ISSN 1995-4301
(Print)

ISSN 2618-8406
(Online)

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1 issue of the journal in 2024

4 issue of the journal in 2023

3 issue of the journal in 2023

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Features of vegetation restoration on the dumps of spent minings of the Subpolar Urals

S.V. Degteva
Section: Monitoring of natural and anthropogenically disturbed areas
The results of long-term restoration of vegetation on the dumps of a spent gold mining in the Kozhim River basin (Circumpolar Urals) are presented. 25 years after the finishing of gold mining, only an small part of the industrial territories open groupings and unclosed plant communities are formed. Significant areas of dumps remained practically lifeless. Biodiversity increases over time up to 212 species for vascular plants and up to 27 species for bryophytes. The composition of plant groups and phytocenoses is characterized by significant variability. This is due not only to unfavorable environmental conditions, but also to the random introduction of seeds. Primary successions during the observation period did not occur according to the zonal type, although the appearance of the emerging vegetation was determined by species of natural flora.
Keywords: restoration of vegetation, disturbed territoties, Subpolar Urals.

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Article published in number 3 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-3-080-089
Views: 19

Hericium erinaceus BP16 as a source of polysaccharides stabilizing the functions of bulls spermatozoa during hypothermic storage

O.N. Solomina, M.I. Sergushkina, А.А. Shirokikh, T.V. Polezhaeva, I.G. Shirokikh, O.O. Zaitseva, A.N. Khudyakov
Section: Social ecology
The relevance of preserving the genetic resources of the animal and plant world necessitates the search for biologically active substances for the preservation of reproductive cells. Under conditions of hypothermic storage, the osmosis of the extracellular environment, stabilization of membranes and the structure of the cytoskeleton of cells can be provided by various sugars. Xylotrophic Basidiomycete Hericium erinaceus (Bull .: Fr.) Pers. is a source of polysaccharides with high biological activity. Residues of galactose, glucose, arabinose, mannose, fucose, rhamnose, xylose (in order of decreasing % content) were identified in the carbohydrate chains of the polysaccharide fraction (PP) of H. erinaceus BP 16. The effect of PP of different concentrations on the freezing of water in an aqueous solution of glycerin, as well as on the viability of spermatozoa of Holstein bulls under hypothermic (+ 4 °C) storage conditions, on the intensity of LPO processes and antioxidant activity, on the ability of gametes for progressive movement, on sperm resistance to hypoosmotic stress. In connection with the search for new effective components for preserving solutions, the data obtained in this work indicate the prospect of using the PP of H. erinaceus as a component to slow down the rate of ice crystallization in cell suspensions during freezing and as an antioxidant regulator of the functional usefulness of gametes during cooling
Keywords: Hericium erinaceus, polysaccharides, spermatozoa, refrigeration, hypo-thermal storage.

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Article published in number 3 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-3-212-218
Views: 6

Dynamics of fires in the northeast of the European part of Russia in the Holocene

N.M. Gorbach, I.N. Kutyavin, V.V. Startsev, A.A. Dymov
Section: Monitoring of natural and anthropogenically disturbed areas
The dynamics of fires in the middle taiga subzone in the northeast of the European part of Russia in the Holocene are presented. Peat soils (Histosols) on the territory of the Komi Republic have been investigated. Dendrochronological studies and assessment of the content of macroscopic charcoal particles in peat were carried out at the sites. Radiocarbon dating values were obtained, which allowed us to build models of the rate of vertical growth of peat deposits and identify time intervals with frequent fires. In the course of the work, it was revealed that the studied middle taiga landscapes of the Komi Republic (Mezensko-Vychegodskaya Plain, Severnye Uvaly, foothills of the Northern Urals) have a similar history of paleofires. The paper shows that the maximum content of macroscopic charcoal particles is observed in the lower peat horizons dating from the Boreal and Atlantic periods of the Holocene (10,200 to 4,500 years ago). The Subboreal period is characterized by a significantly lower number of forest fires compared to the Atlantic and Sub-Atlantic periods. The upper peat horizons, dating from the end of the Sub-Atlantic period, contain information about the increase in the frequency of fires at present time. Regularity has been revealed according to which during the warm periods of the Holocene, stable forms of carbon as a result of frequent fires were accumulated significantly more than during the cold periods.
Keywords: paleofires, Histosols, Holocene, boreal forests, charcoal

