Distribution features of Xanthogaleruca luteola (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in the protective plantings of the Lower Volga
O.S. Filimonova, M.N. Belitskaya, I.R. Gribust
Section: Population ecology
Presented data on the features of ecology of economically dangerous pest - Xantogaleruca luteola (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). The development of leaf beetle occurs exclusively on woody plants of the Ulmus L. ancestral complex, which account for about 80% of the total composition of dendroflora in the Lower Volga. In the conditions of the study region, phyllophage is recorded on U. glabra, U. pumila, U. laevis. The greatest degree of foliage damage is noted for hornbeam elm, in the crown of which the defoliation level reaches 93%. This species prefers to populate the lower tier of the crown of trees, where when illumination is no more than 1500 lux, the maximum density of leaf food is recorded (more than 40 individuals per 100 leaves). The quantitative abundance of the pest is subject to significant fluctuations under the influence of weather conditions. During the drought period, there is a sharp hanging of the population density due to the weakening of trees. The regulatory factor limiting the growth of leaf beetle is the aggravation of intraspecific relations with an increase in population density, which entails a decrease in the potential for reproduction. So, the number of eggs in the clutches of females after leaving the diapause fluctuates at the level of 21-23 pcs/100 leaves. When the pest is restored, the number of eggs in the clutches of the II generation decreases by 22.1%. It was revealed that the number of clutches and eggs in the clutch varies significantly from a species of woody plant. The Imago mainly lays eggs in the crown of U. glabra, while the number of eggs in the clutch is minimal. The established differences are obviously related to the preference of hornbeam elm as a fodder plant, which entails an increase in population density and the number of masonry on the leaves in the crown of this type of elm. The decrease in the number of eggs in the clutch is due to the development of stress in females with a high frequency of contacts between individuals. Thus, the presence of mechanisms for regulating the abundance of ilm leaf beetle indicates the successful adaptation of the pest to the conditions of the Lower Volga.
Keywords: phyllophages, Xanthogaleruca luteola, Ulmus, Lower Volga
Article published in number 2 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-2-124-129
Maximum entropy modelling for predicting the potential distribution of methanogens in Sundarban mangrove ecosystem, India
N. Das, A. Mondal, S. Mandal
Section: Methodology and research methods. Models and forecasts
The production of methane (CH 4 ) by methanogens (Mgen) in mangrove sediments is known to contribute significantly to global warming. In such an estuarine environment, the abundance and population assemblage of Mgen are not well understood. Recently, there has been an increase of interest to understand about the properties of habitat distribution and the main environmental factors that influence mangrove suitability. Here, we used a maximum entropy (Maxent) species distribution model and a geographic information system (GIS) to determine the current habitat suitability distribution of Mgen in the Sundarban mangrove ecosystem in India. The Worldclim elevation (elev), precipitation (precp), solar radiation (srad), average temperature (tavg), maximum temperature (tmax), minimum temperature (tmin), water vapor pressure (vap) and the wind speed (wind) data and 36 spatially well-dispersed species occurrence points were used to predict the potential distribution of Mgen in the 14,317 km2 study area. The results indicated that Mgen has a high potential distribution at the deforested areas adjacent to the riverine system in the Indian Sundarban mangrove ecosystem. Jackknife test was used to evaluate the importance of the environmental variables for predictive modeling. The prcp is the most important environmental variable which influences the distribution of Mgen in mangrove sediments. With an AUC (area under curve “Sensitivity vs. Specificity”) of 0.826, the Maxent model was extremely accurate. The study shows that Maxent could be a useful tool for species rehabilitation and biodiversity conservation planning in the face of climate change.
Article published in number 2 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-2-042-047
Bacterial consortium as a model for studying the response of the microbial community of the Verkhnekamsk salt mining region to combined pollution
L.N. Anan, I.А. Kosheleva, E.G. Plotnikova
Section: Population ecology
The unique ecosystem of industrial development area of the Verkhnekamsk salt deposit (VSD) (Perm krai, Russia) is characterized by the combined effect of salinization and contamination by organic pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The purpose of the present study was to examine the degradative potential in relation to naphthalene, as a model PAH, under different salinity of bacterial consortium SMB3, previously isolated from soil of the VSD region, as well as the effect of long-term exposure to high salinity on the taxonomic composition of the consortium. The consortium SMB3 was able to grow on naphthalene both in the presence of NaCl up to 90 g/L, and in its absence. With an increase in the concentration of NaCl to 90 g/L, the growth rate of the consortium decreased by 2.1 times (compared with that of the consortium in a salt-free medium), and the naphthalene utilization estimated after 72 hours of cultivation decreased by 22.9 times. As a result of long-term cultivation in a mineral medium with naphthalene in the presence of 70 g/L NaCl, moderately halophilic strains Halomonas sp. SMB31 and Salinicola sociusSMB35T, not using naphthalene as the sole source of carbon and energy, and naphthalene degraders Rhodococcus spp. SMB37 and SMB38 were shown to preserve in the consortium, while strains Glutamicibacter sp. SMB32, Microbacterium sp. SMB33, ‘‘Thalassospira permensis’’ SMB34T, not growing on naphthalene, were eliminated. Thus, using the model experiments with the bacterial consortium SMB3, it has been shown that the soil autochthonous microbocenosis in the VSD salt-mining area is able to degrade persistent toxic organic compounds in a wide range of salinity, and prolonged exposure to a high salt concentration leads to a decrease in species richness.
