ISSN 1995-4301

ISSN 2618-8406

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Heavy metals in snow cover and urban soils

E.A. Gornostaeva, G.I. Berezin, E.V. Dabakh
Section: Chemistry of natural environments and objects
The pollution of snow cover and soils of different functional zones of the city of Kirov with heavy metals (HM) has been assessed. Judging by the state of the snow cover, the level of air pollution with Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cd in winter in different functional zones of the northern part of the city and in the background territory differs slightly, but varies significantly over the years of observation. A correlation was found (r = 0.98–0.99) between the content of HMs in the snow cover and their total content in the soil.
It is shown that the level of soil pollution depends on the selected background indicators. In the absence of excess of gross forms of HM over approximate permissible concentrations, the indicator of total pollution (Zc ) corresponds to the average level of soil pollution in the industrial zone. Pollution is diagnosed by the accumulation of mobile HM compounds, and the mobility coefficients (indicators that do not depend on the selected background) make it possible to assess the risk of accumulation of Pb and Cd in soils in exchangeable and carbonate-related forms in the industrial, as well as in the recreational areas of the northern part of the city, as very high.
Keywords: heavy metals, accumulation snow cover, urban soils, urbanized areas, atmospheric air

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Article published in number 3 for 2022
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-3-110-117
Views: 31

NDVI – alpha diversity relationship in tropical montane cloud forest of Ecuador

S. Llerena, G. Toasa, A.I. Kurbatova
Section: Monitoring of natural and anthropogenically disturbed areas
In tropical forest the biodiversity is in a constant threat, some species are listed in the IUCN as vulnerable, endan- gered or threatened with extinction. Thus, a fast method for biodiversity determination or monitoring can contribute to its conservation. Remote sensing has demonstrated to be a powerful tool, and together with the vegetation indexes, can determine the vegetation state of forest. Recently researches have correlated the normalized differentiated vegetation index (NDVI) with species richness, structure and biodiversity of forests obtaining successful results.
This study, conducted in a Tropical Montane Cloud Forest (TMCF) of Ecuador, aims to correlate NDVI with alpha diversity estimators to understand its relationships. NDVI of Landsat OLI 8 Level 1 images in five months was determined. We considered a scene as valid in case of cloud coverage in the areas of interest below 25%. Radiometric and atmospheric corrections, with flaash tool, and the delimitation of the study site (ROI) were developed in ENVI 5.3 program. NDVI was calculated with ENVI 5.3 program (histograms allowed the determination of mean, maximum and minimum NDVI), and with ArcGIS 10.3 (for classification index). In field, species richness, Chao1, Shannon index, Simpson index, and biomass of three plots were quantified for trees with DBH ≥ 10 cm. Then, we calculate Pearson coefficient to correlate and disentangle the effects of altitude, diversity, richness, biomass and NDVI. A positive relationship was observed between Mean NDVI and Chao1 (p < 0.10) and Mean NDVI – richness (p < 0.05). In conclusion, NDVI can be considered useful to estimate richness and biodiversity and even to detect ecotone as was the case in this research. The application of this methodology could allow biodiversity assessment and monitoring in real time and low cost, which contributes in forest conservation programs.
Keywords: Landsat, normalized differentiated vegetation index, vegetation richness, diversity, tropical montane cloud forest

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Article published in number 3 for 2022
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-3-058-067
Views: 23

Influence of various methods of forest reclamation on the restoration of the community of mammals in the dark coniferous taiga forests

E.M. Luchnikova, V.B. Ilyashenko, A.V. Kovalevskiy, S.I. Gashkov, L.A. Voronina, K.S. Zubko, A.V. Filippova
Section: Population ecology
The restoration of natural communities on anthropogenically disturbed lands is one of the world’s problems. Our studies in Kuzbass show that even after 35–40 years, areas reclaimed in different ways do not create full-fledged conditions for mammals, inhabitants of the dark coniferous taiga forests. In all studied areas, the indices of the abundance and species richness in mammalian communities are significantly inferior to the original taiga communities. The similarity with indigenous communities of mammals was found in pine plantations adjacent to self-growing deforested areas of the dark coniferous taiga. These habitats are characterized by the highest indices of abundance and species richness among the studied sites. The most impoverished in terms of the species richness of small mammals and their number were terraced areas with a very insignificant soil layer, reclaimed by the European white birch Betula pendula Roth. and sea-buckthorn Hippophae rhamnoides L. The communities of small mammals that have formed here show a faunistic similarity with the population of dry meadows on the place of the felled dark coniferous taiga, but not with the indigenous taiga population. Large and medium-sized mammals in reclaimed areas are few or absent altogether. The reclamation methods should involve the formation of forage and protective functions for forest dwellers. During reclamation, it is necessary to abandon mono-plantings. To create vital conditions, it is necessary to mosaic planting of various groups of plants with the obligatory alternation of coniferous, mixed, and deciduous forest areas. The share of various shrubs is about 50%. Since animals are concentrated in ecotone areas, when carrying out forest reclamation, it is necessary to provide for the formation of an extended forest edge line, that is, to lay “forest glades” surrounded on all sides by woody plants and shrubs.
Keywords: coal mining, reforestation, Kuznetsk Basin, Kuzbass, flora, fauna, biodiversity
Article published in number 3 for 2022
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-3-183-191
Views: 5

