ISSN 1995-4301
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ISSN 2618-8406
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The assessment of potential risks of chloride salts and their effect on seed germination and plant development

L.P. Voronina, V.L. Flerchuk, K.E. Ponogaybo, A.V. Sbitnev, M. Abdelkader
Section: Ecotoxicology
The article discusses the negative effect of de-icing materials (DM) and salts in their composition on plant seedlings germination and development. The influence of sodium and potassium cations and chlorine anion on phytotoxicity index is considered. The dynamics of test-plants (Avena sativa L., Raphanus sativa L., Hordeum vulgare L.) response on a number of test-indicators depending on the concentration of basic salts in DM by a promising method of phytotesting was analyzed. The analyzed DMs in concentrations higher than 1% have an inhibitory effect. The DM at 14–16 g/L suppresses root length of test plants (more than 50%) relative to the control. The low content of heavy metals, such as Cd, Cu, Pb, in the analyzed DM samples indicates the toxicity of sodium chloride as an active de-icing agent. The results of statistical analysis convincingly prove the high phytotoxicity of sodium chloride (NaCl) in relation to such indicators of the juvenile test-plant development as germination, the primary root length and the coleoptile height. Increasing the NaCl concentration in the solution from 0.75 to 1% was strongly toxic to the test-plants (more than 50%). Potassium chloride (KCl) in the concentration range of 0.1–1.0% showed no phytotoxicity. The KCl presence in the NaCl-included de-icing reagent reduces its phytotoxicity and allows the toxicity level of the agent to be assessed as “moderately toxic”.
Keywords: deicing material (DM), sodium chloride, potassium chloride, seed germination, phytotoxicity, salinity
Article published in number 1 for 2024
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2024-1-156-165
Views: 18

Cyanobacteria and Algae in the Karlamanskaya Cave (Bashkortostan Republic, Russia)

M. Yu. Sharipova, I.Е. Dubovik
Section: Population ecology
The article presents data on the composition and structure of cyanobacterial-algal cenoses of various habitats of the Karlamanskaya Cave. The study identified 46 species and intraspecific taxa of cyanobacteria and algae belonging to 5 divisions (Cyanobacteria – 17 species and intraspecific taxa, Bacillariophyta – 12 species and intraspecific taxa, Chlorophyta – 14 species, Charophyta – 1 species, Ochrophyta – 2 species), 7 classes, 16 order, 28 families and 36 genera. Leptolyngbya boryana (Gom.) Anagn. et Kom., Oscillatoria rupicola (Hansgirg) Hansgirg ex Forti, Luticola mutica (Kütz.) Mann, Mychonastes homosphaera (Skuja) Kalina et Punс., Chlorella vulgaris Beijerink present the dominant complex of cyanobacteria and algae in all studied habitats. Cyanobacteria dominate in all biotopes of the cave except aquatic ones where diatoms predominated. The maximum number of species was found in the soil at the cave entrance and in the soil of the illuminated cave zone: 31 and 29 species respectively. The lowest number was found in the soil and on the walls (16 and 11 species respectively). Ecological analysis of cyanobacterium and algae revealed 12 life forms: Сh9B9P5X5CF5hydr4amph2PF1NF1C1M1H1. Most of the life forms were found in the illuminated cave zone: in the soil (10 forms), on the wall (10 forms) and at the cave entrance (11 forms). The ecobiomorphs composition of the dark zone is the poorest (5 forms).
Keywords: karst cave, cyanobacteria-algal cenoses
Article published in number 1 for 2024
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2024-1-184-190
Views: 15

Comprehensive assessment of the ecological state of the transboundary Narva River

T.V. Kuznetsova, A.B. Manvelova, Y.M. Polyak
Section: Monitoring of natural and anthropogenically disturbed areas
A comprehensive study of the ecological state on the transboundary Narva River (Russia –Estonia border) downstream of Ivangorod, Kingisepp District, Leningrad Region, was carried out. It included the determination of chemical indicators of pollution of the natural river water, with an emphasis on some heavy metals content in water, sediments and soft tissues of local filter-feeding mollusks; the latter were used as bioindicators of river pollution in this location. Zn was determined in maximum concentrations in bottom sediments, then Cu, to a lesser extent Pb, Cd and Ni. The coefficient of metal bioconcentration calculated in soft tissues of mollusks showed maximum for Zn and Cu, to a lesser extent for Pb, Cd and minimum for Ni. However, such values have no negative effect on local biota as shown by physiological testing of bivalves from study site. The functional assessment of bivalves by non-invasive cardiac rhythm recording made it possible to characterize their functional status and adaptive capabilities as good. The relative abundance of hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria in the digestive tract of mollusks from the Narva River has been determined as an indicator of environmental pollution by oil products. It was noted that the number of hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria does not exceed the values characteristic of the reference waters of the Eastern Gulf of Finland. Based on the totality of the studies, it was concluded that the river waters in the studied location can be characterized as slightly polluted and its ecological status as of a good quality.
Keywords: comprehensive assessment of the ecological status, chemical indicators of water quality, heavy metals in sediments and tissues of mollusks, hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria, functional status of bivalves
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Article published in number 1 for 2024
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2024-1-064-072
Views: 13

Toxic effect of ciprofloxacin on the photosynthesis reactions in microalga Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turp.) Bréb.

