Monitoring of persistent organic pollutants in commercial fish in the Russian Arctic
Yu.I. Varakina, A.S. Aksenov, D.E. Lakhmanov, T.Yu. Sorokina, L.F. Popova
Section: Population ecology
The manuscript discusses the results of the analysis of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in commercial fish species (atlantic salmon Salmo salar, rainbow smelt Osmerus dentex Steindachner et Kner, herring Clupea sp., arctic char Salvelinus alpinus) living in the waters of the Nenets Autonomous Okrug (NAO) and used in the diet nutrition of the inhabitants of the Russian Arctic. This study lays the foundation for monitoring of POPs, taking into accounts the possible risks and norms of daily consumption of traditional foods that affect human health in the Arctic. The authors determined the temporal trends in the content of POPs in Arctic fish species, as well as analyzed and compared published data on the content of POPs in traditional food. In the studied fish samples, p,p’-DDE, PCB 153 and hexachlorobenzene dominated among POPs, which corresponds to the trends in the accumulation of organic pollutants in Arctic hydrobionts. The total content of POPs in atlantic salmon, herring, arctic char and rainbow smelt was 15,01; 7,89; 2,38;
2,02 ng/g wet weight, respectively, which is tens to hundreds times lower than the established standard values. For all fish species, in the amount of at least 7 samples, the DDE/DDT ratio was high, which indicates early DDT contamination of fish habitats. Atlantic salmon and herring are the most contaminated fish species in the entire list of studied compounds. A decrease of POPs concentration in the studied fish species was noted in comparison with earlier studies conducted in similar areas. Despite the large amount of fish in the diet of peoples from the NAO, no significant risks have been identified. However, it was found that the level of PCBs in concentrations below the MPC carries a potential risk of cancer, especially with long-term consumption of atlantic salmon more than 45 g/day by the local population in one of the settlements of the NAO.
Section: Chemistry of natural environments and objects
This article discusses the issues of air pollution with formaldehyde and the impact of this pollutant on the health of the population of the city of Lipetsk. The study revealed patterns of increase in the concentration of formaldehyde in the warm season (May–September). In the daily dynamics of concentrations, peak values occur during daytime and evening hours, which is associated with the cumulative effect of pollution and traffic congestion in the evening rush hour. The minimum values are recorded in the cold season and in the morning hours. The morning “rush hour” does not affect the concentrations as the sampling takes place earlier. It has been established that meteorological conditions influence the concentration of formaldehyde. An increase in air temperature correlates with an increase in the concentration of formaldehyde, especially in the daytime and evening hours, which is explained by increased solar insolation and warming of the atmospheric air. An increase in wind strength and air humidity, on the contrary, reduces the content of pollutants in the air. An assessment of the impact of formaldehyde on the health of the population, associated with the presence of a carcinogen in the atmosphere, showed that the city of Lipetsk is characterized by the maximum acceptable risk. The individual carcinogenic risk for the Traktorny District and areas near busy highways (the Ring of the Pipe Plant intersection) is 6 · 10-5. This level of risk is assessed as the maximum acceptable. In these areas, the presence of formaldehyde in the air can provoke 5–6 additional cases of oncological diseases per year. Such values require monitoring and implementation of measures to reduce the negative impact.
Keywords: air pollution, formaldehyde, carcinogenic risks, meteorological conditions, atmosphere
Article published in number 2 for 2023 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-2-073-079
The effects of clear cutting on the biodiversity of middle taiga blueberry spruce forests in the North-East of European Russia
Section: Monitoring of natural and anthropogenically disturbed areas
The article discusses the biodiversity dynamics of the components of secondary plant communities grown after winter clear cutting in the series of restoration of blueberry spruce forests in the bioclimatic conditions of the middle taiga subzone. For every succession stage (1(2)-year-old, 17(18)-year-old and 49(50)-year-old secondary communities and primary forest), about 20 descriptions (81 in total) were done. The authors separately describe the plant communities of forests swaths, skidding trails in cutting strip and main skid roads. On the basis of the obtained results, we determined species richness and biodiversity indices separately for tree, shrub, herb-dwarf shrubby, and moss layers.