Ecological trend of succession in mycobiome of the old botanical garden chernozem

I.D. Svistova, N.N. Nazarenko
Section: Population ecology
The article presents the results of long-term bioindication studies of the mycobiome of the leached chernozem of the B.A. Keller Botanical Garden of the Voronezh State Agrarian University. In this article, for the first time in our longstanding bioindication studies, we established the ecological trend of the succession of soil mycobiome of the Botanical Garden. The influence of plant rhizodeposites led to an increase in the α- and β-diversity of mycobiome compared to virgin soil, the accumulation of copiotrophic, hydrolytic, phytopathogenic species. However, the transition of soil mycobiome to the adaptive response of “stress” is observed, what appeared in the concentration of dominance of typical species, a decrease in the proportion of stenotopic species and the accumulation of toxigenic micromycetes. A sensitive method was selected for determining the biological (phytotoxic) activity of the soil, and the decisive role of micromycetes as a biotic factor in its development was confirmed. The main direction of succession of the soil mycobiom under intense microbial-plant interactions is the accumulation of species of fungi that synthesize mycotoxins. The stress reaction of the mycobiome and the growth of phytotoxic activity of the soil indicate the important role of microbial-plant interactions in reducing the stability of even such a high-buffer type of soil as leached chernozem. The results obtained can be used to assess and predict the ecological state of soil ecosystems using mycoindication.
Keywords: soil micromycetes, biodiversity, taxonomic structure, micoindication, phytotesting
Article published in number 3 for 2022
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-3-142-148
Views: 8

Technogenic impact of wastewater on the hydrochemical composition of the Angara River

V.I. Poletaeva, M.V. Pastukhov
Section: Chemistry of natural environments and objects
The Angara River is a source of drinking water supply for the population of Irkutsk Oblast (Russia). The ecosystem of the river has been under anthropogenic impact from the large Usolie-Sibirsky industrial zone for several decades. The aim of the present study was to analyze the concentrations of trace elements in the wastewater entering the Angara River and to determine their impact on the river’s hydrochemical composition. For this purpose, concentrations of 21 trace elements were measured in the wastewater and waters of Angara River at different distances from the technogenic sources. The results obtained show that wastewater contains high concentrations of a large range of trace elements. The intensity of anthropogenic impact was determined using a contamination factor (CF), which allowed to identify four groups of trace elements depending on their concentration exceeding the background level. The largest factors are determined for Sb (CF up to 123), B (CF up to 345), Ti (CF up to 651), Br (CF up to 913), Ge (CF up to 1093), Hg (CF up to 1991). The inflow of elements of anthropogenic origin is reflected in a negative change in the hydro-chemical composition of the Angara River at sites where waste- and river water are mixed. However, due to intensive dilution of wastewater by the Angara River, concentration of most trace elements in the river water at a distance of 5 km downstream of contamination sources are reduced to background levels. At the same time, elements (Li, As, V, Mo, B, Br, Ge, Hg) have been identified, whose concentrations in the water of the Angara River in this section remain above the background values. Increased concentrations of the observed trace elements can lead to negative consequences for hydrobionts, which are vulnerable even to minor changes in the chemical composition of the Angara River.
Keywords: Angara River, wastewater, pollution, migration of technogenic microelements

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Article published in number 3 for 2022
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-3-090-095
Views: 31

Monitoring of parks in the coastal zone of the Neva bay with the snail Arianta arbustorum