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Article published in number 3 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-3-104-110
Views: 12

Bacteria of the genera Acinetobacter and Ochrobactrum in the processes of bioremediation of oil-contaminated objects (review)

T.Yu. Korshunova, E.V. Kuzina, D.A. Sharipov, G.F. Rafikova
Section: Theoretical problems of ecology
The analysis of the existing system of surface water monitoring in Russia is carried out. The methodological and practical problems that arise when monitoring the surface water bodies of the country are identified. It is noted that in order to improve the monitoring system of water bodies in Russia, first of all, it is necessary to update existing monitoring programs, more widely use modern equipment, methods of remote sensing of the Earth and information technologies. The list of indicators to be assessed when monitoring water bodies should be compiled in accordance with the environmental characteristics and the nature of the use of the water body, taking into account new types of pollutants entering water ecosystems, the transformation of substances in the reservoir, the probability of secondary water pollution by biogenic elements and toxic substances as a result of diffusion from pore solutions of bottom sediments. The current issue is the regulation of the impact of various substances on the state of aquatic ecosystems. Possible solutions to this issue are the development of regional standards for assessing the state of water bodies, the transition from a hazard-based approach to a risk-based approach to normalizing the impact on water bodies.
Keywords: land surface water, surface water monitoring, monitoring program, state monitoring, impact rationing
Article published in number 3 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-2-013-021
Views: 26

The role of protected areas in the conservation of species diversity of butterflies (Lepidoptera, Papilionidea) in the Komi Republic

A.G. Tatarinov, O.I. Kulakova
Section: Population ecology
The overview the results of a full-scale inventory and long-term monitoring observations of the occurrence and abundance of butterflies in Specially Protected Natural Areas of the Komi Republic is presented in this paper. It has been established that the republican network of protected areas includes habitats of 115 representatives of the superfamily (about 86% of the composition of the regional fauna). It is concluded that most of the protected areas of the Komi Republic of federal and republican significance a fully performing the function of preserving species diversity, the landscape-zonal structure of the fauna and the spatial-typological structure of the Lepidoptera population of the Papilionoidea superfamily in the northeast of the Russian Plain and in the northern regions of the Ural Mountains. The IUCN assessment of the risk of extinction the Lepidoptera suggests that the network of protected areas of the Komi Republic plays a crucial role in the conservation of the gene pool of species included in the regional Red Book. To meet these challenges, it is necessary to organize monitoring observations of the state of populations the rare species and the dynamics of species diversity the butterflies in support protected areas and in key habitats.
Keywords: Butterflies, protected natural areas, Red Data Book, Komi Republic.
Article published in number 3 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-3-160-167
Views: 16

Resource efficiency and environmental performance of electroplating processes: water consumption aspects

E.G. Vinokurov, Kh.A. Nevmyatullina, T.V. Guseva, I.S. Kuroshe
Section: Ecologization of industry
The article analyses opportunities for enhancing resource and environmental efficiency of modern electroplating processes. These parameters highly depend on metal and water use efficiency. Water is consumed primarily for washing details after the plating. Authors analyse reasons for changing water intensity of electroplating processes and opportunities for reducing water consumption while implementing Best Available Techniques (BAT). Data on solution carry-over published in the research literature, norms and standards are compared. Various periods of the technology development and environmental regulation are considered (1939 to date). Specific water consumption grows since 1970s which is caused both by the increase of concentrations of main components of technological solutions and by the introduction of GOST 9.047-75 standard. The standard sets an elevated solution carry-over value: if in 1959–1968, this value varied between 0.055 and 0.073 L/m2 , in 1972 the new value was set at 0.2 L/m2 . Authors assume that this decision was caused by the environmental regulation requirements which became more stringent at that time. Increased solution carry-over norms allowed using water to dilute wastewater and thereby to reduce concentrations of contaminants. The average solution carry-over value is 0.065 L/m2 , while the most probable values vary between 0.04 and 0.08 L/m2 and may be considered as environmentally and resource sound when setting BAT requirements for designing electroplating processes. For the two-stage washing process, parameter (qK1/2) is calculated. This parameter characterises the specific washing water volume. Annual water consumption in the electroplating processes is assessed. The consumption calculated based on existing norms, varies from 3.4 to 6.2 mln m3 per year; it is 2.5 times higher than the consumption reported in the research articles.
Keywords: environmental performance, resource efficiency, electroplating, water consumption, solution carry-over, metal coating, washwater