Industrial logging has been found to have an extremely negative impact on the species richness of forest species which absolutely disappear (especially stenobionts), decrease in abundance and constancy. In secondary communities on the territory of forest swaths and skidding trails, we fixed a decrease in biodiversity in the tree, shrub and moss layers and an increase in the herb-dwarf shrubby layer due to invasion of meadow, edge, and peatland species against a decrease in the abundance of species normally dominating in forest ecosystems. At heavily disturbed areas of the cutting area (main trails), secondary communities increase in both the total species richness and biodiversity at any layer except for the woody layer. The recorded increase in values happens due to formation of communities of very active species from different ecologic and cenotic groups. The floristic composition of the disturbed forest phytocenosis does not recover in fifty years after the anthropogenic impact.
Keywords: biodiversity, succession, clearcutting, middle taiga, European North-East of Russia
Article published in number 2 for 2023 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-2-056-065
Ecological, biological and morphological features of the causative agent of trichinosis in the Kirov Region and optimization of control measures
O.B. Zhdanova, I.I. Okulova
Section: Population ecology
Trichinellosis is one of the most dangerous zoonosis. The analysis of different methods of prevention in helminthology indicates an increasing attention to such zoonotic diseases as trichinellosis in the World and Russia. Wild animals as a source of infection play the leading role in human infection. The task of present work is diagnostics, prevention of helminthozoonosis and improved monitoring and surveillance of the dissemination of trichinellosis. Practical application of expertise of meat and meat products from hunter’s trophies allows preventing infection of human and domestic animals with dangerous zoonosis. The article considers the influence of low temperatures, and the improvement of the fight against trichinosis in the northern territories. The index and shape of the capsule of trichinella in carnivores have differences. Apparently, these features are due to the peculiarities of parasite-host relationships and differences in the morphology of muscle tissue myosymplasts in various animals, and are species-specific for the host animals of trichinella.
The conducted studies confirm the effectiveness of the combination of methods of compressor trichinoscopy and
digestion in the artificial gastric juice for postmortem diagnosis of trichinosis of wild animals. When comparing these methods, it was found that the method of digestion in artificial gastric juice is more sensitive compared to compressor trichinoscopy, but it is less effective in detecting dead trichinella. New technologies for disinfection of carcasses and residual muscle mass after hides have been milled have also been developed for mechanical harvesting stations; for this, special refrigerating chambers and solutions of disinfectants have been proposed. Trichinella of the northern territories are more resistant to low temperatures, therefore, disinfection modes should be increased (both temperature and exposure time). So, for example, if pork is frozen at a temperature of -15 oC, and according to the recommendation of the International Commission on Trichinosis, it is necessary to keep the meat for at least 3–4 weeks, and carcasses of wild animals should be frozen for at least 3 weeks at a temperature of less than -20 oC.
Article published in number 2 for 2023 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-2-164-171
Improving the efficiency of biological treatment of industrial wastewater as part of urban wastewater
Section: Ecologization of industry
The article presents the results of studies of treatment of industrial wastewater as a part of urban wastewater. A biosorption method using powdered activated carbon was used as a method to increase the efficiency of biological purification. The research was carried out on a pilot plant consisting of four tanks simulating the operation of an aerotank. In each series of experiments, wastewater, activated sludge and special solutions simulating industrial effluents of different origin were added in equal proportions to the tank. Based on the presented results, an assessment of the effectiveness of biological wastewater treatment in the presence of powdered activated carbon with a different content of industrial effluents in the composition of urban wastewater was carried out. At the concentration of coal in the tank 0.1 g/dm3 efficiency of wastewater treatment of simulated effluent from the food industry on the generalized indicator “chemical oxygen demand’’ was 67.9%, and the efficiency of treatment of wastewater containing petroleum products reached 95.5%.