N.N. Kamardin, S.V. Kholodkevich, V.M. Makeeva
Section: Monitoring of natural and anthropogenically disturbed areas
Analysis of environmental problems, assessment and prediction are closely related to the study of populations of widespread animal species, in our case, of mollusk Arianta arbustorum (Linnæus, 1758), mass invasion of which is known for the Leningrad region and in St. Petersburg since the second half of the 2000 years. The concentration of heavy metals (HM) in snail’s hepatopancreas was measured on an atomic absorption spectrophotometer and an atomic emission spectrometer using inductively coupled plasma emission. In order to monitor accumulated anthropogenic pollution in the parks on the coast of the Neva bay the thermoresistance of snails from various coastal biotopes was studied. The rate of decrease in heart rate (HR) after switching off the heat exposure (lasting for 20 minutes) was compared in snails from the village of New Ropsha (reference location) and other locations: Alexandria Park, Oranienbaum Park, Dubki Park. According to the accumulation of HM in the snail’s hepatopancreas, in Oranienbaum Park significant (p ≤ 0.05) excess for all studied HM (Cu, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cd, Pb) was found in comparison with the reference location in the village of New Ropsha and with other locations. The potential environmental risk determined according to Hakanson in Oranienbaum Park was rated as high. The thermoresistance of snails from this location contaminated with HM is characterized as low, which suggests a possible violation of the protective system of heat shock proteins. This may reduce their ability to restore heat-denatured proteins, including contractile proteins of the heart, which usually leads to a rapid drop in HR in mollusks from polluted sites.
Keywords: Arianta arbustorum, accumulation of heavy metals, potential environmental risk, heart rate, thermo- resistance
Article published in number 3 for 2022
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-3-075-081
Views: 18

Phyto-diversity as an indicator of the restoration of the Pinus sylvestris L. formation of the Usman forest after a forest fire

A.Ya. Grigoryevskaya, Yu.S. Gorbunova, Т.А. Deviatova
Section: Population ecology
The analysis of the dynamics of phyto-diversity over 10 years of the Pinus sylvestris L. formation in the Usman forest of the Voronezh region on the territory of Russia is carried out. We used formalized methods for processing the data array when describing 140 accounting sites of 1 m2 on two test sites in the background and pyrogenic formations of P. sylvestris. Accounting for abundance was conducted according to O. Drude. The pyrogenic factor, along with temperature, light, humidification, and edaphic conditions, has a strong effect on the phyto-diversity of forest ecosystems. Four phases of succession of pyrogenic phytocenoses with determination of time intervals between them have been established. The first phase of 2010 is a pioneer group, random plant species are noted, separated among themselves; second phase 2011–2014 – the pioneer group is being transformed, plants are being introduced, they are breeding, consort relations between organisms are appearing, a weed-ruderal erigeron-pine community (Pinus sylvestris – Erigeron canadensis) has been recorded; third 2015–2018 – the initial phase is herb-shrub, there is a restructuring of the structure of the plant community, which is expressed in the replacement of the dominants of the phytocenosis tiers; the fourth phase begins in 2019 – the formation of the forest phytocenotic group is associated with dimming and, as a result, a change in temperature. The characteristic of anthropotolerant groups is given. In the ratio of species in the background and pyrogenic areas to the total number, the replenishment of species diversity in pyrogenic areas is observed. The obtained values of the regression coefficient for anthropotolerant groups emphasize the sensitivity of the flora to the pyrogenic effects of especially synanthropophytes and hemiapophytes.
Keywords: formation, flora, pyrogenic factor, phases of succession, Usmansky pine forest, Pinus sylvestris L
Article published in number 3 for 2022
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-3-192-198
Views: 5

Features of bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the tissues of the great false horse leech Haemopis sanguisuga L. in aquatic ecosystems of the Urals