D.N. Matorin, N.P. Timofeev, A.D. Batakov, D.A. Todorenko, T.K. Antal
Section: Ecotoxicology
Ciprofloxacin (CIP) is widely used broad-spectrum antimicrobial drug of fluoroquinolone family. The widespread use of ciprofloxacin increases its release into the environment. Ciprofloxacin is detected in aquatic ecosystems potentially harming aquatic organisms. The CIP effect on photosynthetic organisms is not fully studied. In this study we examined the CIP effect on green freshwater microalgae Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turp.) Bréb. using chlorophyll fluorescence methods (JIP test parameters and rapid light curves). A significant decrease in the cell number was observed at ≥10 mg/L of сiprofloxacin in comparison with control. Analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters obtained from OJIP transients revealed the changes in photosynthetic reactions in сiprofloxacin treatment. Ciprofloxacin was found to inhibit electron transport rate in photosystem II (PSII). The decrease in the quantum yield of electron transport in photosystem II (φEo) was accompanied by the decrease in performance index (PIABS) and an increase in energy dissipation (DI0/RC). Ciprofloxacin enhanced the photosensitivity of microalgae but did not inhibit the recovery of photosynthetic activity after the photooxidative stress. In this regard the effect of CIP differs from that of the well-known antibiotic chloramphenicol that inhibits the resynthesis of plastid proteins and, accordingly, the recovery of photosynthetic activity associated with the resynthesis of PSII protein D1. Among the fluorescence parameters, PIABS was found to be the most stress-specific; therefore it can be proposed to detect an early toxic CIP effect in microalgae.
Keywords: ciprofloxacin, Scenedesmus quadricauda, chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthesis, bioassay

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Article published in number 1 for 2024
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2024-1-150-156
Views: 11

Photodegradation of polylactide with phenol and aniline terpene derivatives additives

V.A. Belyy, I.M. Kuzivanov, I.V. Fedorova, O.A. Shumova, E.M. Tropnikov, E.I. Istomina, I.Yu. Chukicheva, A.V. Kuchin
Section: Ecologization of industry
The article is devoted to the development of new photostabilizers of polylactide, a polymer that is an environmentally friendly alternative to fossil-based polymers. The new photostabilizers are designed to extend the life of products when exposed to ultraviolet radiation and maintain the performance of the polymer when recycled. Photostabilizers 2-isobor-nylphenol and N-para-mentenaniline were obtained while the available natural monoterpene camphene alkylation of phenol or aniline. Irradiation of polylactide samples with a photostabilizer was carried out by radiation with 253,7 nm wavelength for 4 h. The effectiveness of the photostabilizer was evaluated on the basis of IR spectrometric data, as well as by scanning electron microscopy and simultaneous thermal analysis. The introduction of each of the selected stabilizers at the concentration of 0.05% by weight resulted in the protection of ester bonds between the monomer units of the polymer. However, 2-isobornylphenol was more effective. The IR spectra analysis of the irradiated samples revealed a 15% decrease in the absorption intensity of the characteristic bands of the ester groups in the sample with 2-isobornyl-phenol, 46% in the sample with N-para-mentenaniline, and 50% in the sample without stabilizer addition. Thus, the use of 2-isobornylphenol as a photoprotective additive will extend the service life of polylactide plastic products under exposure to aggressive UV-C radiation. The protection of polylactide from UV radiation opens up prospects for expanding the areas of application of polylactide, a polymer synthesized from renewable raw materials.
Keywords: bioplastics, photodegradation, polylactide, photoprotectors

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Article published in number 1 for 2024
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2024-1-106-112
Views: 5