Article published in number 2 for 2023 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-2-096-103
Potential of three plant species for phytoremediation of oil-contaminated soils in northern conditions
Section: Remediation and rehabilitation
The aim of this work was to assess the potential of three plant species (Brassica juncea L., Trifolium repens L., Agrostis stolonifera L.) for phytoremediation of oil-contaminated soils. The germination time of seeds and their survival rate after sowing into the model oil-contaminated soil were found. The influence of the procedure of encapsulation of seeds in alginate gel was assessed. Green manure plants seeds are preferably added after 30 days of self-cleaning of the soil due to the absence of a continuous oil film and restoration of air exchange. Brassica juncea L. was found to have the shortest germination time, at the same time the encapsulation of seeds in a polymeric complex increased the time for the development of vegetative organs. The encapsulation of T. repens L. and A. stolonifera L. seeds in alginate gels, on the contrary, reduced the germination time. A. stolonifera was also found to be more drought-resistant. It was concluded that the use of an auxiliary gel coat is most effective for small plant seeds and increases the survival rate on oil-contaminated soil.
The contribution of the green manure plants root rhizosphere to the processes of biochemical transformation of oil was assessed by comparing such diagnostic indicators of the state of the soil as the activity of dehydrogenase and urease. The dehydrogenase activity in all versions of the experiment was higher than in the oil-free soil. Moreover, for T. repens and A. stolonifera the values were 20–25% higher than in the contaminated soil without plants. The urease activity also increased, however, in the experiments with plants it was less than in the control experiment with the oil. In general, the selected plants can act as green manures for the accelerated formation of phytomass and restoration of species diversity on the recultivation territories.
Article published in number 2 for 2023 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-2-120-125
Status of coenopopulations of legumes (Fabaceae) on steppe pastures of the Altai Republic
N.A. Karnaukhova, G.K. Zvereva
Section: Population ecology
The influence of grazing on the species of the Fabaceae family in the steppe communities of the Altai Republic was studied. It was found that on the steppe pastures of the middle mountains, there is a wide manifestation of signs of pasture digression, which mainly indicate the presence of intensive grazing of farm animals. The participation of leguminous plants in living aboveground phytomass in emerging transitional communities ranges from 25–50% in meadow steppes to 5–28% in real ones and up to 11–17% in desertified cenoses, which is largely determined by the peculiarities of their adaptation to pasture load and to natural and climatic factors. Under the influence of intensive grazing on the steppe pastures of the Altai Republic, accelerated aging and a decrease in the productivity of the aboveground mass are observed in most legume species. Enhanced grazing negatively affects both the morphometric parameters of all studied species and the ontogenetic structure of their coenopopulations. The degree of resistance to anthropogenic impact of each species is largely determined by its belonging to a particular life form and its lability. The least resistant to grazing and mowing were long-shoot caudex perennials, which are found only in the initial stages of herbage suppression, since with regular alienation of shoots they do not form seeds and quickly fall out of the herbage. Rhizomatous (Medicago falcata, Astragalus tibetanus) species can be kept in communities in the absence of seed renewal. Semi-rosette (Astragalus austrosibiricus, Hedysarum gmelinii) and rosette (Astragalus laguroides, A. testiculatus, A. dilutus, Gueldenstaedtia monophylla, Oxytropis pumila) tap-rooted perennials are capable of restoring cenopopulations after cessation of pasture load due to renewal
buds remaining on perennial parts of the caudex. When growing conditions change (temporary cessation or reduction of pasture load, good moisture), adaptive reactions are activated aimed at the rapid growth of shoots after the removal of the negative factor.
Article published in number 2 for 2023 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-2-172-180
Spatio-temporal changes of macrophytobenthos in coastal landscapes at Cape Kosa Severnaya (Sevastopol)
T.V. Pankeeva, N.V. Mironova
Section: Monitoring of natural and anthropogenically disturbed areas
Using a landscape approach, the paper presents for the first time the results of a comparative analysis of spatiotemporal changes in the macrophytobenthos, performed at Cape Kosa Severnaya for the period from 1964 to 2020 with landscape maps compiled by the authors. In addition, it describes the distribution of the bottom natural complexes (BNC) with key Black Sea phytocoenoses (Ericaria crinita, Gongolaria barbata и Phyllophora crispa). It was found that during this period a dramatic increase in the biomass of the phytocoenosiswas recorded in the BNC block-boulder bench with dominance of E. crinita, while the proportion of its edificator remained high. The maximum contribution of epiphytic sinusia to biomass of algocoenosis over the entire study period was recorded in 2006. For the BNC upper shoreface slope consisting of coarse-grained deposits with dominance of E. crinita и G. barbata, an increase in phytocoenosis biomass was recorded only at the upper boundary during the study period. For the BNC of gently dipping accumulation plain consisting gravel-psammitic sediments with inclusion of shell fragments and dominance ofPhyllophora crispa, a catastrophic decline in the productivity of the phytocenosis and its edificator is typical. The total biomass of macrophytes decreased by more than an order of magnitude during the study period. It was found that over a span of 50 years, the plant components of bottom natural complexes at Cape Kosa Severnaya underwent significant restructuring and degradation due to natural factors and anthropogenic activity in the coastal zone. The high degree of preservation of indigenous phytocenoses, the presence of red book species (P. crispa and Stilophora tenella) allow us to recommend the site at the Cape Kosa Severnaya as a promising reserve.
