ISSN 1995-4301

ISSN 2618-8406

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Melanin-containing micromycetes in soils and organic waste

V.A. Terekhova, E.V. Fedoseeva, V.D. Volkova, А.E. Ivanova, O.S. Yakimenko
Section: Population ecology
Melanin formation in fungi used to indicate chemical and radiation contamination of soils depends on the composition of the environment and nutritional conditions. The relevance of this study is due to the assessment of the indicator significance of melanin-containing fungi under different conditions. The structure of mycobiota was studied in technosoil samples from organic composted wastes and in natural soils differing in the content of heavy metals (HMs) and available sources of carbon nutrition (Corg.). The total number of micromycetes, diversity, and representation of melanin-containing fungi were assessed by inoculation method and using high-throughput genome sequencing. Both methods showed an increase in the number of colony-forming units (CFU) of melanin-containing fungi with an increase in the load of HMs in samples of soddy-podzolic soils. However, the traditional inoculation method also revealed a noticeable effect of the content of Corg. on the increase in melanized forms in the formed mycobiota of soils with HMs. Thus, in slightly humus soil (Сorg. = 1.3%), the introduction of HMs led to an increase in the number of CFU for melanized forms by 38%, in highly humus soil (Сorg. = 3.9) only by 18%. The obtained data confirm the proposition that in substrates depleted of carbohydrate nutrition, melanin formation contributes to an increase in resistance to redox stress. In the techno-soil from composted waste, despite the significant content of HMs, in particular, cadmium, the proportion of melanized fungi is small, which is probably due to the immaturity of fungal communities in the waste. A conclusion was made about the greater bioindicative informativeness of the microbiological inoculation method before expensive metagenomic sequencing, and the effectiveness of its use in environmental monitoring of soil pollution.
Keywords: mycoindication, melanin, chemical pollution, soil, technosoil, organic carbon, cultivated micromycetes, metagenomic analysis
Article published in number 4 for 2022
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-4-204-213
Views: 19

A conceptual approach to diagnosing the ecological and economic security of the region

E.V. Karanina, V.M. Karaulov, K.E. Кartavykh
Section: Social ecology
The article deals with the problems of the regions from the standpoint of the concept of environmental and economic security. The concept and essence of ecological and economic security is disclosed, including from the standpoint of the ecosystem. In particular, the balanced functioning of the regional ecosystem implies the preservation of biological diversity and ecological balance, at least the intensity of the impact of the regional ecosystem on the natural ecosystem should not increase. A methodology for assessing such an impact based on the index of environmental well-being and the results of its testing in the subjects of the Volga Federal District in 2010-2020 are proposed. On the example of the Kirov region, an analysis of the costs of environmental protection measures, the dynamics of investments in fixed assets aimed at protecting the environment and rational use of the region’s natural resources is presented. The volume and structure of receipts of payments for the use of natural resources are determined. From the point of view of the ecological and economic security of the region, the aspect of taxation, which takes into account the negative impact on the environment, is considered. The necessity of forming a unified state policy aimed at preventing internal and external threats to environmental and economic security is substantiated. The article also proves the importance of forming an environmental and economic strategy approved at the legislative level, which will become a tool for achieving sustainable development of Russian regions.
Keywords: environmental and economic security, ecosystem of the region, natural resources, environmental protection costs, man-made pollution, index of environmental well-being
Article published in number 4 for 2022
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-4-214-223
Views: 13

Effects of polystyrene microplastic particles on the morphological and functional parameters of Daphnia magna

