The article contains an analysis of physical and chemical changes in system of “humus substances – bentonite”,
which occurred in sludge and colloidal fractions of sod-podsolic light loamy soil during 3 years of interaction with bentonite
clay (Zyryan deposit) in the conditions of the agroecosystem (northern subzone of forests, Nizhny Novgorod region). The
3-year microfield experiment (2015–2017) has been conducted on the territory of Elitkhoz LLC in the Borsky municipal
district. Bentonite was added to the divisions (accounting area of each is 1 m2
) during July of 2014 in doses at rate of
3, 6 and 12 ton/ha, on which varieties of winter wheat, barley and seed peas adapted for the Volga-Viatka region were grown. Infrared analysis of soil colloidal component showed presence of new silicon-containing organomineral complexes
in studied samples, and identified types of chemical compounds directly indicate participation of silicon in their formation.
The use of bentonite contributed to preservation of natural content of humus in soil, which can also confirm presence of
silicon substances interaction of the rock (mono- and polysilicic acids, silicic-oxygen packets) with the organic part and,
as a result, to keep it from mineralization. The physicochemical effects of silicon substances imteraction with organic
substance of soil-absorbing complex described in work, leading to strengthening of elementary humus particles and
increasing their resistance to degradation, can be regarded as criteria for environmental stability of podzolic agrosoils
under conditions of using bentonites as meliorants of complex stabilizing effect.
Keywords: sod-podsolic light loamy soil, bentonite clay, spectroscopic infrared analysis, sludge and colloidal soil fractions, silicon-containing reaction-active centers, stabilization of organic substance, ecological stability of agroecosystem
Article published in number 1 for 2021 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-1-133-138
Effect of aerotechnogenic impact of pulp and paper production on the pigment complex of Scots pine
Section: Monitoring of natural and anthropogenically disturbed areas
Here we present the results of studying the effect of aerotechnogenic emissions of pulp and paper production of Mondi Syktyvkar JSC on the pigment system of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles in blueberry and lichen pine forests over a 25–year observation period. We conducted comparative analysis of the indicators of the pigment complex of the pine in background and impacted areas. In 1993––1995, aerotechnogenic pollution of the environment was 20–100 times higher in the area of strong impact compared to the background and had a negative impact on the Scots pine pigment complex. Pollutants were found to inhibit the synthesis of pigments. After the decrease in volume of industrial emissions in 2015 and 2018, several changes occurred in the pigment apparatus of pine needles in the impacted area. In view of a significant reduction in industrial emissions, chloroplasts demonstrated an increase in pigment content even in the area adjacent to the emission source. With a weakening technogenic impact (in the area of moderate contamination), the photosynthetic and respiration abilities of the needles do not undergo changes. This indicates that the basic processes of pine vital activity are stable, and its to the resistance to pollution.
Keywords: , pulp and paper industry, air pollution, pigments, needles, photosynthesis, respiration
Section: Methodology and research methods. Models and forecasts
We use the remote sensing data demanding appropriate processing and special mapping technolo-gies. A mathematical model of image processing is proposed, based on numerical optimization of a multi-parameter nonlinear function with linear constraints with respect to the standard, the latter be-ing set by the expert for the selected image at the beginning of processing. As the image, the satel-lite imagery data, obtained by the LandSat-5 satellite during 10 years since 1987, are used. The pa-rameters of the measuring function of the technical vision system, which also performs numerical measurements of the water body, are determined. Due to the multimodality of the objective func-tion, there can be variety of solutions. The expert keeps freedom in selecting a set of parameter val-ues. To determine a set of parameters for the measuring function of the technical vision system, we carry out "calculation of the lake area" and data collection. The data are processed by algebraic and statistical methods. The results of the study showed that the lake area increased by 2.5-3 qu.km. We suggest that one of the reasons of changing the lake area is tectonic activity.
Keywords: lake area, satellite image processing, Landsat 5, vision system, remote area measurement, modified descriptive image algebras.
Article published in number 1 for 2021 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-1-058-064
Mouse-modeled change in the toxicity of manganese(II) ions when using activated carbons
O.M. Plotnikova, A.V. Sharov
The content of manganese ions (Mn2+) in the rivers and lakes of the Kurgan region (Russia) reaches 3–6 mg/L, reaching 10 mg/L and more in winter, which is significantly higher than the permissible concentrations. The article presents the results of studying the effect of Mn2+ ions on the blood biochemical parameters of three generations of laboratory mice after drinking solutions containing Mn2+ ions (20 mg/L). In mice of the first generation, an increase in the products of lipid peroxidation (LPO) by 1.4 times was observed while the activity of aminotransferases decreased by 20–30% and carbonyl protein products (CPB) by 15–25%; in the 3rd generation, Mn2+ -induced protein oxidation increased, as the aldehyde and keto derivatives increased 1.4 and 1.7 times, aerobic processes of glycolysis were activated, which was accompanied by a decrease in lactate and glucose and an increase in urea.
The waviness of the effect of Mn2+ ions on chronic exposure is noted – the effect in the first and third generations is more intense than in the first.