Article published in number 2 for 2023 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-2-066-072
Zoobentos of the Severnaya Dvina River
M.A. Studenova, I.I. Studenov, D.V. Chupov
Section: Population ecology
The Northern Branch of All-Russian Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography (FSBNU VNIRO) began comprehensive research on zoobenthos in the mainstream of the Severnaya Dvina River in 1995. Systematic
studies of zoobenthos at the Severnaya Dvina River for the first time made it possible to obtain the most complete information about the taxonomic composition of the invertebrates, the number and frequency of taxons across different sections of the mainstream, the number and biomass of each taxon. As part of the zoobenthos for the entire study period (1995–2019), 20 taxons belonging to 6 types and 8 invertebrates classes were discovered. The average number of invertebrates taxons found in samples for the entire study period was 9 in the upper and middle parts of the mainstream of the Severnaya Dvina River, 8 in the lower parts, varying in significant ranges from 2 to 15 in different
years. Every year at all stations in the samples there were oligochaetes and larvae of chironomids (or lake flies), which dominated in frequency. The lowest frequency of occurrence (5.3% each) was found in the upper part of the mainstream of the Severnaya Dvina river for the larvaes of stoneflies and springtail, in the middle parts – 5.6% for gastropods, leeches, water bugs, beetle larvaes and turbellarians. In the lower part of the mainstream of the Severnaya Dvina water spiders, water bugs and beetle larvae were rarely found in samples (5.3% each). The number of invertebrates in the mainstream of the Severnaya Dvina River varied within very wide limits, averaging 3052 units/m2 for the entire observation period. The average biomass of invertebrates in the mainstream of the Severnaya Dvina rive amounted to 2.35 g/m2. The biomass base was also formed by oligochaetes and larvaes of chironomids. Obviously, interannual changes in the number and biomass of zoobenthos and changes in these parameters along the length of the river are more associated with the hydrological features of each year of observations in the Severnaya Dvina River and its largest tributaries than with the influence of human activity. Clarification of the relationship of hydrological parameters, and above all – the water content of the river year to year requires additional research.
Keywords: the Severnaya Dvina River, zoobenthos, abundance, biomass
Article published in number 2 for 2023 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-2-147-154
Spatio-temporal analysis of soil moisture in the experimental agricultural fields
D.S. Fomin, A.N. Chashchin
Studies of the spatial-temporal variability of the field soil moisture content of three experimental fields located in the Perm district of the Perm region were carried out. The experimental conditions were pure fallow. The purpose of the work is to perform a spatio-temporal analysis of soil moisture in experimental fields using mathematical-cartographic and remote sensing methods. Field soil moisture was measured by points placed taking into account the heterogeneity of the soil cover and topography conditions. Based on the measurements performed, maps of field soil moisture were created using the “Ordinary Kriging” geostatistical method, using the Geostatistical Analyst module of the ArcGIS 10.1 program. The assessment of the influence of the relief on the moisture was performed using the SRTM global digital elevation model. Indicators calculated were topographic humidity index and closed depressions. Based on the obtained geostatistical layers, the relationship between humidity and Sentinel 2 satellite data was established through the spectral index NDVI. For the initial and final dates of measurements, correlation coefficients 0.8 and 0.9 were obtained. The nature of dependence turned out to be changeable over