Modeling of the vertical structure of shade trees in cacao agroforestry systems
B. Sánchez-Díaz, L. Ríos-Rodas, A. Sol-Sanchez, A. del Rosario Fraire-Vazquez, J. del Carmen Geronimo-Torres, R. Solís-Silvan
Section: Methodology and research methods. Models and forecasts
Cacao agrosystems can provide available habitats for wildlife species, due to the structure and diversity of established shade trees in plantations. The objective of this research is to calculate the index of importance and forest value of shade trees used in cacao agrosystems. Field sampling was carried out to collect data on breast height diameter, canopy diameter and canopy height, these variables were used to estimate the importance value index and the forest value index. The trees
with the best indexes of importance and forest value are Erythrina americana (IVI = 62.34 and FVI = 50.94), Bursera simaruba (IVI = 62.53 and FVI = 66.99) and Samanea saman (IVI = 56, 85 and FVI = 42.93). The vertical structure of cacao agrosystems is important since it could be used as an input variable to evaluate and predict, through an ecological niche model, the quality of the available habitat for the conservation of wildlife such as birds, reptiles and arboreal mammals.
Keywords: biodiversity conservation, canopy height, Forest value index
Article published in number 1 for 2023 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-1-028-037
Atmospheric air monitoring in the area of enterprises for the disposal of hazardous industrial waste
Section: Monitoring of natural and anthropogenically disturbed areas
Based on the materials of engineering and environmental surveys for the design of an industrial and technical complex (ITC) for the processing, disposal and neutralization of waste of I and II hazard classes ‘‘Mirny’’, an analysis of the calculated emissions of pollutants into the atmospheric air was made, the list of which includes 49 substances of various chemical nature and degree of danger. The pollutants were ranked according to the magnitude of the hazard criterion of these substances, taking into account their toxicity and volumes of emissions into the atmosphere. According to the data received, it is recommended to include 22 priority indicators in the program of environmental monitoring of atmospheric air. In addition to general industrial pollutants (oxides of sulfur, nitrogen, carbon, suspended solids), they include specific pollutants characteristic of enterprises for the disposal and disposal of hazardous industrial waste – these are dioxins, benzo[a]pyrene, oxides of cadmium, copper, nickel, lead, aluminum, zinc, iron(III), mercury, as well as ammonia, gaseous fluorine compounds, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen cyanide. It is proposed to include snow cover monitoring and indicators of biota response to technogenic atmospheric impact into the atmospheric air monitoring program. A map-scheme of the network has been developed and a regulation for conducting environmental monitoring of atmospheric air has been proposed.
Keywords: atmospheric air monitoring, utilization and neutralization of industrial waste, priority pollutants
Article published in number 1 for 2023 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-1-038-046
Bioprotection of wood from microbial damage (review)
A review and analysis of literature data on the use of biological methods in the protection of wood from the action of wood-destructing microorganisms has been carried out. Antagonist microbes such as cyanobacteria, bacilli and micromycetes of g. Trichoderma play an important role in protecting wood from destruction. Their antagonistic activity against biodegrading microbes is associated with the synthesis of volatile and nonvolatile antibiotics, lipoproteins and hydrolase enzymes that destroy certain components of cells of wood-destructing microbes or disrupt their metabolic processes.
Many natural compounds of vegetable (essential oils, tannins, extractive substances of wood) and animal origin (propolis, chitosan) have great potential in the bioprotection of wood from biodamage, due to their unique natural composition, which leads to disruption of the vital activity of destructor microbes. The advantages of natural compounds over synthetic antiseptics are their renewability, cost-effectiveness of obtaining from waste, non-toxicity and environmental friendliness. Disadvantages that limit the use of natural antiseptics are high heterogeneity depending on the source from which they are obtained, easy leaching, uneven activity against certain fungal species, high susceptibility to biodegradation. Some of these shortcomings can be overcome by combining organic biocides with other wood preservatives.
A brief review of the literature data shows that, along with chemical methods of protecting wood from biodamage, it is advisable to use biological methods, which, although inferior in efficiency to the first, do not have a harmful effect on the environment. The combined use of synthetic and natural antiseptics can be especially effective.
Keywords: wood, biodamage, biosecurity, antiseptics of microbial, plant and animal origin
Article published in number 1 for 2023 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-1-006-015
Compost from chicken manure as a source of antibiotic resistance of soil actinomycetes
The development of poultry farming is accompanied by a significant increase in the volume of chicken manure produced and its concentration in storage areas, which leads to environmental pollution. The traditional form of manure disposal is its use as an organic fertilizer. The high content of organic matter and mineral nutrition elements in compost prepared on the basis of chicken manure improves the soil structure and promotes soil fertility. However, due to the widespread use of antibiotics in poultry farming, fertilizers based on bird droppings can affect the antibiotic resistance of the soil and, as a result, contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance among clinically significant microorganisms. In this regard, it is relevant to assess the effect of fresh and fermented chicken manure on the antibiotic resistance of the soil used in agricultural production. This paper presents the results of a comparative study of the spectra of resistance to a certain set of antibiotics and the frequency of occurrence of antibiotic–resistant strains among typical soil bacteria – actinomycetes. Actinomycete cultures were isolated from compost based on chicken manure and sod-podzolic soil: after fertilization with compost, during its storage (under the burt) and background, not in contact with bird droppings or compost. Groups of antibiotics have been identified, the resistance to which has increased statistically significantly as a result of using compost based on chicken manure – tetracyclines, rifampicins and quinolones.