And also assessed the possibility of using activated carbons obtained from birch wood (AC) for cleaning from water from excess Mn2+ ions. Synthesized in the course of the study, ACs are characterized by high adsorption activity: the specific surface area is 560 m2/g, the pore radius is 2–7 nm, the amount of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups is 0.8–0.9 mmol/g. The number of Mn2+ ions on the surface of the AC was 0.60 mmol/g (calculated from the adsorption isotherm of the manganese sludge solution). The biochemical blood parameters of mice were determined after oral administration of a solution containing Mn2 + ions (20 mg/L) and after oral administration at a dose of 7.5 μmol/g Mn2+ ions, as well as extracts from AU with adsorbed Mn2+ ions. The extract from AU with adsorbed Mn2+ ions increased lipid and protein oxidation products and the activity of aminotransferases 1.3–1,4 times, the amount of urea 1.7 times, and the solution in the maximum dose of Mn2 + - POL and reduced the level of keto-derived proteins.
The environment is polluted with orthophthalic acid esters (phthalates). There is a steady and generally accepted opinion that the reason for this is human production activities. The global annual production of phthalic esters is estimated at 4.9 million tons. It is believed that part of this amount enters in the environment as a harmful industrial pollutant and has an adverse effect on the health of the human population. However, from a large number of publications it is clear that phthalates, as natural metabolites, are also produced in living nature: bacteria, algae, fungi, plants and other organisms. Dibutyl phthalate and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate are the main ingredients among natural phthalic acid metabolites. The green cover of the planet simultaneously contains these substances many times more than their annual industrial production. The unicellate inhabitants of the oceans, soils, and other planetary spaces make a big contribution to the phthalates entering in the nature. The lifetime of phthalates in the environment is short and their long-term accumulation is impossible. The observed level of these pollutants in the environment is the result of a dynamic equilibrium process with the participation of natural biosynthesis and industrial production, on the one hand, and biota absorption and natural degradation, on the other. The proportion of biosynthesis and degradation in this equilibrium is seen to be predominant. Therefore, the recommended measures and efforts to limit the production and use of o-phthalic acid esters are of little use and make little sense. The observed level is supported by constant feeding from wildlife. Throughout human history, people have received and are receiving phthalates with plant foods without visible consequences. Their harmful effects on the health of the human population are exaggerated. And in the process of evolution, effective endogenous ways of detoxification have been developed.
Article published in number 1 for 2021 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-1-016-021
Changes in the amino acid composition of humic substances of podzolic soils during forest regeneration after harvest cutting
N.N. Bondarenko, Е.М. Lapteva
We studied how cuttings affects the amino acid composition of humic and fulvic acids isolated from the upper horizons of podzolic texture-differentiated soils. Amino acid fragments of the hydrolyzable part of humic acid macromolecules were identified and quantified in soils of spruce bilberry forest and different aged deciduous forests, forming during the post-cutting succession in the middle taiga subzone. We found that mass fraction of amino acids in the humic acids isolated from podzolic horizons of cutting places was higher than that in the intact bilberry spruce forest. In fulvic acids, an increase of the proportion of amino acids was found in the organogenic horizons only at the initial stages of reforestation. The regularities of changes in the amino acid composition of humic substances in the relative molar fractions of identified amino acid groups (acidic, basic, neutral polar and nonpolar) were revealed at different stages of the reforestation after cuttings of blueberry spruce forests. Initial stages of forest regeneration are characterized by a decrease in the ratio of hydroxyamino acids to heterocyclic acids, which indicates a depressed state of the zoomicrobial complex as a result of contemporary waterlogging of podzolic soils. Fulvic acids react most sensitively to changes in the synthesis and destruction of soil organic matter under forest regeneration through a change of species, which is characterized by the largest shifts in the ratio of the molar fractions of both individual amino acids and amino acid groups in the composition of their hydrolysates as a whole.
Keywords: cuttings, different aged deciduous forests, podzolic soils, humic and fulvic acids, amino acid composition.
Article published in number 1 for 2021 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-1-126-132
Anthropogenic transformation of the landscapes of Southwestern Crimea in the vicinity of Balaklava for the period from 1836 to 2017
I.V. Agarkova-Lyakh, A.M. Lyakh
Section: Monitoring of natural and anthropogenically disturbed areas
Opencast mining is accompanied by the destruction of landscapes. Based on cartographic materials, satellite data and field studies, landscape maps of the Balaklava vicinities in the southwestern part of the Crimean Peninsula have been compiled, where flux limestone mining has been carried out since the 30s of the last century. The analysis of landscape maps for the period from 1836 to 2017 showed that active technogenic activity has led to a radical replacement of natural landscapes by human-made. From 1836 to 2017 the area of natural landscapes has decreased more than two times and constitutes 37,9% of the investigated territory. They are represented by petrophytic steppes, juniper woodland and shiblyak forest.
