The chemical composition of atmospheric precipitation, throughfall and surface waters in the middle taiga deciduous stands of post-cutting origin
Section: Chemistry of natural environments and objects
The chemical composition of atmospheric precipitation (rainfall), throughfall and surface (stream) waters are studied. The studies were conducted in the Knyazhpogost district of the Komi Republic (62̊18’ N 50̊55’ E). Studies were conducted on the terrain in which from 1970 to the 1990. spruce forests were cut down and now represented by deciduous and deciduous-coniferous forest of different ages, which are formed after natural reforestation. Water samples were taken monthly at constant points for 2 years: in a stream, atmospheric precipitation (rainfall), throughfall the crowns of birch, aspen, spruce and between crowns in 10-15 replicates. The chemical composition of the waters is transformed in the series: atmospheric precipitation (rainfall) – throughfall – stream. It is established that when throughfall the crowns of trees, the content of most components of the chemical composition of atmospheric precipitation increases. The chemical composition of the throughfall is affected by the age and tree composition of the stand. The studied natural waters are slightly acidic, low salinity, hydrocarbonate class and differ in hydrochemical type. A series of decreasing ion concentrations in atmospheric precipitation: HCO3->SO42->K+>Ca2+>Cl-, throughfall of birch-spruce young forest: HCO3->K+>Ca2+>SO42->Cl-, throughfall aspen-birch stand: HCO3->K+>Ca2+>PO42->Cl-, in the stream waters: HCO3->Ca2+>Mg2+>K+>Cl-. As the mineralization increases, the studied waters are arranged in a row: atmospheric precipitation (rainfall) < throughfall of birch-spruce young forest < throughfall of aspen-birch stand
Keywords: middle taiga zone, deciduous forests, chemical composition of precipitation and water stream
Article published in number 2 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-2-063-069
Specifics of biogeocenoses restoration during overgrowth of coal-mine dumps of the Gorlovsky basin
A.N. Bespalov, N.A. Sokolova, D.A. Sokolov
Section: Remediation and rehabilitation
Due to the increasing volume of anthracite production in the Novosibirsk region, the area of disturbed territories is also increasing. In this regard, the problem of restoring ecosystems on dumps is acute. The vast majority of researches on the restoration of man-made ecosystems is aimed at studying any one of their components. The purpose of this work was a comprehensive assessment of the specifics of recovery of waste dumps of the Gorlovsky anthracite deposit (Novosibirsk region). It included a study of the development of soil and vegetation cover, as well as an assessment of the biodiversity of soil invertebrates (on example of ground beetles). It was revealed that three types of soil are formed in the composition of the soil cover of the studied objects – initial, organo-accumulative and turf embryozems. The soil-ecological condition of sample areas was evaluated quantitatively in bonus points, taking into account the topography of the dumps (leveled and hilly areas), the density of the top layer of soil (0-10 cm), and the stage of evolution of young soils. It is shown that the succession of vegetation cover proceeds in the direction from pioneer groups to closed phytocenoses simultaneously with the development of young soils. The population of ground beetles was studied. 43 species belonging to 17 genera were found. The interaction between ecosystem components is studied. Using statistical methods, it is shown that along with the restoration of plant communities and the formation of soil cover on the studied dumps, both the number of species of ground beetles and the indices of diversity increase. Species are replaced by specialized ones, and the number of dominants increases. The species diversity of ground beetles increases syngenetically to the improvement of the soil-ecological condition.
Article published in number 2 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-2-159-164
Problems of legal regulation of commercial use and conservation of fishery resources
Section: Social ecology
Fish, aquatic animals and plants are an important part of ecosystems. They are involved as a resource in economic
activity by humans. The fishery resources are an important source of income and welfare of coastal communities and a
driver of the socio-economic development of the regions. Balanced long-term management and conservation of fisheries
resources for future generations is the basis for regulating commercial activities. Fishery resources are an element of
direct and indirect economic activity of entrepreneurs who carry out fishing and use the shores of water areas. The study
of the legal regulation of the use of fishery resources, identifying problems and suggesting ways to solve them is the aim of
the research. The methods of content analysis, systematization and structuring of information were used in the research.
