ISSN 1995-4301
(Print)

ISSN 2618-8406
(Online)

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3 issue of the journal in 2023

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Climatic modeling of the habitat suitability of Erythronium sibiricum (Fisch. et C.A. Mey.) Krylov

A.V. Vaganov, E.A. Zholnerova, V.F. Zaikov, A.I. Shmakov
Section: Ecology and climate change
The Erythronium sibiricum (Fisch. et C.A. Mey.) Krylov (family Liliaceae L.) is an Altai-Sayan endemic, a relic of tertiary broad-leaved forests, predominantly a forest mesophyte. Erythronium sibiricum is listed in a number of regional Red Books and the Red Book of the Russian Federation (a rare species that is declining in numbers in natural populations). Maximum entropy method (MaxEnt) was used to constructing a model of suitability of Erythronium sibiricum habitat. The initial data for the modeling of potential distribution were the climatic parameters of WorldClim, the actual records from herbarium funds and from nature. It has been proved that E. sibiricum demonstrates a wide ecological amplitude. Modeling of the predicted habitats of E. sibiricum showed almost equal influence of the temperature factor (46,4%) and precipitation (41,8%) as restraining the expansion of the species range, which correlates with the distribution of E. sibiricum within the climate types according to Coppen-Geiger. These works are based on the study of the influence of climate, as one of factors for the successful introduction of plants. Data obtained on beautifully blooming E. sibiricum and methodological approach could be used for solving environmental problems in some regions of the Russian Federation.
Keywords: Erythronium sibiricum, areal, herbarium, climate, Siberia, modeling, endemic, DIVA-GIS, GBIF, MaxEnt
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Article published in number 3 for 2023
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-3-208-214
Views: 31

The effect of ecological factors on genetic polymorphism in natural populations of Fragaria vesca

E.V. Babynin, S.A. Dubrovnaya, A.R. Kayumov
Section: Population ecology
Genetic polymorphism of natural cenopopulations of wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca) from the Republic of Mari El was measured by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The method of molecular genome marking based on RAPD-PCR makes it possible to determine the genetic status of populations and establish interpopulation relationships. The cenopopulations that we selected for the analysis were confined to different stages of the forest phytocenosis succession: the climatic phytocenosis and the area of the forest felling. These F. vesca cenopopulations differed in the ratio of sexual and vegetative reproduction during the maintenance of the cenopopulation size. In a felling area in conditions of greater illumination the intensity of sexual and vegetative reproduction increases. However, specimens of seed origin were not found in the felling area, since in conditions of high competition with ruderal and meadow plants, slowly developing strawberry seedlings died. The germination of seeds and plants of seed origin was noted under conditions of climatic phytocenosis. For the cenopopulation confined to the climax forest, Shannon’s diversity index and Nei’s genetic distance were 0.5179 and 0.3613 respectively. In a felling area vegetative reproduction processes predominate, so Shannon’s diversity index and Nei’s genetic distance were lower, 0.4573 and 0.3132 respectively. In a felling area revealed the loss of certain genetic clusters present in the climax forest. This indicates the loss of a strawberry genetic diversity in the transition to vegetative reproduction due to anthropogenic impact. Our data confirm the idea that climax communities with their more stable conditions can act as regenerative niches of the species.
Keywords: clonal plants, reproductive niche, genetic polymorphism, population structure, anthropogenic influence, RAPD

Article published in number 3 for 2023
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-3-171-178
Views: 22

The ecological status of the Soyana River in the zone of possible impact of a diamond deposit

N.V. Klimovskiy, A.P. Novoselov, N.Yu. Matveev
Section: Chemistry of natural environments and objects
The article presents the results of a comprehensive study of the Soyana River for the first time. The characteristics of hydrological and hydrochemical parameters were obtained while observations in July 2020 and March 2021. Changes in the hydrogen index (pH), mineralization, and the content of dissolved oxygen and biogenic elements in water, as well as petroleum hydrocarbons in water and bottom sediments were studied using generally accepted in hydrochemical practice methods. The data obtained were evaluated for compliance with the regulatory requirements for the river water quality. According to the chemical composition, the Soyana River water belongs to the hydrocarbonate class of small and medium mineralization (164–296 mg/L), weakly acidic and slightly alkaline type (pH 6.0–8.2). The data obtained allow us to conclude that there is no noticeable anthropogenic impact on the considered watercourse. The petroleum hydrocarbons content in water and bottom sediments was below maximum permissible concentrations. In river water it was below 0.010 mg/L, in bottom sediments – in the range from 0.2 to 3.2 mg/kg. The maximum content of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils was recorded in the lower course of the river, where bottom sediments are presented in the form of silty sand. The interannual variability of hydrological and hydrochemical characteristics in the direction from the source to the mouth of the river is estimated. The relationship and regularity of their distribution was specified. The data obtained can serve as background data for assessing the negative impact in case of anthropogenic load on the river basin.
Keywords: diamond mining, Soyana River, dissolved oxygen, pH, biogenic elements, petroleum hydrocarbons, bottom sediments
Article published in number 3 for 2023
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-3-103-112
Views: 24