At present, anthropogenic landscapes occupy about 60% of the studied area. Their area increased more than five times from 1836 to 2017. In 1836 there were two classes of anthropogenic landscapes (residential and agricultural), in 1957 there were four classes (residential, agricultural, industrial and military), in 2017 there were seven classes (residential, agricultural, industrial, forest, water, recreational and military). Today, the largest areas (31%) are occupied by industrial landscapes.
Article published in number 1 for 2021 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-1-085-089
Comparative evaluation of biochemical composition of microalgae biomass Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus оbliquus
V.А. Lukyanov, S.Yu. Gorbunova, I.V. Gribovskaya
Section: Population ecology
A comparative evaluation of the productivity, biochemical, mineral and fatty acid composition of dry biomass of two green microalgae Ch. vulgaris and S. obliquus was carried out. Under these conditions of cultivation, no significant differences between the values of the maximum productivity of microalgae were found. After 72 hours of cultivation, the maximum density of Ch. vulgaris and S. obliquus increased by 10 times. The superiority of S. obliquus biomass quality in the following biochemical parameters was established: protein - 68.7%, lipids - 27.6% carotenoids - 0.096 mg/g. It has been shown that when growing the studied species of microalgae on the same Tamiya nutrient medium, their biomass had a sufficiently distinct mineral composition. It has been experimentally established that the nitrogen content in S. obliquus cells was by 2,5% higher than in Ch. vulgaris cells, herewith the concentration of phosphorus was almost the same. The sodium content in Ch. vulgaris biomass was twice as little as its quantity in S. obliquus; potassium was 3 times less. Calcium, sulfur, magnesium, iron had a higher content in Ch. vulgaris microalgae. The concentrations of Сr и Pb were higher in S. obliquus biomass. The difference in the quantitative composition of fatty acids of the studied objects has been established. In Ch. vulgaris biomass the following acids predominated (their content was more than 5%): 16:0 – 23,63%, 16:2ω4 – 6,37%, 18:0 - 18,57%, 18:2ω6 – 16,73%, 18:3ω3 – 5,46% and 24:0 – 5,46%; as far as S. оbliquus biomass is concerned the acids whose content was more than 5% were the following: 16:0 – 18,82%, 16:4ω3 - 9,82%, 18:1ω9 – 10,81%, 18:2ω6 - 21,54% and 18:3ω3 – 10,74%.
Section: Monitoring of natural and anthropogenically disturbed areas
The Tradescantia clone 02 stamen hair mutations (Trad-SHM) and Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) bioassays are two of the efficient and reliable biomonotory test systems for mutagenicity of air, water and soil polutans. The genotoxicity and clastogenicity of water samples collected from diferent sites of Razdan river were assessed by means of Trad-SHM and Trad-MCN assay using model test plant Tradescantia (clone 02). Here we report a significant increase in the level of somatic mutation (recessive mutation events – RME) and micronuclei (MN) in tetrads of pollen microspores frequency in the Tradescantia inflorescences exposed to the water samples of river compared to the background. The maximum manifestation of these genetic effects from both investigated bioassays was observed in Kievsky bridge water samples. A significant positive correlation between the somatic mutation events and MN with tetrads was revealed. These results indicate that Trad-SHM and Trad-MCN bioassays of the Tradescantia clone 02 can be applied for biotesting of water quality of river’s ecosystems.
Keywords: Tradescantia clone 02, biotesting, genotoxicity, clastogenicity, water pollution
Article published in number 1 for 2021 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-1-097-103
Microelemental composition of fluvioglacial sands as a factor of increased phytodiversity in the polissya landscapes
O.V. Shopina, N.G. Kadetov, I.N. Semenkov
Section: Chemistry of natural environments and objects
To determine the reasons for the presence of area with increased phytodiversity and resistance to fires within the Kerzhensky Reserve, in 2017, field works were carried out to analyse the characteristics of the flora and soils. Within the study area (less than 4.7 km2) 169 species of vascular plants (26% of the whole reserve flora and 69% of the species found in places burnt in 2010) were found including rare species for Zavolzhie: Cephalanthera rubra (L.) Rich., Gymnadenia conopsea (L.) R. Br., Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz, Kadenia dubia (Schkuhr) Lavrova et V. Tichomirov, Equisetum hyemale L., Trifolium montanum L. et al. In the study area, the share of eutrophs and xerophytes is 10 and 5% more than in the burnt area. The share of hygrophytes is 10% less. The high levels of phytodiversity and resistance to fires allow us to consider the surveyed (studied) area as a refuge in the period of fires and a source of subsequent spreading of species. The podzols of the studied site (13 cross-sections) are characterized by standard pH values, particle size and humus distribution, with the 1.5 to 2 times elevated content of microelements. According to the content in the A-horizon (n=13), microelements form a range: Zn (90–118 mg/kg)> Sr (82-101)> Ni (45). On the biogeochemical barrier in the A-horizon, Mn, Fe, Mg, As, Ca, P, Ti, Al, and K accumulate. In subordinate landscapes, Fe, Mn, Al, K, and As accumulate; Co and Cu dissipate. The content of Ca, K, Mg, P, Si, and Ti is similar in autonomous and subordinate landscapes. The high content of microelements results in the increased phytodiversity of the study area.