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Article published in number 3 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-3-118-125
Views: 11

The influence of some factors on cyanobacteria and algae biodiversity in karst speleogenesis

Sh.R. Abdullin
Section: Population ecology
The biodiversity of underground habitats is of considerable interest from different standpoints, but information on the biota of the caves is incomplete and fragmentary. In this regard, the identification of different factors that influence the richness of species of various organisms, including cyanobacteria and algae, is important. 166 different samples, which were collected in 2007-2012 from 14 karst caves of natural origin, located in various climatic zones of Russia, were investigated. 121 species and intraspecific taxa of cyanobacteria and algae belonging to five phyla (Cyanobacteria, Bacillariophyta, Ochrophyta, Chlorophyta, Streptophyta) were identified in the studied caves. Based on the obtained material, the influence of some abiotic factors (the stage of karst speleogenesis, the length of the cave, and the area of the entrance, the underlying rocks and the surface climate) on the biodiversity of cyanobacteria and algae was analyzed using statistical methods. The speleogenesis stage (the influence of the factor is 118.419, p < 0.05) most effect on the species richness of cyanobacteria and algae in the studied caves that directly related to the level of water. Also the underlying rocks (the influence of the factor is 34.665, p < 0.05) and the length of the cave (the influence of the factor is 20.288, p < 0.05) effect on the biodiversity of cyanobacteria and algae in these caves. It was revealed that the relationship between the total number of species of cyanobacteria and algae and the various stages of speleogenesis is statistically significant (p < 0.05), and the species richness of these organisms decreases from the corridor-grotto stage to the corridor-grotto-chamber stage. The number of species of Cyanobacteria and Bacillariophyta also decreased statistically significantly (p < 0.05) in the stages of karst speleogenesis: corridor-grotto, corridor-grotto-lake, corridor-grotto-chamber.
Keywords: cyanobacteria and algae, biodiversity, abiotic factors, the stages of karst speleogenesis, caves, Russia

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Article published in number 3 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-3-147-152
Views: 12

New environmentally friendly microbiological composition for comprehensive protection of wheat from diseases and pests

R.M. Khairullin, R.Sh. Irgalina, N.A. Urazbakhtina, I.V. Maksimov
Section: Agroecology
The multifunctional biopreparation (MB) containing bacterial cells of Bacillus subtilis 26D (ARRIAM 128), Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. thuringiensis (VKPM B–5689) and Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki (VKPM B–6066) for increasing crop yields and protect them from pests and diseases was developed. Assessment of protective and growth-stimulating properties of MB in the field revealed that two-time treatment of spring wheat plants Vatan variety with the 2 kg/ha MB allowed obtaining the maximum increase of harvest. It amounted to 0.48 t/ha of grain in comparison with the control (water treatment). The efficiency of MB application for protection of wheat against aphids was 100%. The use of a single and double concentration of mixture of biofungicide Phytosporin–М (B. subtilis 26D, 2×109 CFU/g, 1 kg/ha and 2 kg/ha) and bioinsecticide Bitoxybacillin (1 kg/ha and 2 kg/ha) did not allow to obtain an effect equal to MB influence. The developed ecological safety microbiological consortium was recommended as the basis of biopreparation with multifunctional activity
Keywords: Microbiological preparation, Bacillus sp., wheat and potato protection.
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Article published in number 3 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-3-168-171
Views: 19