Fire frequency index of linden forests in the Jewish Autonomous Region

A.M. Zubareva, T. A. Rubtsova, V.A. Zubarev
Section: Monitoring of natural and anthropogenically disturbed areas
Based on expeditionary work in the period 2003–2018 we compile a map of linden forests locations in the Jewish Autonomous Region (JAR). An inventory map of forest fires was created using data on forest fire registration of the Forest Management Department of the JAR Government for 2017–2020. The number, area, and configuration of the burned areas were determined by superimposing of these maps. The analysis of fire-damaged forests shows that during the study period fires were observed in all forest formation with linden. Their total number was 174. The most of fires (33%) noted in 2018 and the fewest (15%) – in 2017. The average annual number of fires in 2017–2020 was 44. The largest area affected by the pyrogenic factor was observed in 2018. The smallest area (7.5%) of linden forests were fire-transformed in 2020. The average area of one fire is 653 hectares. This corresponds to 64% of the total fire-affected area in the studied vegetation formations. The black birch and oak park-type forests, sometimes with linden, larch, with silverspike-and-forbs cover and forbs-and-pinegrass meadows were most affected by fire. We analyzed the spatial distribution of the fire-damaged forests and established its main patterns as well as identified the areas of repeated burnout. In the most of the JAR linden forests fires have a one-time character. Local areas are subject to multiple burnout; the causes of their high multiple ignition require further study. In this regard, forest fires is a factor that significantly contributes to the reduction of the honey-bearing lands of the JAR.
Keywords: forest fires, fire frequency index, linden forests, Russian Far East

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Article published in number 1 for 2024
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2024-1-090-096
Views: 6

Stress effect of crude biocide of actinobacteria Streptomyces geldanamycininus Z374 on cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa

T.B. Zaytseva, A.D. Russu, N.G. Medvedeva
Section: Population ecology
Over the past decades, as a result of anthropogenic pollution and global warming, the frequency, intensity and geographical distribution of the mass development of microalgae and cyanobacteria in water bodies have significantly increased. The Microcystis species are responsible for most cases of the cyanobacterial blooms in freshwater bodies worldwide. Microcystis aeruginosa is the most commonly observed of them. In this work, we assessed the stress effect of isolated from actinobacteria Streptomyces geldanamycininus cyanocidal crude biocide Z374 (CB Z374) on the cyanobacteria M. aeruginosa. The results showed that CB Z374 significantly inhibited M. aeruginosa biomass. The CB Z374 half maximal effective concentration (EC50) for M. aeruginosa after 96 hours of treatment was 5 mg/L. The growth of M. aeruginosa with CB Z374 is characterized by an increase in the duration of the lag-phase, a decrease in the specific growth rate and biomass yield compared to the control. CB Z374 caused oxidative stress in cyanobacteria cells, determined by the elevated levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) up to 1.6 times, as well as an increased permeability of M. aeruginosa cell membranes by 1.5 times. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities and reduced glutathione (GSH) content raised in response to oxidative stress. M. aeruginosa growth inhibition was accompanied by a photosynthesis modification: the photosynthetic pigments phycobiliproteins and carotenoids content increases by 2.3 and 1.6 times respectively and the chlorophyll a content decreases by 1.2 times. CB Z374 inhibited M. aeruginosa photosynthesis, which was expressed in a decline in the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II – Fv/Fm by 10% and a reduction in the electron transfer rate (ETR) by 18%. We assume that oxidative stress and, as a result, cell membranes damage and photosynthesis inhibition are the main mechanisms of the cyanocidal action of CB Z374 on M. aeruginosa.
Keywords: crude biocide Z374, Streptomyces geldanamycininus, Microcystis aeruginosa, oxidative stress, cell membrane, photosynthesis

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Article published in number 1 for 2024
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2024-1-175-183
Views: 7

Effect of microbiological preparations and nitrogen application on the processes associated with sequestration of organic carbon in typical slightly eroded chernozem soil

N.P. Masyutenko, A.V. Kuznetsov, M.N. Masyutenko, N.A. Chuyan, G.M. Breskina
Section: Agroecology
Organic carbon sequestration is a present-day topical issue. The effect of a biological preparation based on Trichoderma viride and a biological preparation based on Pseudomonas aureofacieens, used to treat shredded by-products of crops before embedding them in the soil, and applied N10 kg PPN per 1 ton of by-products (N) was studied. The research was carried out in 2018–2020 in FSBSI “Kursk FARC” in a stationary field experiment with biopreparations (Kursk Region, Medvensky District, village of Panino) in a typical slightly eroded chernozem soil in a grain crop rotation link (spring barley – buckwheat – fodder beans). It was found that the use of biological preparations separately or together with N contributed to the soil sequestration of carbon in the topsoil, significant accumulation of humus carbon reserves was 2.2 and 2.4 times higher than that in the control, and the application of only N10 kg PPN with 1 ton of plant residues ensured the preservation of humus carbon reserves. Carbon reserves in the by-products, crop and root residues of the cultivated crops in the topsoil when using biological preparations were higher than those in the control. A direct high relationship was revealed between the average amount of carbon dioxide released from the soil during the vegetation of fodder beans and the amount of carbon from their by-products, crop and root residues entering the soil layers of 0–10 cm and 0–20 cm, correlation coefficients were 0.87 and 0.80. The efficiency of soil carbon sequestration in the topsoil when using biological preparations separately or together with nitrogen exceeded that of the control, respectively 2.0 and 2.1 times, and of shredded by-products with N10 PPN per 1 ton only 1.5 times.
Keywords: organic carbon, binding efficiency, microbiological preparations, by-products, crop and root residues, typical slightly eroded chernozem soil, CO2 emission
Article published in number 1 for 2024
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2024-1-113-121
Views: 7