O.V. Nikitin, E.I. Nasyrova, R.S. Kuzmin, L.M. Minnegulova, V.Z. Latypova, T.Ya. Ashikhmina
Section: Ecotoxicology
Based on the results of laboratory modeling, the article evaluates the biological impact of microplastics on freshwater organisms using the example of the effect of polystyrene microparticles on the morphological and functional parameters (survival rate, size characteristics, locomotor and trophic activity) of freshwater crustaceans Daphnia magna Straus. The studied particles of polystyrene microplastics had homogeneous fractional composition in the experiments: < 10 µm (≈ 5%), < 50 µm (≈ 40%) and < 100 µm (≈ 75%). The median lethal concentration LC50 for polystyrene microparticles, determined in an acute toxicological experiment, was 197.35 mg/L (95% confidence interval: 163.10–259.98 mg/L). At 48 h of exposure in the entire range of the studied concentrations of microplastics (0 (control), 10, 50, 125 and 200 mg/L), no effect on the morphometric parameters of D. magna was found, the average size of individuals was 1.75±0.01 mm. After 24 h of exposure, the swimming speed of D. magna was maximal under control conditions (mean 0.87±0.10 cm/s). The addition of polystyrene microparticles into the medium at concentrations of 50, 125, and 200 mg/L significantly reduced (by about 44%) the swimming speed. The trophic activity of D. magna, estimated by the chlorophyll fluorescence of the alga Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck and amounting to 96% under control conditions, decreased when microplastics were added to the medium, reaching 19% at the maximum concentration of microplastics (200 mg/L). It has been shown by microscopy that Chlorella cells that fill the gut of Daphnia under control conditions are replaced mainly by polystyrene particles when microplastics are added to the algae suspension at a concentration of 200 mg/L. The results obtained indicate the impact of polystyrene microplastic particles on freshwater organisms.
Keywords: microplastics, polystyrene, Daphnia magna, Chlorella vulgaris, toxicity, swimming speed, trophic activity, morphometric parameters

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Article published in number 4 for 2022
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-4-196-203
Views: 22

Integral assessment of river sediments technogenic contamination within Eastern Donbass coal-mining area

V.N. Reshetnyak, V.E. Zakrutkin, E.V. Gibkov
Section: Chemistry of natural environments and objects
Long-term coal mining and processing as well as the impact of coal mining facilities on environmental components within the Eastern Donbass have led to a number of hydroecological problems, which have been intensified by the liquidation of coal mines. Based on the analysis of conventional methods and approaches the main principles of the integral assessment of the river sediments contamination level have been formulated, the integral contamination index of river sediments has been proposed and criteria for assessing the river sediments contamination level have been developed. For testing the proposed approach the calculation and assessment of the levels of sediments contamination in the rivers of the coal-mining area of the Eastern Donbass (Rostov region, Russia) has been carried out. The results of the assessment obtained using the integral contamination index of river sediments are compared with the results obtained using conventional indices and indicators. The integral contamination index of river sediments proposed by the authors includes the element hazard coefficients for aquatic ecosystems and the pelitic fraction share. This allows us to reflect not only the level of pollutant accumulation in sediments, but also to consider the risk of secondary water pollution with the sediments material. In general, river sediments in the most part of the river sections within the Eastern Donbass can be classified as moderately polluted. The high level of river sediments contamination in some sections of the rivers still remains due to a higher technogenic load. Thus, the integral contamination index of river sediments allows researchers to correctly assess the level of river sediments pollution within technogenically disturbed areas.
Keywords: river sediments, coal-mining areas, integral contamination index of river sediments, secondary water pollution

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Article published in number 4 for 2022
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-4-080-087
Views: 19

Structural and surface and acid-base properties of thermal power plant ash and slag

D.V. Mayorov, T.T. Gorbacheva
Section: Ecologization of industry
The ash slags formed at thermal power plants operating in the industrially developed northern region of the Russian Federation (Murmansk region) were investigated with the methods of BET (S. Brunauer, T. Emmett, and E. Teller) and BJH (Barrett-Joyner-Highland). It was found that the material has a predominantly mesoporous structure with a pore volume in the diameter range of 1.7–300 nm equal to 0.051 cm3/g and a specific surface area of 17.8 m2/g, which corresponds to the maximum levels observed at European thermal power plants of average power. It is established that the studied ash slag samples are characterized by a bimodal distribution of particles with a predominance of a fraction of 40–64 micrometers. It is shown that by its physico-chemical and structural-surface properties, the ash-slag mixture belongs to type F according to the international classification ASTM C 618, according to which it can be recommended for direct use as a sorbent in the treatment of domestic wastewater, and the pH value of the iso-ion point (7.63) indicates a predominant sorption of cationic forms of biogenic elements on the studied sample.
Keywords: ash and slag mix, thermal power plant, structural and surface properties, acid-base properties, sorption

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Article published in number 4 for 2022
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-4-104-110
Views: 7

Influence of radioecological pollution on heart rate variability in young men of different somatotypes