L.V. Chernaya, L.A. Kovalchuk, N.V. Mikshevich
Section: Monitoring of natural and anthropogenically disturbed areas
Investigation into intense impact of industrial pollution on the aquatic ecosystems of the Ural region is one of tasks of environmental monitoring. To estimate peculiarities of the bioaccumulation of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb in tissues of the leech Haemopis sanguisuga (L., 1758) from aquatic ecosystems of natural and anthropogenically disturbed territories of the Ural have been first studied. The studies were based on the verification of 100 samples of bottom sediments and 100 adults of H. sanguisuga from 10 water bodies of the Sverdlovsk and Chelyabinsk regions. The gross contents of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb in the skin-muscle tissue of leeches and in the bottom sediments were estimated by atomic absorption method on an AAS-3 spectrophotometer and on an Analyst-100 instrument from Perkin Elmer. 800 element determinations were carried out. Еstimated ranges of background concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb for bottom sediments of water bodies of Ural region are determined. It was found that the content of Cu, Cd, Pb in the bottom sediments of water bodies located in anthropogenic disturbed areas is higher than in natural water bodies (p < 0.001), with the exception of Zn (p = 0.929). It is shown that in the tissues of H. sanguisuga individuals living under anthropogenic stress, the content of HM is significantly higher than that of leeches from natural water bodies (p < 0.001). Аnd the level of HM in tissues of leeches is directly related to their concentrations in bottom sediments: Cu (r = 0.69; p < 0.001), Zn (r = 0.67; p < 0.001), Cd (r = 0.75; p < 0.001), Pb (r = 0.52; p < 0.001). This indicates the fundamental possibility of using leeches as indicator organisms when monitoring the pollution of the aquatic ecosystems of the Ural by such pollutants as Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb.
Keywords: heavy metals, leeches, bottom sediments, bioaccumulation, indicator organisms
Article published in number 3 for 2022
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-3-068-074
Views: 9

Chemical composition of the surface water in the Ob River

A.N. Eirikh, T.G. Serykh, E.A. Ovcharenko, D.P. Podchufarova, A.V. Kotovschikov
Section: Chemistry of natural environments and objects
The Ob River is a multifunctional water body used for fishery purposes, shipping, irrigation, recreation and drinking water supply. The research on the river water quality related to the assessment of ecological state and studying the regularities of chemical composition dynamics is topical nowadays. The paper presents the results of investigation of the hydrochemical composition (major ions: Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, SO42–, Cl,F , nutrients: N, P, Si and trace elements: Li, Be, B, Al, Ti, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Mo, Cd, Ba, Pb, Fe, Mn) of the Ob River water near the city of Barnaul. The study was performed by Chemical-Analytical Center, Institute for Water and Environmental Problems of Siberian Branch RAS. The content of ions PO43–, Si, and COD (chemical oxygen consumption) was determined using a DR-2800 Hach Lange spectrophotometer, while the mineral composition, NH4+, NO2, NO3 ions – with a Dionex ICS-3000 ion chromatograph. The concentration of trace elements was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) on an ICAP-Qc spectrometer. The dynamics of elements content in the Ob water was determined in different hydrological seasons of 2018. The river water is enriched by major ions and nutrients due to increased runoff of more mineralized groundwater in winter. Based on the factor analysis, we revealed three main groups of components, which differ in content and spatial distribution within the Ob surface water. In addition, we made the assessment of water pollution and revealed the excess of MAC for fishing waters in organic matter content (COD), Al, Ti, Cu, Fe and Mn.
Keywords: the Ob River, surface water, hydrochemical characteristics, biogenic elements, trace elements
Article published in number 3 for 2022
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-3-096-102
Views: 21

Reduction of technogenic geochemical fluxes during the operation of a polymineral deposit in the Far Eastern Region

N.P. Кhrunina, A.Yu. Cheban
Section: Ecologization of industry
Heavy metal oxides are potentially highly reactionary capable and cytotoxic. They cause direct DNA damage and decrease viability of the cells of a living organism. To ensure environmental safety impacts that accompany processing gold-bearing sands deposits, studies of microelement, phase and grain-size composition of rocks have been carried out. There are established elements prevailing by mass: phosphorus, lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, barium, zirconium, chromium, strontium, as well as clay minerals, complicating the process of selecting valuable components. The revealed combination of mineral components has a high migration ability and toxicity.
It is developed the technology reducing operations of leaching and hydrometallurgical processing. The complex of tools allows you to effectively select valuable components by hydrodynamic and cavitation impact on the clay component. As a result of the implementation of the technology, dispersion fluxes and subsequent geochemical anomalies, the costs of monitoring residual concentrations of strong polyelectrolytes and systematic toxicological assessment will be significantly reduced. The developed technology includes new installations that ensure the destruction of the clay component through ultrasonic and cavitation, hydroacoustic or hydrodynamic effects.
Keywords: toxicity, dispersibility, microanalysis, hydrodynamic activation, cavitation

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Article published in number 3 for 2022
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-3-128-134
Views: 13

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