Analysis of legal norms and scientific publications, interviews with economic entities were carried out. The study of the
regulation of economic activity revealed a multiplicity of problems associated with the interaction of various branches
of law and departmental documents in the field of fishery resources. We have prepared proposals for the development of
regulatory standards, including: the creation of intersectional expert groups with the involvement of specialists in various
fields and stakeholders, verification of the developed regulatory standards and improvement of contract law in the use of
fishery resources. Thus, harmonization of economic regulation will remove administrative barriers to economic growth
and preserve natural resources at the same time.
Article published in number 2 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-2-216-221
Formation of a green production management model
A.A. Malyshev, N.N. Solodkov, N.A. Korobkova
Section: Ecologization of industry
The article deals with the problem of managing green production at various levels: federal, regional and enterprise
level. The approaches of foreign and Russian authors to the disclosure of the essence of the concepts of “ecologized production”, as well as “green production”, various methods of studying this problem are analyzed. A management scheme
for green production is presented, as well as the results of a study of the management structure at various levels. The
structure of green production management carried out by federal and regional executive authorities in accordance with the Law “On Environmental Protection” was analyzed, which made it possible to systematize the tasks and functions
of green production management bodies at the federal, regional and local levels. The main functions and principles of
managing the system of green production are considered. An analysis of emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere in
dynamics by years is given, investments in fixed assets aimed at protecting the environment and rational use of natural
resources are analyzed. A correlation was found between all levels of management in terms of the dynamics of pollutant
emissions and investments in fixed assets. A study has been conducted, which indicates that, firstly, the insufficiently
efficient use of funds allocated for environmental protection; secondly, about the imperfection of the mechanisms for
managing green production at its various levels. A model for managing green production at three levels (federal, regional
and enterprise level) is proposed, including functions, principles, methods and tools. The model of green production
is based on the following functions: stimulation associated with the creation of motivation for enterprises to conduct
environmental activities; redistribution of environmental activities, products and pollution between manufacturing enterprises; regulation of environmental activities, products and pollution of enterprises and organizations; a supervisory
function related to environmental activity, product and pollution control activities; accumulating function, which is to
create the necessary financial and environmental reserve. This model can be used by the environmental services of various
enterprises, the Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology when developing a development strategy, the Department
of Economics, Innovation and Scientific and Technical Policy to develop innovative concepts of environmental p
Keywords: green production, greening production, management in the field of environmental management, management of environmentally friendly production, management system
Article published in number 2 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-2-093-100
Comparative evaluation of nutrient media for the cultivation of micromycetes of the genus Trichoderma
P.A. Starikov, L.I. Domracheva, S.G. Skugoreva
Section: Methodology and research methods. Models and forecasts
Fungi of the genus Trichoderma are one of the most used and promising objects of biotechnology. Therefore, among the tasks in the practical application of this micromycete in the future is the isolation of new active strains from the environment and the expansion of the range of culture media used for trichoderma. In this work, we studied the dynamics of vegetative growth of fungi of the genus Trichoderma from various ecological niches. We used isolates from the surface of decaying wood, fruiting bodies of polypores, as well as a strain from urban soil, which was cultivated for 10 years on a medium with sevilen polymer. Cultivation was carried out at 23°С on 5 agar nutrient media, namely, on bean agar, potato and potato-sucrose medium (20 g of sucrose per liter), on the classical Czapek medium, and also on decoction of Fomitopsis pinicola (200 g of fruiting bodies per 1 l of broth). The maximum rates of growth and formation of conidia were observed during surface cultivation of these micromycetes on bean agar and potato-sucrose medium. On the same media of Trichoderma sp., sevilen destructor showed a significant lag in the rate of linear growth (7.55–8.28 mm/day) in comparison with the other studied strains (19.72–24.32 mm/day) which may be explained by profound metabolic changes during long-term cultivation on media where the only source of carbon is a synthetic polymer. The least suitable substrate for cultivation of all studied isolates of Trichoderma spp. turned out to be an agar decoction of polypore, the growth rate on which was 3.55–12.06 mm/day. In all variants of the cultivation of fungi of the genus Trichoderma, the linear growth rate was constant throughout the entire process of cultivation.
