The restoration of natural communities on anthropogenically disturbed lands is one of the world’s problems. Our studies in Kuzbass show that even after 35–40 years, areas reclaimed in different ways do not create full-fledged conditions for mammals, inhabitants of the dark coniferous taiga forests. In all studied areas, the indices of the abundance and species richness in mammalian communities are significantly inferior to the original taiga communities. The similarity with indigenous communities of mammals was found in pine plantations adjacent to self-growing deforested areas of the dark
coniferous taiga. These habitats are characterized by the highest indices of abundance and species richness among the studied sites. The most impoverished in terms of the species richness of small mammals and their number were terraced areas with a very insignificant soil layer, reclaimed by the European white birch Betula pendula Roth. and sea-buckthorn Hippophae rhamnoides L. The communities of small mammals that have formed here show a faunistic similarity with the population of dry meadows on the place of the felled dark coniferous taiga, but not with the indigenous taiga population. Large and medium-sized mammals in reclaimed areas are few or absent altogether. The reclamation methods should involve the formation of forage and protective functions for forest dwellers. During reclamation, it is necessary to abandon mono-plantings. To create vital conditions, it is necessary to mosaic planting of various groups of plants with the obligatory alternation of
coniferous, mixed, and deciduous forest areas. The share of various shrubs is about 50%. Since animals are concentrated in ecotone areas, when carrying out forest reclamation, it is necessary to provide for the formation of an extended forest edge line, that is, to lay “forest glades” surrounded on all sides by woody plants and shrubs.
Article published in number 3 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-3-183-191
Ecological trend of succession in mycobiome of the old botanical garden chernozem
I.D. Svistova, N.N. Nazarenko
Section: Population ecology
The article presents the results of long-term bioindication studies of the mycobiome of the leached chernozem of the B.A. Keller Botanical Garden of the Voronezh State Agrarian University. In this article, for the first time in our longstanding bioindication studies, we established the ecological trend of the succession of soil mycobiome of the Botanical Garden. The influence of plant rhizodeposites led to an increase in the α- and β-diversity of mycobiome compared to virgin soil,
the accumulation of copiotrophic, hydrolytic, phytopathogenic species. However, the transition of soil mycobiome to the adaptive response of “stress” is observed, what appeared in the concentration of dominance of typical species, a decrease in the proportion of stenotopic species and the accumulation of toxigenic micromycetes. A sensitive method was selected for determining the biological (phytotoxic) activity of the soil, and the decisive role of micromycetes as a biotic factor in its development was confirmed. The main direction of succession of the soil mycobiom under intense microbial-plant interactions is the accumulation of species of fungi that synthesize mycotoxins. The stress reaction of the mycobiome and the growth of phytotoxic activity of the soil indicate the important role of microbial-plant interactions in reducing the stability of even such a high-buffer type of soil as leached chernozem. The results obtained can be used to assess and
predict the ecological state of soil ecosystems using mycoindication.
Article published in number 3 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-3-142-148
Technogenic impact of wastewater on the hydrochemical composition of the Angara River
V.I. Poletaeva, M.V. Pastukhov
Section: Chemistry of natural environments and objects
The Angara River is a source of drinking water supply for the population of Irkutsk Oblast (Russia). The ecosystem
of the river has been under anthropogenic impact from the large Usolie-Sibirsky industrial zone for several decades. The aim of the present study was to analyze the concentrations of trace elements in the wastewater entering the Angara River and to determine their impact on the river’s hydrochemical composition. For this purpose, concentrations of 21 trace elements were measured in the wastewater and waters of Angara River at different distances from the technogenic sources. The results obtained show that wastewater contains high concentrations of a large range of trace elements. The intensity of anthropogenic impact was determined using a contamination factor (CF), which allowed to identify four groups of trace elements depending on their concentration exceeding the background level. The largest factors are determined for Sb (CF up to 123), B (CF up to 345), Ti (CF up to 651), Br (CF up to 913), Ge (CF up to 1093), Hg (CF up to 1991). The inflow of elements of anthropogenic origin is reflected in a negative change in the hydro-chemical composition of the Angara River at sites where waste- and river water are mixed. However, due to intensive dilution of wastewater by the Angara River, concentration of most trace elements in the river water at a distance of 5 km downstream of contamination sources are reduced to background levels. At the same time, elements (Li, As, V, Mo, B, Br, Ge, Hg) have been identified, whose concentrations in the water of the Angara River in this section remain above the background values. Increased concentrations of the observed trace elements can lead to negative consequences for hydrobionts, which are vulnerable even to minor changes in the chemical composition of the Angara River.