Article published in number 2 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-2-116-123
Actualization of the “green” image for territorial development
A.A. Sozinova, V.A. Bondarenko, М. Smokova, N.G. Rumyantsev
Section: Social ecology
The article explores the importance of forming a “green” image of the territory for the purpose of its successful
development in the context of the formation of a “green” model of the economy. The study characterizes the situation
of transition from the “brown” to the “green” economic model within the framework of generally accepted sustainable
development targets. In this regard, the views of scientists on the use of marketing solutions are disclosed: “green” branding, “green” marketing strategies, “green” image in terms of enhancing territorial development. The need for a trinity
of efforts for “green” development on the part of the authorities, business and the population has been clarified. Data on
the development of a number of areas of environmental goods and services in Russia and abroad are given.
In the Russian context, for the full manifestation of positive global trends in terms of the “green” development of the
economy and the “green” positioning of territories for an appropriate positive image, it is necessary to carry out comprehensive work, coupled with the efforts of the authorities to form an appropriate institutional environment, the necessary
infrastructure and actively implement “green” state procurement, as well as encouraging businesses that implement
“green” marketing strategies and involve the population in conscious responsible consumption.
The authors substantiate the need to form a “green” image of the territory, based on the involvement of the local
population in the goals of the ecological development of the region, the growth in demand for environmental goods and
services, the combination of the interests of government and business in this process based on the conjugation of the
tasks of attracting investments and other resources, as well as growth satisfied local communities.
The approach proposed by the authors can become the basis of marketing decisions in building a “green” image of
Russian territories, which in the long run will form the basis of consumer satisfaction, the competitiveness of territories
in terms of attracting various resources and conducting an environmentally oriented business.
Keywords: “green” image, “green” model of the economy, involvement of the population, “green” purchases, territory, development
Article published in number 2 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-2-228-233
An unconventional approach to solving the problem of restoring damaged ecosystems in the North
I.А. Likhanova, E.G. Kuznetsova, Е.М. Lapteva
Section: Remediation and rehabilitation
The work is devoted to the problem of disturbed lands recovering in the north-east of the European part of Russia, where an intensive development of natural resources in recent decades has been made. The specialists of the Institute of Biology of the Komi Scientific Center of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences have developed the concept of accelerated «nature restoration» taking into account the natural conditions of the northern territories. Nature restoration – is a system of similar to zonal ecosystems restoration approaches in the disturbed territories. The concept is based on the system principles (interrelations of the ecosystem components) and the concept of self-recovering ecosystems as succession process. The composition and structure of the plant community are used as an integral indicator of the state and dynamic status of the ecosystem. Based on the concept, we developed two-stage system of practical approaches of controlled «nature restoration». At the first stage («intensive»), an artificial ecosystem is created using the agro-technical methods. At the second stage («assimilation»), the ecosystem is replaced by the zonal type during the managing succession process. Based on the concept and «nature restoration» scheme, we prepared the structure of technological scheme of restoration. It includes a scientifically based algorithm for the restoration of zonal ecosystems (or those close to them), taking into account different types of disturbances in the tundra and taiga zones. The scheme consists of three main interrelated sections. Based on the section 1, an accelerated succession scheme is being developed, measures are formulated for the technical and biological stages of the «intensive» stage (Section 2), which depend on the bioclimatic conditions of the area, the characteristics of soils, the level and degree of their disturbance (pollution), and the regenerative capabilities of the ecosystem. Section 3 includes the monitoring of a restored ecosystem and the managing a succession process in order to fastest inclusion of the post-technogenic ecosystem to the biosphere dynamics. In the northern regions, the concept of «nature restoration» and its practical implementation are an alternative to traditional recultivation.