O.V. Kalabin, F.B. Litvin, T.M. Bruk, I.V. Bykova, E.V. Udovenko
Section: Social ecology
Monitoring of the influence of radioactive contamination as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was carried out using morphophysiological and statistical research methods. The sources of the data are our own research, the data of Bryanskstat, Rostekhnadzor, Rospotrebnadzor. Groups of normosthenics, asthenics and hypersthenics were raced and identified among young men permanently residing in the areas with different levels of radioactive contamination. Different frequency of somatotypes occurrence, depending on the area of residence, was stated. Normally clean territories are dominated by normosthenics. In the areas with an increased level of radioactive contamination the number of asthenics and hypersthenics is growing. As for normostenics, moderate autonomic and moderate central mechanisms of heart rate regulation dominate. Asthenics are characterized by increase in the pronounced central mechanism of regulation. As for hypersthenics, the influence of a pronounced autonomous mechanism of regulation of the heart rate prevails. The pronounced dominance of the central circuit of heart rate regulation in asthenics and the autonomous circuit of heart rate regulation in hypersthenics is a consequence of tension, and in some representatives of depletion of the reserve capabilities of the systems under study in conditions of prolonged exposure to low doses of radiation. The identified variants of autonomic regulation of the heart rate are largely genetically determined, but at the same time, they are finally formed under the influence of external (radiation load on the environment) and internal (constitutional) factors. The data obtained make it possible to identify groups of persons susceptible to maladjustment phenomena and to use the heart rate variability results for physical rehabilitation of young people in extreme living conditions.
Keywords: age, radiation, somatotype, heart rate, type of regulation
Article published in number 4 for 2022
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-4-232-239
Views: 9

The study of bacterial metal leaching process from industrial waste

F.F. Nidzvedskiy, V.A. Snegirev, M.A. Bezmaternykh, M.N. Ivantsova, I.S. Selezneva
Section: Remediation and rehabilitation
The results of a study on the metals extraction from ash and slag waste of thermal power plants (TPP) by the bacterial leaching method are presented. Fly ash from the Troitskaya TPP was the study object. The phase-mineralogical composition of ash and slag from TPPs has been established. The composition includes burnt clay substance, glass phase, quartz, magnetite, and hematite. The mineral and chemical composition of fly ash from this thermal power plant has been determined by X-ray phase and differential thermal analysis which showed the following results, in %: mullite (3Al2O3 · 2SiO2) up to 75, quartz (SiO2) – 7–8, hematite (Fe2O3 up to 65%) – 7–8, magnetite (Fe3O4 up to 72%) – 5–7. These data suggested the possibility of silicate destruction by Васillus mucilaginosus. Additionally, ash has sufficient energetic potential for the growth of chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms such as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. Pure bacterial cultures of A. ferrooxidans, Thiobacillus thioparus and В. mucilaginosus were isolated by Drygalsky’s method from several native substrates. The composition optimization of the nutrient medium for the cultivation of A. ferrooxidansby Box-Wilson steep ascent method was carried out. Using this nutrient medium, it was possible to increase the A. ferrooxidans biomass yield by 1.5 times. Cell growth was viewed by the change in the protein concentration in the culture liquid by the Lowry method. It was found that the bioleaching of copper occurs to the greatest extent (46.9%) in comparison with zinc and manganese, and in addition, a more complete oxidation of iron occurs under the influence of A. ferrooxidans. Leaching in the same nutrient medium without bacteria was carried out as a control experiment. To determine the concentration of metals in the culture liquid that passed into solution from the ash after leaching, gravimetric and complexometric methods were used. In general, the data obtained indicate the effectiveness and prospects of the metals bioleaching application from the fuel, energy and metallurgical industries wastes. Using bacterial leaching method should help to reduce the negative impact on the ecological state of the region.
Keywords: ash and slag waste, leaching, rare metals, nonferrous metals, thionic bacteria, soil bacteria
Article published in number 4 for 2022
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-4-188-195
Views: 6

Influence of plants in consortium with microorganisms on agrochemical indicators of oil-contaminated soils