Keywords: Angara River, wastewater, pollution, migration of technogenic microelements
Article published in number 3 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-3-090-095
Monitoring of parks in the coastal zone of the Neva bay with the snail Arianta arbustorum
N.N. Kamardin, S.V. Kholodkevich, V.M. Makeeva
Section: Monitoring of natural and anthropogenically disturbed areas
Analysis of environmental problems, assessment and prediction are closely related to the study of populations of widespread animal species, in our case, of mollusk Arianta arbustorum (Linnæus, 1758), mass invasion of which is known for the Leningrad region and in St. Petersburg since the second half of the 2000 years. The concentration of heavy metals (HM) in snail’s hepatopancreas was measured on an atomic absorption spectrophotometer and an atomic emission spectrometer using inductively coupled plasma emission. In order to monitor accumulated anthropogenic pollution in the parks on the coast of the Neva bay the thermoresistance of snails from various coastal biotopes was studied. The rate
of decrease in heart rate (HR) after switching off the heat exposure (lasting for 20 minutes) was compared in snails from the village of New Ropsha (reference location) and other locations: Alexandria Park, Oranienbaum Park, Dubki Park. According to the accumulation of HM in the snail’s hepatopancreas, in Oranienbaum Park significant (p ≤ 0.05) excess for all studied HM (Cu, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cd, Pb) was found in comparison with the reference location in the village of New Ropsha and with other locations. The potential environmental risk determined according to Hakanson in Oranienbaum Park was rated as high. The thermoresistance of snails from this location contaminated with HM is characterized as low, which suggests a possible violation of the protective system of heat shock proteins. This may reduce their ability to restore heat-denatured proteins, including contractile proteins of the heart, which usually leads to a rapid drop in HR in mollusks from polluted sites.
Keywords: Arianta arbustorum, accumulation of heavy metals, potential environmental risk, heart rate, thermo- resistance
Article published in number 3 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-3-075-081
Phyto-diversity as an indicator of the restoration of the Pinus sylvestris L. formation of the Usman forest after a forest fire
The analysis of the dynamics of phyto-diversity over 10 years of the Pinus sylvestris L. formation in the Usman forest of the Voronezh region on the territory of Russia is carried out. We used formalized methods for processing the data array when describing 140 accounting sites of 1 m2 on two test sites in the background and pyrogenic formations of P. sylvestris. Accounting for abundance was conducted according to O. Drude. The pyrogenic factor, along with temperature, light, humidification, and edaphic conditions, has a strong effect on the phyto-diversity of forest ecosystems. Four phases of succession of pyrogenic phytocenoses with determination of time intervals between them have been established. The first phase of 2010 is a pioneer group, random plant species are noted, separated among themselves; second phase 2011–2014 – the pioneer group is being transformed, plants are being introduced, they are breeding, consort relations between organisms are appearing, a weed-ruderal erigeron-pine community (Pinus sylvestris – Erigeron canadensis) has been recorded; third 2015–2018 – the initial phase is herb-shrub, there is a restructuring of the structure of the plant community, which is expressed in the replacement of the dominants of the phytocenosis tiers; the fourth phase begins in 2019 – the formation of the forest phytocenotic group is associated with dimming and, as a result, a change in temperature. The characteristic of anthropotolerant groups is given. In the ratio of species in the background and pyrogenic areas to the total number, the replenishment of species diversity in pyrogenic areas is observed. The obtained values of the regression coefficient for anthropotolerant groups emphasize the sensitivity of the flora to the pyrogenic effects of especially synanthropophytes and hemiapophytes.