Experience of transplanting a population of a red book plant species in the conditions of the beginning of reconstruction works in the protected area of the oil pipeline

T.А. Trifonova, A.А. Martsev, O.G. Selivanov, O.V. Saveliev
Section: Population ecology
The article highlights the experience of transplanting Anemone nemorosa L. listed in the Red Book of Vladimir Region as a rare species (status category 3). A special feature of this work is the transplantation of A. nemorosa in the autumn period, in connection with the beginning of the reconstruction works in the protected zone of the oil pipeline at the place of A. nemorosa natural growth. To further preserve the native population of A. nemorosa in natural conditions, a new transplant site was chosen which is close in ecological and phytocenotic conditions to the place of natural growth and does not fall into the zone of reconstruction works. The work was coordinated with the relevant state environmental organizations. The article provides data on the geobotanical description of the source and recipient habitats of A. nemorosa, presents the results of chemical analysis of soils, assesses the viability of transplanted plants, and describes step-bystep the method of transplanting this type of plant. Over the next two years, spring phenological observations showed that A. nemorosa successfully underwent an autumn transplant and adapted to a new location. Monitoring studies have confirmed the stability of the formed artificial population of A. nemorosa, which is an important factor for self-renewal of the population, conservation of the biological diversity of rare and endangered plants, and the integrity of the ecosystem of this territory. The developed technique for transplanting Anemone nemorosa in late autumn allows, in some cases, to push the time limits for translocation of rare and endangered plant species, and to preserve valuable populations in the cases of a real anthropogenic impact.
Keywords: Anemone nemorosa, anthropogenic transformation, oil pipeline, rare and endangered species, translocation
Article published in number 3 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-3-140-146
Views: 11

Study of metabolites of Streptomyces carpaticus RCAM04697 for the creation of environmentally friendly plant protection products

Yu.V. Bataeva, L.N. Grigoryan, E.A. Kurashov, J.V. Krylova, E.V. Fedorova, E.J. Iavid, V.V. Khodonovich, L.V. Yakovleva
Section: Agroecology
In the Astrakhan region, in the conditions of an arid extreme climate with a semi-desert landscape, communities of soil actinomycetes with specific properties are formed. The strain Streptomyces carpaticus RCAM04697 was isolated from saline soils in the arid zone. The qualitative and quantitative composition of low molecular weight organic compounds (LMWOCs) in suspension and extracts (hexanic, water-alcoholic (50/50), methanolic) of this strain, which has antiviral, insectoacaricidal, fungicidal and phytostimulating properties, was studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer SHIMADZU GCMS-QP2010 Ultra. Mass spectra were recorded in the scanning mode for the full mass range (30-1090 m/z) in the programmed temperature mode. The detected LMWOCs were identified using the mass spectrum libraries "NIST-2014" and " Wiley". GC/MS-analysis of metabolites of the strain showed that the identified LMWOCs have valuable properties from an agricultural point of view: bactericidal (2-methylpentane-2,4-diol); fungicidal (2-methylpentane-2,4-diol); insecticidal (propan-2-yl tetradecanoate). GC/MS analysis showed that the hexane extract of the strain S. carpaticus RCAM04697 had the largest number of metabolites-13 LMWOCs, whereas the methanol extract contained only 3 LMWOCs. It should be noted that the identified metabolites confirm our earlier information that the suspension and extracts (hexanic, water-alcoholic (50/50), methanolic) of S. carpaticus RCAM04697 strain can be used as a basis for creating biological plant protection products with high biological effectiveness with insecticidal, acaricidal, fungicidal, bactericidal properties. Streptomycetes are an inexhaustible source of new biologically active substances that can be used in plant protection, agronomy, medicine, and veterinary medicine. Thus, we consider it necessary to continue research in the field of studying the properties of actinomycete metabolites, in particular, streptomycetes, due to the need to decipher the ecological and biochemical mechanisms of their existence, characterized by the great potential in various industries, and especially in the field of environmental agrotechnologies.
Keywords: streptomycetes, metabolites, suspension, extract, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
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Article published in number 3 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-3-172-178
Views: 15

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