Article published in number 2 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-2-145-151
Zoobenthos and zooplankton of the foothill lakes of Subpolar Urals
O.A. Loskutova, O.N. Kononova
Section: Monitoring of natural and anthropogenically disturbed areas
The article presents data on composition, structure and quantitative parameters of aquatic invertebrates from four small foothill lakes at the Subpolar Urals. The lakes are located in the “Yugyd va” national park in remote swampy areas. 55 zooplankton taxa were revealed: Rotifera 22, Cladocera 22 and Copepoda 11. All species are common species of plankton animals of the Russian European Northeast. In each lake, 28-34 taxa were registered with the prevalence of cladocerans. Quantitative parameters of zooplankton varied significantly, averaging 70.6-143.9 thousand ind.-m3 and 0.5–16.4 g-m3 in deep lakes and 23.7 thousand ind.-m3 and 0.4 g-m3 – in shallow lakes. The prevalence of crustacean plankton against rotifer plankton both in species composition and quantitatively distinguishes these lakes from the majority of those surveyed in this area. Species diversity and quantitative parameters of benthic invertebrates’ assemblages are poor in the most lakes under study. Zoobenthos includes 23 taxonomic groups of hydrobionts. In each lake, we found from 13 to 21 groups of benthos. The highest taxonomic diversity was found in a shallow flowing lake. During late June – early July, the abundance of zoobenthos ranged from 1.4 to 5.2 thousand ind.-m2, and was significantly higher in August (43.6 thousand ind.-m2) due to the occurrence of juvenile insects. The most abundant groups are chironomids, oligochaetes, amphipods and nematodes. Biomass ranged from 2.2 to 5.5 g-m2, and mainly included chironomids, oligochaetes, amphipods and leeches. Silty grounds were characterized by highest density. Benthic biomass was maximal in the gravel habitats. A feature of the bottom population of the studied lakes is the habitation of dragonfly larvae. Zooplankton and zoobenthos of the studied lakes are distinguished from water bodies located in the Maliy Patok river basin, located upstream the Schugor River, by higher species richness and quantitative parameters.
Keywords: western slopes of the Urals, aquatic ecosystems, lakes, fauna, invertebrates
Article published in number 2 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-2-056-062
Analysis of the cytogenetic status of children and adolescents in the living in areas with different environmental conditions
S.V. Ermolaeva, Е.О. Ivanov
Section: Social ecology
Cytogenetic status can be a marker of ecological trouble in a certain area.Cytogenetic status is determined by the frequency of micronuclei in buccal epithelial cells. The largest amount of pollutants enters the atmospheric air of Ulyanovsk and the Sengileevsky district. In the drinking water of the Sengileevsky and Cherdaklinsky districts, iron appeared to be up to 10 times higher than the MAC, manganese – up to 2.5 times. The content Pb, Zn, Ni in the soil were up to 12 times higher than the MPC. This study aims to evaluate the frequency of micronuclei in the cells of the buccal epithelium of children and adolescents living in an industrialized zone, compared with that inside children living in areas without significant anthropogenic impacts. The preparations were made according to standard methods. 1000 cells per individual were analyzed. As a control measure we used indicators of the frequency of micronuclei in the cells of children and adolescents from the Veshkaimsky and Sursky districts, in which no excess of the MPC of toxic substances was detected.
The analysis was carried out in 418 people aged 9–15 years, permanently residing in the study areas. The frequency of cells with micronuclei in schoolchildren of the Zasviyazhsky district of the city of Ulyanovsk was 1.46±0.87‰ is 7 times higher than the control, in the second group (Cherdaklinsky district) 1.22±0.95‰ is 6 times higher than the control, in the 3rd sample (Sengileevsky district) 1.19±0.44‰, 5 times more than control. The index of cytogenetic disorders in group 1 – 4.18 (high risk), in group 2 – 3.42 (moderate risk), in group 3 – 4.00 (high risk). The genotoxic effect of pollutants in the environment of Ulyanovsk (Zasviyazhsky district) and Sengileevsky district was established.
Keywords: ecological safety, cytogenetic status, buccal epithelium, accumulation of cytogenetic disorders, risk groups
Article published in number 2 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-2-234-240
Contamination of soil cover with compounds of metals, arsenic and antimony in the area of impact of fuel and energy complex
D.G. Sycheva, N.E. Kosheleva, I.V. Timofeev
Section: Monitoring of natural and anthropogenically disturbed areas
The relevance of the study is caused by a significant amount of toxic emissions from thermal power plants (TPPs)
operating on brown coal, which can precipitate from the atmosphere and accumulate in urban soils. To assess the impact
of TPP emissions on soil pollution in the city of Gusinoozyorsk (Republic of Buryatia), samples were taken from the
upper (0–10 cm) horizons on a regular grid. With the help of the ICP-MS and ICP-AES methods the content of Zn, As, Cd, Bi, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Sb, Mo, V, W, Sr, Ag were analyzed in 79 soil samples, as well as in brown coal and ash of
Gusinoozyorsk TPP, whose emissions are the main source of pollution. Brown coals contain concentrations of Mo, W, Sr, Zn, V 1.5–2.9 times higher than the clarkes for coals of the world. Ash is enriched with Mo, Sr, V, Cu, Co compared
to world clarkes. The ability of soils to adsorb heavy metals, arsenic and antimony is determined by their physicochemical properties: a slightly alkaline reaction, a medium loamy texture and an average content of organic matter (2.7%).