Keywords: formation, flora, pyrogenic factor, phases of succession, Usmansky pine forest, Pinus sylvestris L
Article published in number 3 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-3-192-198
Features of bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the tissues of the great false horse leech Haemopis sanguisuga L. in aquatic ecosystems of the Urals
L.V. Chernaya, L.A. Kovalchuk, N.V. Mikshevich
Section: Monitoring of natural and anthropogenically disturbed areas
Investigation into intense impact of industrial pollution on the aquatic ecosystems of the Ural region is one of
tasks of environmental monitoring. To estimate peculiarities of the bioaccumulation of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb in tissues of the leech Haemopis sanguisuga (L., 1758) from aquatic ecosystems of natural and anthropogenically disturbed territories of the Ural have been first studied. The studies were based on the verification of 100 samples of bottom sediments and 100 adults of H. sanguisuga from 10 water bodies of the Sverdlovsk and Chelyabinsk regions. The gross contents of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb in the skin-muscle tissue of leeches and in the bottom sediments were estimated by atomic absorption method on an AAS-3 spectrophotometer and on an Analyst-100 instrument from Perkin Elmer. 800 element determinations were carried out. Еstimated ranges of background concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb for bottom sediments of water bodies of Ural region are determined. It was found that the content of Cu, Cd, Pb in the bottom sediments of water bodies located in anthropogenic disturbed areas is higher than in natural water bodies (p < 0.001), with the exception of Zn (p = 0.929). It is shown that in the tissues of H. sanguisuga individuals living under anthropogenic stress, the content of HM is significantly higher than that of leeches from natural water bodies (p < 0.001). Аnd the level of HM in tissues of leeches is directly related to their concentrations in bottom sediments: Cu (r = 0.69; p < 0.001), Zn (r = 0.67; p < 0.001), Cd (r = 0.75; p < 0.001), Pb (r = 0.52; p < 0.001). This indicates the fundamental possibility of using leeches as indicator organisms when monitoring the pollution of the aquatic ecosystems of the Ural by such pollutants as Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb.
Keywords: heavy metals, leeches, bottom sediments, bioaccumulation, indicator organisms
Article published in number 3 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-3-068-074
Chemical composition of the surface water in the Ob River
Section: Chemistry of natural environments and objects
The Ob River is a multifunctional water body used for fishery purposes, shipping, irrigation, recreation and drinking water supply. The research on the river water quality related to the assessment of ecological state and studying the regularities of chemical composition dynamics is topical nowadays. The paper presents the results of investigation of the hydrochemical composition (major ions: Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, SO42–, Cl–,F–
, nutrients: N, P, Si and trace elements: Li, Be, B, Al, Ti, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Mo, Cd, Ba, Pb, Fe, Mn) of the Ob River water near the city of Barnaul. The study was performed by Chemical-Analytical Center, Institute for Water and Environmental Problems of Siberian Branch RAS. The content of ions PO43–, Si, and COD (chemical oxygen consumption) was determined using a DR-2800 Hach Lange spectrophotometer, while the mineral composition, NH4+, NO2–, NO3– ions – with a Dionex ICS-3000 ion chromatograph. The concentration of trace elements was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) on an ICAP-Qc spectrometer. The dynamics of elements content in the Ob water was determined in different
hydrological seasons of 2018. The river water is enriched by major ions and nutrients due to increased runoff of more mineralized groundwater in winter. Based on the factor analysis, we revealed three main groups of components, which differ in content and spatial distribution within the Ob surface water. In addition, we made the assessment of water pollution and revealed the excess of MAC for fishing waters in organic matter content (COD), Al, Ti, Cu, Fe and Mn.