V.I. Lyamzin, I.L. Bukharina, O.V. Zdobyakhina, A.A. Isupova
Section: Remediation and rehabilitation
The article presents the results of laboratory experiment on the study of the effect of biological oil-product destructor, endotrophic fungi (micromycete) and higher plant on agrochemical parameters of oil-contaminated soddy podzolic soil of different soil texture. The bioremediation stage of sandy loam and loamy soddy podzolic soils with an oil content of 5 and 10% was simulated for the experiment. As ameliorants in various combinations were used: biologic “Mikrozim Petro Trit” (Bacillus sp., Atherobacter sp., Nocordia sp., Rhodococcus sp., Pseudomonas sp.) (control when using only a biological oil-product destructor), the plant ameliorant Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), and the endotrophic micromycete Fusarium equiseti (Corda) Sacc. After the end of the six month laboratory experiment the mass fraction of labile phosphorus in the variant with a 5% level contamination of loamy soddy podzolic soil with oil and the joint application of the oil-destructive biologic product, plant and endotrophic fungi of the genus Fusarium decreased certainly by 1.5 times, labile potassium almost 2 times compared with the control variant. Applying the same set of ameliorants was revealed maximum availability of labile phosphorus for plants and microorganisms and intensive organic matter degradation in comparison with the use only a biological oil-product destructor consisting of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms.
The application of plant in consortium with mocroorganisms led to significant changes in the actual soil acidity, the mass fraction of mobile potassium and phosphorus in comparison with the use of an only biological product on sandy loam soddy podzolic soil with 5 and 10% oil contamination.
Keywords: oil pollution, biological oil-product destructor, bioremediation, endotrophic fungi, biological stage of remediation, agrochemical indicators of soil
Article published in number 4 for 2022
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-4-166-171
Views: 10

Electrochemical methods for the determination of ascorbic acid in biologically active additives

A.I. Fokina, E.G. Fominykh, K.I. Yuzhanin
Section: Methodology and research methods. Models and forecasts
One of the negative consequences of the impact of adverse environmental factors on on a humans is the development of oxidative stress in the body, which causes deviations in the state of human health. An important role in the fight against oxidative processes is played by antioxidants, including ascorbic acid (AA). Along with food, biologically active additives (BAA) can be an additional source of AA intake into the body. The correct assessment of the АА content in pharmaceutical preparations helps to solve an important problem of food ecology – the balanced use of vitamin C. Therefore, the development of new and improvement of existing methods of analysis for determining the content of AA in various objects remains an urgent task. The use of instrumental methods for fixing the end point of the titration increases the accuracy of the analysis. Simple and economical electrochemical methods such as potentiometry and coulometry can be used to implement the iodometric titration method. Despite all the advantages of coulometric and potentiometric methods of analysis and their widest distribution in various fields of science and technology, there are no data in the literature on the possibility of implementing the coulometric determination of АА with potentiometric indication and direct potentiometric titration, which are based on the reaction with iodine. As a result of the study, it was found that in the determination of AA by both methods, well-repeated results were obtained (the relative standard deviation does not exceed 2.0%), the dependence of the analytical signal on the sample mass (in the range of 80–120% to standard weight 0,1 or 0,2 g depending on the method) is linear with R not less than 0.99, and the results obtained by the “introduced-found’’ method satisfy the requirement of correctness.
Keywords: ascorbic acid, glucose, rutin, coulometry, potentiometry, determination
Article published in number 3 for 2022
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-3-034-040
Views: 41

Resistance of soil micromycetes Trichoderma viride and Alternaria alternata to heavy metals Cu and Pb

E.V. Fedoseeva, A.P. Kiryushina, D.I. Stom, V.A. Terekhova
Section: Ecotoxicology
Heavy metals (HM) in the soil cause changes in the ratio of resistant and susceptible fungal species, the mechanisms of interaction between which are not well understood. The aim of this work is to study the resistance to Cu and Pb cations and the antagonistic properties of two species of soil micromycetes Alternaria alternata and Trichoderma viride. Fungal resistance was assessed by the following test functions: biomass accumulation, colony diameter, and sporulation activity. The antagonistic activity of fungal species was assessed by competition test. The calculated effective concentrations and tolerance indices made it possible to conclude that A. alternata and T. viride are highly resistant to the investigated HMs. At the same time, species differences in the patterns of reactions were found. The growth of A. alternata colonies was inhibited to a greater extent than T. viride, however at the same HM concentration, the stimulation of sporulation in Alternaria was more pronounced than in the rapidly growing Trichoderma. The studied strain T. viride turned out to be quite competitive with respect to the phytopathogenic fungus A. alternata, and its antagonistic properties were well pronounced in the medium with HM. The data obtained can be useful for predicting the phytopathogenic activity of micromycetes against the background of chemical pollution and the dynamics of accumulation of various fungal species under adverse environmental conditions.
Keywords: toxicity, heavy metals, Alternaria, Trichoderma, tolerance, biomass, growth rate, sporulation

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Article published in number 3 for 2022
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-3-118-127
Views: 27

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