Features of the biological diversity of the Kruglaya Bay and the prospects for creating an ornithological reserve (southwestern Crimea, Black Sea)

V.E. Giragosov, N.A. Milchakova, E.P. Karpova, S A. Kovardakov, L.V. Bondareva
Section: Population ecology
This work aimed to analyze the diversity of hydrophilic avifauna and natural complexes to substantiate the creation of an ornithological reserve in the Kruglaya Bay (Crimea, Black Sea). The diversity of biotopes, marine and coastal flora, and fauna characterized on the basis of long-term research data. The avifauna includes 74 species from 43 genera, 14 families, and 9 orders. The orders Charadriiformes, Anseriformes and Ciconiiformes unite 57 species (77% of the total number of species). The number of birds in winter reaches 0.99–1.38 thousand individuals. There are 11 protected species in the avifauna, including 10 species listed in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation. The natural complexes of the bay are most attractive for wintering hydrophilic birds, and to a lesser extent – for transit migrating, nomadic and nesting species. The flora of marine macrophytes and coastal vascular plants comprises 141 species, including 17 protected ones. The ichthyofauna and benthic invertebrates contain 60 and 124 species, respectively, including 9 protected ones. The high environmental value of the bay is associated with the formation of large seasonal clusters of hydrophilic birds, a high degree of biota diversity, the presence of many protected species and biotopes. We are recommended to create an ornithological reserve with a temporary regime (in winter) in the Kruglaya Bay. The new reserve will be the first ornithological object of this category in the nature-protected network of Sevastopol and Crimea. Its formation will allow to preserve biotopes and nesting places of birds, rare flora and fauna, and introduce some restrictions on environmental management and extraction of bioresources.
Keywords: hydrophilic birds, biota, biocenosis, specially protected natural areas, Sevastopol, Black Sea
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Article published in number 3 for 2023
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-3-179-185
Views: 11

Carbohydrates in surface waters and its relation to the nutrients and organic matter content

T.A. Efremova
Section: Chemistry of natural environments and objects
The results of a long-term research of the content of carbohydrates in natural waters of Republic of Karelia (Russia) from 2011 to 2020 are summarized. In total, 34 water bodies (29 lakes and 5 rivers) were studied in different hydrological seasons. The presented sample of water bodies captures almost all types of surface waters in the humid zone in terms of trophicity and humus content. It was found that the carbohydrates concentration varies widely from 0.7 to 53.1 mg/L (average 3.3 mg/L) and its share of total organic matter averages 16%. It was revealed that the content and distribution of carbohydrates in surface waters depends both on natural (the level of trophicity and humus content in the reservoir) and anthropogenic factors (eutrophication, trout farms, industrial wastewater discharge, seepage waters of solid waste landfills, communal wastewater). In addition, all the studied water bodies were categorized into two groups according to the water pollution degree: contaminated and uncontaminated. It was revealed that the concentration of carbohydrates in contaminated water bodies of Karelia is on average 1.4 times higher than in uncontaminated ones. In addition, the content of carbohydrates increases together with such chemical parameters as 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD Cr), permanganate oxygen demand (COD Mn), chlorophyll a, mineral and total phosphorus (Pmin and Р total relatively) and ammonium (N-NH 4+). In particular, these relations are pronounced in contaminated water bodies, where the highest values of the correlation coefficient between the above parameters are noted. The content of carbohydrates in surface waters is a complex indicator of both organic and biogenic water pollution.
Keywords: carbohydrates, organic matter, nutrients, contamination, surface waters

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Article published in number 3 for 2023
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-3-094-102
Views: 6