Article published in number 1 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-1-044-049
Comparative evaluation of the efficiency of solid and liquid dispersants in simulation of oil and oil product spills
S.G. Litvinets, E.A. Martinson, S.M. Kuznetsov, E.O. Zadorina, O.A. Novikova, V.G. Komosko, A.V. Nikolaeva, M A. Troshin, M.T. Gaysin
Section: Ecologization of industry
The effectiveness of the «Dimex» solid dispersant developed in the interests of PJSC «Transneft» for cleaning the water surface from films of oil and oil products through dispersion, including in winter (ice) conditions, has been studied. Liquid dispersant «Finasol OSR 52», manufactured by Total Fluides, France, approved for use in Russia, was used as a reference drug.
The possibility of using the modified Warren Spring Laboratory test as a method for evaluating the effectiveness of dispersion for solid dispersants is shown.
Under conditions of a wide range of changing parameters, including: salinity of model seawater, water temperature, presence of sludge and broken ice, dispersant: oil ratio, type of oil product, the high efficiency of the solid dispersant «Dimex» was shown, which was for medium sulphurous oil with a density of 870.0 kg/m3 – from 35.69% to 60.67%, for light, sweet oil with a density of 844.0 kg/m3 – from 39.21% to 58.70%, for diesel fuel with a density of 830.8 kg/m3 – from 50.73% to 72.21%, for kerosene with a density of 785.5 kg/m3 – from 52.34% to 60.45%, for gasoline with a density of 739.2 kg/m3 – from 40.41 % to 49.82%. The obtained values are comparable with the values for the «Finasol OSR52» liquid dispersant registered in the territory of the Russian Federation, which makes it possible to recommend the «Dimex» solid dispersant for use in the elimination of emergency oil and oil products spills in offshore areas in the North.
Article published in number 1 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-1-115-123
Rare earth elements in the environment: concentrations, migration characteristics and methods of determination (review)
D.B. Petrenko, K.G. Erofeeva, O.I. Okina
Section: Theoretical problems of ecology
The growing use of rare earth elements (REEs) in metallurgy, glass production, automotive catalytic converters and high-tech industries, and many other areas leads to increased concentrations in soils, water, plants, and other environmental objects. Thus, the REE abundances in sediments, sedimentary rocks, soil, water, and organic residues are becoming critical ecological indicators of anthropogenic environmental change. This work summarizes the data on the concentrations,its geochemical features, and methods for REE determination. The primary attention is paid to the analysis of the last 15 years’ publications.
The features of REEs that control their distribution in various natural environments are lanthanide compression, double-double effect, chemical composition, and environmental conditions (pH, Eh, concentrations of inorganic and organic ligands). The oxidation state of +3 is most typical for REEs; Ce and Eu can change their oxidation states by +4 and +2 under oxidizing and reducing conditions, respectively, and are separated from the other REEs. The geochemical cycle of REE is considered, natural and anthropogenic factors determining the migration of elements between its components are discussed. Their low concentrations complicate the determination of REE concentrations in natural environments. It requires the use of sensitive methods of chemical analysis, the most important of which are atomic spectroscopy. In addition to traditional methods of analysis, local methods for determining the concentrations of REEs, such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with laser ablation and mass spectrometry of secondary ions, are widely and successfully used today.