Zoobentos of the Zimnyaya Zolotitsa River at the Lomonosov diamond deposit

M.A. Studenova, I.I. Studenov, A.G. Zavisha, A.T. Lapikova
Section: Monitoring of natural and anthropogenically disturbed areas
22 invertebrate taxons of zoobenthos were found over the entire study period in the Zimnyaya Zolotitsa River at the Lomonosov diamond deposit. The number of sampling points (stations) for monitoring period is 6. The average number of taxons per station for the entire monitoring period is 11, ranging from 3 to 16. Almost annually, larvae of chironomidae were found at all stations in samples; the frequency of them for all stations over the entire monitoring period was 94%. In addition, the mayfly larvae (89%), diptera larvae (85%), оligochaeta (82%) and hydrachna (78%) were the most common. The average value of the Shannon index as a whole on the studied part of the Zimnyaya Zolotitsa river system for the period 2000–2021 amounted to 1.87, varying from 0.76 (the Svetly Creek, 2016) up to 2.9 (the Svetlaya River). The Margalef species wealth index as a whole on the studied part of the Zimnyaya Zolotitsa River was 0.85. The Pielu equalization index averaged 0.58, indicating the presence of dominant taxons in samples. The number of invertebrates on the studied section of the Zimnyaya Zolotitsa River over the years of monitoring varied from 110 to 28375 spec/m2, averaging 5369 spec/m2. The biomass of invertebrates on the studied part of the Zimnyaya Zolotitsa River over the years ranged from 0.026 to 29.060 g/m2, on average – 4.015 g/m2. Despite the lack of negative impact on the river ecosystem, one of the dominant groups in the zoobenthos is оligochaeta, the proportion of which varied from 4.4% at 148 km from the mouth of the Zimnyaya Zolotitsa River up to 24.1% at 152 km. Taking into account the relatively high proportion of oligochetes in benthic samples, an oligochete index was used to assess water quality in the Zimnyaya Zolotitsa River. In general, the Zimnyaya Zolotitsa river system is estimated as pure – the average оligochaeta index for all sampling points for the entire monitoring period was 8%. One-time increases in the оligochaeta index to maximum values suggest a slight contamination of the river based on the index gradation. These increases are likely related to natural processes in the river system, as evidenced by high оligochaeta index values at the upper sampling points (169 km) located outside the deposit area.
Keywords: Zimnyaya Zolotitsa river, zoobenthos, taxonomic composition, number, biomass
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Article published in number 1 for 2024
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2024-1-054-063
Views: 10

Ultrastructure of forest-forming conifers ectomycorrhyzas in the middle taiga subzone

S.N. Plyusnina
Section: Methodology and research methods. Models and forecasts
Mycorrhiza are symbiotic formations of fungus and roots and are the main organs of nutrient uptake by land plants. The formation of ectomycorrhizae allows trees to dominate the vegetation cover of the boreal zone. Pinus sylvestris L., Picea obovata Ledeb. и Abies sibirica Ledeb. are forest-forming conifers of the Komi Republic. Transmission electron microscopy shows that the fungal sheath of mycorrhiza is most developed in A. sibirica. The Hartig net in all studied trees extends deep into the primary cortex to the endodermis. Glycogen accumulates in the cytoplasm and polyphosphate-containing granules (volutin) in the vacuoles of young fungal cells. Starch accumulates in the cells of primary cortex and central cylinder of young ectomycorrhizae. Reserve substances disappear in the sheath and the Hartig net as the mycorrhiza ages, and starch can remain in the central cylinder. A stable presence of reserve substances was noted at the beginning and in the middle of the growing season. There is an active growth of sucking roots and the formation of ectomycorrhizae during this period in the middle taiga subzone. The occurrence of glycogen and polyphosphate-containing granules in fungal cells is reduced in the autumn period. This is due to a decrease in the intensity of growth processes and the prevalence of physiologically inactive mycorrhizal endings. The starch decrease in the amyloplasts of the primary cortex cells and the central cylinder of ectomycorrhizae is associated with a seasonal decrease in its content in all tree organs, preparation of the plant for the season with low temperatures.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris L., Picea obovata Ledeb., Abies sibirica Ledeb., ectomycorrhyzae, ultrastructure

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Article published in number 1 for 2024
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2024-1-031-039
Views: 6

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