Article published in number 1 for 2023 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-1-101-109
Extraction of copper and zinc ions from wastewater by a sorbent based on chitosan
E.A. Tatarintseva, O.A. Arefieva, L.N. Olshanskaya, A.A. Petrov, F. Bugerara
Section: Ecologization of industry
The aim of this work was to obtain sorption magnetic materials based on ferritized galvanic sludge, thermally expanded graphene oxide, and chitosan for the removal of heavy metal ions (Cu2+, Zn2+) from aqueous media. Thermally expanded graphene oxide was obtained by electrochemical oxidation of graphite followed by hydrolysis and heat treatment at 900 оС. Ferritized iron-containing galvanic sludge was obtained by deposition by successive acid-base treatment from an aqueous suspension of galvanic sludge followed by heat treatment at 900 оС for 1.5 h. Methods for forming a magnetic composite sorbent by introducing ferritized galvanic sludge simultaneously with thermally expanded graphene oxide are considered. The resulting sorbent has the form of grains with a particle size of 2–3 mm, which have magnetic properties (≈ 0.02 T). The composition of the resulting sorption material is characterized using the IR spectroscopy method. Functional groups (primary amino and hydroxyl groups), that are capable of coordinating with various metal ions or participating in ion exchange have been determined. Studies of sorption with respect to zinc and copper(II) ions were carried out under static conditions during their extraction from model wastewater solutions. The maximum sorption capacity of the sorbent for Cu2+ ions was 6.9±0.1 mmol/g, for Zn2+ ions – 2.6±0.01 mmol/g. Sorption isotherms of Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions by the developed sorption material belong to type I according to the IUPAC classification, which is compiled on the basis of the classical classification of adsorption–desorption isotherms of Brunauer, Deming, Deming and Teller (BDDT classification), this type is typical for adsorption with the formation of a monolayer on a porous solid body.
Keywords: sorbents, water treatment, heavy metal ions, graphene oxide, magnetosorbents, industrial waste
Article published in number 1 for 2023 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-1-148-153
Influence of industrial emissions from heat power engineering enterprises on the absorption of solar radiation in the atmosphere
V.A. Kuzmin, I.A. Zagrai, N.A. Shmakova
Section: Ecology and climate change
The paper evaluates the effect of emissions from heat power engineering enterprises on the absorption of radiation in the atmosphere through the calculation of absorption coefficients and absorption functions of combustion products during flaring of solid fuels (coal and peat) in the furnace of BKZ-210-140F steam boiler. The chemical composition of the gas phase and condensed phase particles were used to calculate the absorption coefficients at a temperature of 300 K and the spectral range of 0.4–14 μm, as well as the absorption functions at layer thicknesses of 5 and 10 m. The presence of ash particles makes a significant contribution to the absorption of solar radiation by combustion products in the transparency windows of the gas phase.In the absence of a flue gas purification system for the optical range (0.4–0.78 μm), absorption can be up to 20% during flaring of coal and up to 46% during flaring of peat. For the atmospheric transparency window of 7.5–14 μm, the absorption function of combustion products takes values from 73 to 100% during flaring of coal and from 64 to 100% during flaring of peat. The largest optical thickness in terms of the absorption coefficients of gas phase is accounted for the components H2O and CO2, which make the main contribution to the creation of the greenhouse effect.
Keywords: atmosphere, greenhouse effect, flaring of coal and peat, combustion products, gas phase, ash particles, absorption coefficient, absorption function
Article published in number 1 for 2023 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-1-170-178
Environmental protection during mining in the Arctic: legal aspects
Section: Social ecology
The article discusses the main aspects of environmental protection and legal regulation of mining operations in the Russian Arctic regions, as required by Russian legislation and international conventions. The work highlights the distinctive legal, economic and environmental aspects of the Arctic region. Moreover, it points out that the minerals and raw materials base of the Arctic is the foundation of the Russian economy. The author focused on issues within the Constitution of the Russian Federation, that officially authorizes ownership of the subsoil. It is found that extractive industries often cause damage to the Arctic environment. Major environmental disasters, their consequences and possible measures to prevent them were also analyzed. For example, the criterion of proportionality in the extraction of
natural resources, preventive measures, environmental monitoring, improvement of the legal framework, etc. And the special role of the increasing number of environmental disasters is also mentioned. We propose that property liability measures for extractive companies in violating environmental and economic requirements should be stricter. However, extractive commercial organizations must be granted a subsoil license in accordance with Federal Law No. 2395-I of 21 February 1992 “On Subsoil”. Accordingly, it is necessary to replace the auction with a tender-based bidding process in the above-mentioned law. The author has pointed out that an important element in the protection and conservation of the environment is the development of the activities of native minorities of the North as custodians of the Russian Arctic. It draws the conclusion stating the necessity of proposing the passage of a comprehensive law “On environmental protection in the extraction of mineral resources within the Arctic of the Russian Federation”, taking into account the existing international conventions and the Russian Constitution, its structure is defined.