Numerical simulation of the passive tracer advection in the White Sea

I.A. Chernov, A.V. Tolstikov
Section: Methodology and research methods. Models and forecasts
It is hardly possible to make experiments on transport of potentially dangerous tracers in a sea. Therefore numerical simulation is successfully used to assess the risks and consequences of various events like oil spills, flux of toxicants with river runoff after industrial accidents or phytoplankton in case of harmful algae bloom. As the White Sea is a transport hub and a strategically important location for extraction of natural resources, so it is important to know the most likely scenarios of pollutants behavior. The JASMINE numerical model, based on the FEMAO (Finite-Element Model of the Arctic Ocean) simulates evolution of sea state, including three-dimensional currents, temperature and salinity, and sea ice, and is able to calculate tracer advection, so giving answers to a number of questions related to how pollution evolves in the White Sea. We describe numerical experiments to study advection of floating tracers in the White Sea when the initial distribution is delta-like and located in the mouths of main rivers. Also, we calculate the time of almost complete removal of an initially homogeneous concentration of a passive tracer. Spatial resolution is 3 km, vertical grid is 5 m down to the depth level of 150 m (10 m for depths more than 150 m). The time step is 360 s. NOAA/NCEP atmospheric reanalysis is used for atmospheric forcing. Five main rivers are taken into account with the monthly-mean runoff taken from the multi-year observation data. We have estimated the time needed to remove most of the matter from the sea; it depends on morphometric characteristics of the bays and is the highest for the Onezhskiy bay. Matter exchange between the bays is low, only Dvinskiy-Onezhskiy-Mezenskiy transport is present, as we would expect from the geostrophic current pattern.
Keywords: passive tracer, advection, numerical simulation, the White Sea, JASMINE

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Article published in number 3 for 2023
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-3-021-027
Views: 11

Detection of the key biotope of boreal floodplain meadows in the Smolenskoe Poozerye National Park based on satellite and topographic data

N.V. Koroleva, D.V. Ershov, Е.V. Tikhonova, Т.Yu. Braslavskaya, A.О. Kharitonova, E.A. Gavrilyuk, D.G. Grummo, A.V. Sudnik
Section: Methodology and research methods. Models and forecasts
The research shows the possibility of identifying a key biotope of boreal floodplain meadows in the Smolenskoe Poozerye National Park on the basis of spectral and topographic characteristics of the territory. The key biotope E3.47 according to EUNIS is a meadow along large rivers with areas of calm flow; it freeze every winter and affected by flooding in spring. This category includes areas that are open or poorly overgrown with woody and shrubby vegetation. Sentinel-2 multispectral satellite images (ESA Sentinel-2, 2019) are used to determine areas of floodplain meadows. The geospatial assessment of boreal floodplain meadows is carried out using the method of uncontrolled classification of “K-means” of ten spectral channels of Sentinel-2 satellite images obtained over six seasons, including the flood period. As a result of cluster analysis, classes that are spectrally close to meadow communities are selected. These classes located along flood-plains of rivers, with the elevation difference from the water line not exceeding 5 m. This elevation corresponds to the maximum possible rise of water in rivers during a flood for the studied area. A topographic index using a digital elevation model (DEM) and a hydrographic terrain network are used to correct the selected classes. The accuracy of recognition of the floodplain meadows class is determined using a matrix of error in 133 segments along the 4 transects located in floodplain and dry meadow communities. The convergence of result between the floodplain meadows classification and ground surveys data was 75% (Cohen’s kappa equals 0.53).
Keywords: Smolenskoe Poozerye National Park, EUNIS, boreal floodplain meadows, Sentinel-2, “K-means” method, Earth remote sensing

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Article published in number 3 for 2023
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-3-028-036
Views: 12

Application of gas discharge visualization technique for seeds hidden defects evaluation

N.S. Priyatkin, M.V. Arkhipov, L.P. Gusakova, V.N. Pishchik, T.A. Kuznetsova, A.V. Karamysheva, L.P. Trofimuk, P.A. Shchukina, M.A. Kuznetsova
Section: Methodology and research methods. Models and forecasts
The gas-discharge visualization (GDV, electrophotography) method allows recording and quantifying the glow that occurs near the surface of the object (seed), when placing it in an electromagnetic field of high intensity. The hidden defects – emptiness of Pinus sibirica Du Tour seeds and biogenic damage (by phytopathogenic bacteria Pantoea ananatis) of Zea mays L. seeds were revealed and analyzed by the method of gas discharge visualization in combination with automatic analysis of digital gas-discharge images. It is shown that empty seeds have reduced values of the averaged intensity of digital gas discharge images. According to the data obtained, the methods of gas-discharge imaging (electrophotography) and microfocus radiography showed high efficiency (> 90%) of accuracy in the detection of empty seeds of Pinus sibirica. It was found that the sample of Zea mays seeds (hybrid Krasnodarskiy 194 MV) was characterized by reduced values of the average intensity of gas-discharge images, as well as the average brightness of digital X-ray images, compared with the other three seed samples. The seed sample of hybrid Krasnodarskiy 194 MB was characterized by the worst sowing qualities: emergence rate, germination, root length and shoot length. It was shown that the Krasnodarskiy 194 MB seeds were affected by phytopathogenic bacteria Pantoea ananatis. The average inverse correlations of a number of characteristics of gas-discharge glow (area, total intensity) with the standard deviation of brightness of digital X-ray images, as well as weak reliable correlation of most gas-discharge characteristics with seeding qualities were found. Comparative assessment of gas discharge indices and seedlings germination as integral indices for evaluation of biological completeness of Zea mays seeds was carried out. Research has confirmed that the method of gas discharge visualization in combination with automatic analysis of digital gas-discharge images can be used as an effective additional tool for rapid detection of defective seeds.
Keywords: gas discharge visualization (electrophotography) of seeds, seed image analysis, sowing qualities of seeds, Pinus sibirica Du Tour, Zea mays L.
Article published in number 3 for 2023
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-3-037-048
Views: 10