Keywords: the Ob River, surface water, hydrochemical characteristics, biogenic elements, trace elements
Article published in number 3 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-3-096-102
Reduction of technogenic geochemical fluxes during the operation of a polymineral deposit in the Far Eastern Region
N.P. Кhrunina, A.Yu. Cheban
Section: Ecologization of industry
Heavy metal oxides are potentially highly reactionary capable and cytotoxic. They cause direct DNA damage and decrease viability of the cells of a living organism. To ensure environmental safety impacts that accompany processing gold-bearing sands deposits, studies of microelement, phase and grain-size composition of rocks have been carried out. There are established elements prevailing by mass: phosphorus, lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, barium, zirconium, chromium, strontium, as well as clay minerals, complicating the process of selecting valuable components. The revealed
combination of mineral components has a high migration ability and toxicity.
It is developed the technology reducing operations of leaching and hydrometallurgical processing. The complex of tools allows you to effectively select valuable components by hydrodynamic and cavitation impact on the clay component. As a result of the implementation of the technology, dispersion fluxes and subsequent geochemical anomalies, the costs of monitoring residual concentrations of strong polyelectrolytes and systematic toxicological assessment will be significantly reduced. The developed technology includes new installations that ensure the destruction of the clay component through ultrasonic and cavitation, hydroacoustic or hydrodynamic effects.
Article published in number 3 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-3-128-134
Using digital maps to identify areas of mass development of phytoplankton in small freshwater reservoirs
Т.I. Kutyavina, V.V. Rutman, Т.Ya. Аshikhmina
Section: Methodology and research methods. Models and forecasts
Based on the results of field observations and interpretation of space images, the authors of the article have analyzed
the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of phytoplankton development in four reservoirs of the Kirov region
(Russia) from 2015 to 2021. Characteristic features of reservoirs are high color and turbidity of water, high content of
organic substances in water. To identify areas of mass development of phytoplankton, the authors calculated four spectral
vegetation indices. These are the normalized difference algoindex (NDAI), the normalized difference vegetation index
(NDVI), the chlorophyll a concentration index (TBDO) and the normalized difference turbidity index (NDTI). The
initial data for the calculation were satellite images from the Sentinel-2 satellite, posted on the resource EarthExplorer
(U.S. Geological Survey). Based on the results of the calculation of spectral indices in the QGIS software product, the
authors built digital maps of the studied reservoirs. They noted that phytoplankton developed mainly in coastal shallow
areas of reservoirs. The mass development of algae and cyanobacteria was most often observed in July and August. This
is typical for reservoirs of temperate zone. The most intense “blooming” of water was in July and August 2016, 2018,
2020 and 2021. At the same time, the following species dominated in phytoplankton samples: Anabaena lemmermannii
P.G. Richter, A. spiroides Klebahn, A. planctonica Brunnthaler, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae Ralfs ex Bornet & Flahault.
Keywords: reservoir, eutrophication, phytoplankton, cyanobacteria, remote sensing of the Earth, spectral indices
Article published in number 2 for 2022 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2022-2-035-041
Forest carbon offsets in Russia: current legal infrastructure
Y.M. Gordeeva, I.E. Vedernikova
Section: Ecology and climate change
Achieving “climate neutrality” (or “net-zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions”) remains as one of the most relevant targets worldwide. Yet, today, when countries implement the Paris Agreement into their national legal systems, important practical questions arise and call for solutions both at the international and national levels. For the Russian Federation, the role of forests in achieving “carbon neutrality”, the creation of conditions in the country for increasing the absorption of GHGs by forests, the implementation of forest climate projects (FCP) in the country and the recognition at the international level of the results achieved by such projects ‒ are of particular significance. The purpose of this study is to analyze the state of the current legal infrastructure in the Russian Federation on the implementation of the FCP. Such projects serve as a supplementary tool for achieving “carbon neutrality”, i. e. they only help to offset those GHG emissions that cannot be avoided by technological solutions. At the international level, the popularity and the number of such projects are growing, as well as prices for emission reduction units (ERUs) issued during the implementation of such projects in international carbon markets are rising. Paradoxically, in the Russian Federation, despite the colossal absorbing potential of forests, tundra, agricultural lands, there is almost no CFP. The study identifies legal issues that (up until now) have been holding back a more active implementation of the CFP in the country, and proposes solutions that, in the opinion of the authors, may contribute to the launch of an entire “industry” of the CFP in the Russian Federation in the future.