Keywords: Arctic, license for the use of mineral resources, economic activity, subsoil, ecology, subjects
Article published in number 1 for 2023 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-1-179-185
Accumulation of polyarenes in higher plants of hummock peatlands in the southern and northern tundra
E.V. Yakovleva, D.N. Gabov
Section: Chemistry of natural environments and objects
We studied the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in plants of the background hummock peatlands in the southern (Vorkuta district, Komi Republic) and northern (Nenets Autonomous District) tundra. PAHs in plants were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. We used ASE–350 Accelerated Solvent Extraction System (Dionex Corporation, USA) to extract PAHs from samples. Totally, 11 individual PAH structures were found in the plant samples studied. Low molecular weight PAHs were prevalent in all studied plants. The highest content of PAHs was found in plants at site 2, southern tundra; the lowest - at site 2 northern tundra. In the plants of the southern tundra, an increased content of 2-3-ring polyarenes was detected, that was possibly caused by long-distance transport from the Vorkuta industrial agglomeration. In plants from the Barents Sea coast, we revealed an increase in mass fraction of high molecular PAHs of biopedogenic origin, which were accumulated by plants from the peat waters. For sedges and cotton grasses, an increased content of benz[k]fluoranthene and benz[a]pyrene has been detected. This fact may be associated with the active root uptake of polyarenes characteristic of herbaceous plants. The results of the cluster analysis showed that the polyarenes content of the plants was determined both by their species composition and by the geographical location of the study sites. The clustering of different plant species from different sites indicates the background concentrations of PAHs, which are maintained by plants under natural conditions without anthropogenic impact. Based on these studies, background concentrations of PAHs in different species of peatland plants have been proposed, which can be used for monitoring PAH pollution in mire ecosystems of the north.
Section: Chemistry of natural environments and objects
Soils are the largest reservoir of organic carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. However, current estimates of pools of soil organic carbon (SOC) are characterized by the wide variations of obtained values. So, there is a requirement for upgrading of SOC calculation techniques. One of the ways is an evaluation of mean SOC for separate soil group or type of vegetation. The aim of this work is to determine mean SOC dependence on soil group and dominant tree species for forest ecosystems of Krasnoyarsk Region. Calculations were carried out for next layers of mineral soil: 0–30 cm (reference layer
FAO), 0–50 cm (root zone) and 0–100 cm (concentrates the most SOC of soil profile) that didn’t include carbon stocks in forest litter. Estimates of the mean SOC were made according to our own research data obtained near ZOTTO (Zotino Tall Tower Observatory) and the results of soil descriptions given in the literature for the forests of the Krasnoyarsk Region. Higher concentration of carbon (24±6 kg/m2) was observed in Phaeozems but Albic Podzols contained the lowest stock of SOC (6.2±0.7 kg/m2). It was found that belonging to a certain soil group had a statistically significant effect on carbon stocks in all analyzed layers. Most of the SOC is concentrated in the 0–50 cm layer, which contains the bulk of plant roots. The type of dominant tree species is not a statistically significant factor in determining SOC. The values we have calculated can be considered as the basis for creating a database for subsequent estimates of SOC in the forests of the Krasnoyarsk Region.
Keywords: soil carbon, boreal forests, Krasnoyarsk Region
Article published in number 1 for 2023 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-1-067-074
Statistical analysis of the relationship between heavy metal accumulation and plants biochemical responses in the urban area
A.S. Petukhov, T.A. Kremleva, N.A. Khritokhin, G.A. Petukhova
Section: Chemistry of natural environments and objects
This study is devoted to heavy metal accumulation (Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Co, Cr) in soils and coltsfoot leaves
from the industrial area of Tyumen impact on biochemical parameters of plants. Regression and factor analysis were
conducted using data of heavy metal concentration in coltsfoot, heavy metals mobile and acid-soluble fraction in soils,
and biochemical parameters (concentration of photosynthetic pigments, lipid peroxidation products, phenols, flavonoids,
activity of catalase and peroxidase). Samples were collected during 2017–2020 in Tyumen at areas with different pollution level (n = 28). Regression analysis established equations linking photosynthetic pigments content with Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn concentration in soils and coltsfoot. Phenolic antioxidants negatively correlate with Cu and Mn content in plants. Regression equations allow predicting Fe, Zn, and Cu concentration in coltsfoot by its content in the soil. Factor analysis revealed photosynthetic pigments to be the most important biochemical parameter in plants adaption to heavy
metal accumulation. Probably, this is due to plants’ elevated need in energy in polluted conditions. According to factor
analysis, Pb accumulation in plants contributes the most to the biochemical change. Cd and Pb concentration in soil
mostly conditions plants stress from heavy metal soil pollution.
Keywords: heavy metals, soils, plants, photosynthesis, antioxidants, urban area
Article published in number 1 for 2023 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-1-083-092