The soils of the industrial operating and one-storey residential land use subzones are the most contaminated. In the first
zone Cu, Ag, As, Sr, Co, V, Ni, Sb accumulate which are associated with emissions from the Gusinoozyorsk TPP and the
influence of coal dust. In the second zone Sb, Cu, Sr, Zn, Ag, Cd, Pb accumulate which enter the soils with fly ash from
the TPP, household waste and car emissions. Heavy metals and metalloids in the soil cover have formed several local
anthropogenic anomalies of high and moderate contrast, which occupy 7% of the city’s area.
Keywords: heavy metals, metalloids, urban soils, environmental geochemistry, thermal power plant, brown coal, fly ash
Article published in number 2 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-2-048-055
Lithophage Alces alces L. in the protected territories of Yakutia
Registration of moose lithophagy by means of photo traps was carried out on six salt lick in the protected territories of Southern and Central Yakutia. The duration of moose lithophagy is up to 132 minutes, with an average of 9-12 minutes. Females salted longer than males. In Southern Yakutia, half of the visits to lick occur at the darkest time of the day from 24 am to 4 am (50.5%), and in Central Yakutia from 20 am to 24 pm (42.5%). The lowest attendance of lick was observed in both cases during daylight hours from 8 am to 20 pm (5.6% and 8.6%). In both parts of the range, females are more likely than males to visit lick at dawn from 4 am to 8 am. The highest activity of salting in both areas is observed in June: in Southern Yakutia – 5.7 moose per day, in Central Yakutia – 2.1 moose per day. This circumstance is explained by the period of calving in females and the development of horns in males. For the entire observation period, the average number of visits per day by animals was: in Southern Yakutia – 3.7 (in the period from May to July), in Central Yakutia – 1.0 (in the period from June to August). In southern Yakutia, there is a sharp increase in male visits to lick in the month of June, which falls sharply in July. In Central Yakutia, this is not observed. The sex ratio of individuals who visited salt lick was: in Central Yakutia, males – 60.9%, females – 39.1%; in Southern Yakutia, males – 45.7%, females – 54.3%. The percentage of calves was: in Southern Yakutia – 10.2%, in Central Yakutia – 30.3%. In Southern Yakutia, females with moose calves accounted for 3.4% of all visits, and in Central Yakutia – 11.2%.
Keywords: moose, salt lick attendance, duration of salt licking, lithophage time distribution
Article published in number 2 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-2-138-144
Dynamics of vegetation of the phytomeliorated deflation zone on the territory of the Republic of Kalmykia
Section: Remediation and rehabilitation
The state-of-the-art of the vegetation cover and plant communities composition of the restored phytomeliorated deflation zone has been studied. Forest reclamation arrangement of the “Green zone – Komsomol’skij village” deflation zone was carried out in 1998 in a destructive-accumulative zone by continuous planting of Calligonum aphyllum without preliminary soil preparation. Tree-planting machine MLB-1 was used for these purposes. Forb-cereal and white wormwood-cereal communities with a projective cover of 65% is currently dominated in the vegetation cover of the lower grassy tier (age is 20–23 years). The species composition has stabilized to 10–15 years. About 30 species have been included in the species composition. The formation and stabilization of phytocenosis occurs under the protection of Calligonum aphyllum planting for 18–20-years period of succession. Conditions for the introduction of species, the growth of which required a certain level of soil fertility, as well as more comfortable microclimate than on degraded soils and open sands, have been created in the same period. There are changes in the ecobiomorphic composition of phytocenosis, a decrease in the share of annual species, an increase in the number of forbs with an increasing in the duration of successions. It was found that progressive successions of the site vegetation cover inhibit by overgrazing and pyrogenic factor. Under the influence of overgrazing in the species composition in a competitive environment, species are replaced by other species in approximately equal relation. There is a decrease in the feed value of phytocenoses with the development of monocultures (low-value plant species) The obtained data on the flora, abundance, and structure of vegetation cover demonstrate the current state in the "exhausted" centers of deflation in the pastures of the Republic of Kalmykia.
Keywords: arid zone, land degradation, phytomelioration, succession, plant community