and remote effects of gamma irradiation and uranyl nitrate in the liver lipids of mice
А.G. Kudyasheva, N.G. Zagorskaya, L.N. Shishkina
A certain danger is possessed by uranium compounds due to the high ability to accumulate in organs and tissues and to induce the oxidative stress. The soluble uranyl nitrate causes the oxidative damage the different biologically important compounds, including lipids. The aim of this work was to study the quantitative changes of the lipid composition in liver of mice CBA (males) and interrelations between the different parameters of the lipid peroxidation (LPO) in response to chronic γ-radiation at the dose of 16 cGy and presence of uranyl nitrate in drinking water at the concentration of 0,002 g/L under the separate and combined action of these factors. Mice were divided by four groups: I - control; II – a solution of uranil nitrate consumption during 30 days; II – the chronic γ-irradiation at the total dose of 1,6 cGy during 30 days; IV – the combined action of these factors during 30 days. The decapitation of mice was performed by early (during 1 day after action) and remote (during 30 day after action) period. In early period the more substantial changes between the quantitative ratio of PL fractions was revealed in the mice group III, and under the combined action of factors the increase the minor fractions and the decrease of phosphatidylcholine in liver PL were obtained. The reliable changes of the scale and character of interrelations between shares of the PL separate fraction and/or the generalized parameters of PL composition were revealed in all experimental groups both early and remote periods after actions. This should be taken into account when evaluating the effects of physical and chemical factors on animals inhabiting in ecologically unfavorable situations.