The technology of complex processing of phosphorite ore of the Vyatka-Kama phosphorite basin into phosphorus fertilizers is proposed. The main mineral components of the ore are fluorocarbonate apatite, glauconite and quartz. The proposed technology includes the separation of ore into concentrate and tailings (effel) with the subsequent processing of the concentrate into thermophosphate, and the effels ‒ into budgetary granular organomineral РКS-fertilizers (OMF). The Р2О5 content in the concentrate was not less than 20%, in the fine-grained part of beneficiation tailings ‒ not less than 6%. Thermophosphate was obtained by sintering a mixture of a concentrate with alkaline waste of petrochemical synthesis containing Nа2CO3 and/or NаОН. In the product thus obtained, phosphorus is in the form of renanite, readily soluble in citric acid and suitable for use as a P-fertilizer on acidic soils. Organomineral РКS-fertilizers was prepared by granulating a mixture of fine-grained part of beneficiation tailings and serpeat suspension (SS). To obtain SS, gas sulfur (natural gas purification waste) and peat of a high degree of decomposition were used. The main purpose of sulfur in the composition of OMF is the conversion of phosphates into more soluble forms (hydrophosphates) due to H2SO4 formed during the oxidation of sulfur by soil microorganisms. OMF is suitable for use on all types of soil. It was found that the introduction of thermophosphate and OMF leads to a significant increase in the content of mobile forms of phosphorus. Both fertilizers have a positive effect on plant development. The main advantages of the proposed technology include an increase in the efficiency of mined phosphorites and the return to economic circulation of 3 types of waste: effel, gas sulfur, alkaline sludge of petrochemical synthesis.
The brief overview is dedicated to the current understanding of the redox metabolism in the aerobic cells. The characteristic of oxygen radicals and information about the mechanisms of their generation are presented. The data on the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cellular signaling and the induction of oxidative stress were analyzed. The excessive ROS accumulation is dangerous for the cells, as oxygen radicals are able to interact with the biologically important molecules (DNA, proteins, lipids, etc.) and damage the cellular structures. The redox balance violation can be caused by negative effects of factors of various nature (abiotic, biotic, anthropogenic), but ultimately their effects are reduced to the occurrence of oxidative stress. In humans, oxidative stress provokes the development of various diseases, causes a decrease in performance, early aging, etc. This is opposed by the antioxidant system, which detoxifies oxygen radicals and suppresses the processes of the macromolecules oxidation. The article summarizes information about the main low–molecular–weight antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes, and role of the antioxidant system in maintaining the redox balance of the living cells. In conclusion, topical issues for further study and their importance for solving practical problems of ecology are noted.
Article published in number 1 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-1-017-026
Analysis of pesticide load in the Altai Region’s cereal cropping
Y.V. Kalyuta, M.I. Maltsev, N.G. Bazarnova
Based on the statistical data of the Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring, the Federal State Statistics Service, and the Unified Interdepartmental Statistical Information System, this paper analyzes the dynamics of pesticide use in the Altai Region’s cereal cropping from 2010 through 2019. It was found that the amount of plant protection products used in the Region increased and that increased the pesticide load on the soil. In 2010, the cereal crop growers purchased herbicides based on 45 active ingredients, and in 2019 - based on 58 ones. The amount of purchased products based on the above active ingredients ranged from 149 to 286 tons that accounted for 67-75% of the total volume of herbicide products. Throughout this period, 31-71 g per hectare of the basic herbicides per unit of sown area were applied in the Region; generally, this led to increased cereal crop yields; the grain yields ranged from 0.9 to 1.6 tons per hectare. However, the increasing rates of pesticide application were much higher than the rates of yield increase. In the neighboring regions of the Siberian Federal District, the application volumes of the same pesticides were higher than in the Altai Region.
Keywords: pesticides, glyphosate, 2,4-D, yield, cereal crops, Altai Region
Article published in number 1 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-1-175-181