Use of basic hydrochemical and hydrobiological indicators to determine the invariant state of the Kuibyshev reservoir and its tributaries

Т.А. Kondrateva, T.V. Nikonenkova, A.R. Gaisin, T.R. Latypova, N.Yu. Stepanova
Section: Chemistry of natural environments and objects
The method of ecological modifications was used to determine the invariant state of aquatic ecosystems in the Middle Volga basin. Based on the analysis of long-term regime hydrochemical and hydrobiological information using the methods of mathematical statistics (cluster, hierarchical cluster analysis, ordination methods), the studied water bodies were grouped according to the chemical composition of water, highlighting the main indicators of natural and anthropogenic genesis. We highlighted the general indicators of the chemical composition of water (temperature, salinity, hardness, content of oil products, chromium ions) that affect the change in the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of hydrobiocenoses, as well as specific indicators (nitrogen-containing compounds, phosphates, chlorides, sulfates, copper and iron ions), negatively affecting the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of hydrobiocenoses. A group of ciliates – cilioplankton (qualitative and quantitative characteristics) was used to assess the invariant state. Cilioplankton in the ecosystem of the Kuibyshev reservoir is characterized by high species diversity, which indicates anthropogenic stress. The quantitative characteristics of cilioplankton in rivers are low, and the community changes are ecological modulations. The share of rotifers development in zooplankton indicates the elements of ecological regress in water bodies, as well as anthropogenic eutrophication with elements of ecological regress (in most of the Kuibyshev reservoir). The level of zoobenthos development and its size, as well as the oligochaetes relative proportion indicate anthropogenic stress in the ecosystem of most parts of the Kuibyshev reservoir. The elements of ecological regress are traced only in the area of Chistopol. The water ecosystem in Tetyusha area is characterized as a transition from background to anthropogenic stress. The Vyatka and Mesha rivers are characterized as background rivers with the transition to anthropogenic stress. Anthropogenic eutrophication with elements of ecological regress can be traced in the Kazanka River. The Stepnoy Zai, Noksa and Ilet rivers has elements of ecological regress. Hydrobiocenoses indicators statistically depend on hydrochemical composition.
Keywords: aquatic ecosystems, monitoring, ecological modifications, invariant state, ecological regress, anthropogenic stress

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Article published in number 3 for 2023
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-3-113-119
Views: 7

Application of geoinformation modeling and fractal analysis in the geoecological assessment of urban geosystems

B.I. Kochurov, M.A. Movchan
Section: Methodology and research methods. Models and forecasts
The article tests modern methods of geo-ecological assessment of settlements, namely GIS modeling and fractal analysis. Recently, they have found wide application in quantifying both the infrastructural components of the urban environment – the street and road network, the density of buildings, the degree of transport accessibility, and the environment-forming ones, such as green zones. GIS modeling methods allow quantifying the distribution density of a certain component of the urban environment or calculating the degree of accessibility in the form of classification and visualizing the results on a spatiotemporal scale in a form convenient for perception. The paper evaluates the parameters of the density of the road network, the density of buildings and the degree of landscaping of the territory according to spectral indices – NDVI and NDBI. Fractal analysis evaluates the range of sustainability of the environment of settlements to factors of anthropogenic load and, thus, areas with varying degrees of severity of anthropogenic impact are identified by the indicator of fractal dimension. The methods of geoinformation modeling and fractal analysis complement each other in geoecological assessment and allow for a more objective assessment of the state of the urban area.
Keywords: geoinformation modeling, urban geosystems, fractals, geo-ecological assessment, sustainable develop-ment, accessibility

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Article published in number 2 for 2023
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-2-032-037
Views: 38

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