The effect of CuSO4 solutions with Cu2+ ion concentrations equal to 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mg/dm3 with the addition of reduced glutathione (GSH) and without it to soil cyanobacteria (CB) of Nostoc paludosum 18 was studied. The duration of exposure of the culture with solutions was 72 hours. During the experiment, the formation of biofilms of the CB from the homogenate was observed, as an indicator of the recovery of the initial population; measured the concentration of dissolved O2 in suspensions of the CB; determined the proportion of CB cells capable of forming formazan from 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride as an indicator of the viability of the culture.
Under the action of CuSO4, the culture of the CB violated the ability to form biofilms in solutions with concentrations of Cu2+ 1 mg/dm3 or more without the addition of GSH and at Cu2+ concentrations equal to 3 or more mg/dm3 in the presence of tripeptide. By changing the concentration of dissolved O2, it was not possible to diagnose the toxicity of the solution with a concentration of 1 mg Cu2+ /dm3 throughout the experiment. In a solution with a concentration of 2 mg Cu2+ /dm3, the average degree of toxicity was established after three days of exposure. The medium and low degrees of toxicity were detected in solutions with Cu2+ concentrations of 3–5 mg/dm3 after one day of exposure. With an increase in the concentration of Cu2+, the dehydrogenase activity of the CB decreased by 50% or more compared to the control. Solutions with GSH are less toxic than similar solutions without the addition of GSH. The most acceptable test function for the action of copper(II) ions with their concentrations in the solution exceeding the MPC is the dehydrogenase activity of the N. paludosum CB with a titer of 2•107 cells. /cm3.
Keywords: cyanobacteria, copper (II) ions, glutathione, toxicity
Article published in number 3 for 2019 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-3-101-108
Heavy metals in soil–plant system in biogeocenoses of the Bolshezemelskaya Tundra
G.Ya. El`kina, S.V. Deneva, E.M. Lapteva
Section: Monitoring of natural and anthropogenically disturbed areas
Biological cycle, content, and stocks of heavy metals in plant organic matter are an interesting study topic for both
ecological description of biogeocenoses and ecological monitoring. The biocenosis includes three plant communities as
dwarf shrub-mossy (65.6), dwarf shrub-lichen-mossy (17.9), and dwarf shrub-lichen (16.5% of total area) communities.
Soils are Histic Turbic Cryosols under dwarf shrub-mossy community and Histic Cryosols under lichens. Weight fraction
of elements in samples was measured by the method of atomic-emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma
SPECTROARCOS. Soil samples for total ratio of elements were treated by the microwave frequency mineralizer Minotavr
2 (Russia, Lumex Ltd). Mobile forms were carried out of soil samples with the help of 1N ammonium acetate buffer solution
(AAB) with pH 4.8 for exchange forms, and an outflow in acid digest (1M НСl extract) for acid-soluble forms. Heavy metals in plants were assessed after they had been decomposed using nitric acid-hydrogen peroxide mixture in the microwave
frequency mineralizer Minotavr 1 for the method of spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (PND F 16.1:2.3:3.11-98).
Copper and zinc have a high, cadmium – mean, and cobalt, nickel, lead – low frequency rate of biological cycle.
Frequency rate of cycle for the majority of elements in lichen communities is high in contrast to leafy moss communities.
Mosses slow down cycle of elements and hold them in dead material for long time. Composition of elements in soils under
communities normally is the same as that in plants. Organic soil horizon of tundra biocenoses should be considered as a
surface soil-geochemical barrier with a slow elemental cycle. Mineral soil part has high concentrations of zinc and low – of
cadmium. Besides, concentrations of copper, zinc, nickel, and cadmium is similar to worldwide mean values but concentrations of cobalt and lead slightly exceed them. Differences in profile distribution of elements relate to physical-chemical
properties of elements, complex redox conditions of soils due to permafrost and cryoturbation processes. Also, they depend
on composition of plant communities.
Keywords: Heavy metals, biogeochemical cycle, Bolshezemelskaya tundra, biogeocenosis, biomass
Article published in number 3 for 2019 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-3-041-047
Application of ground-based research methods for the diagnostics of pollution and eutrophication of water reservoirs of the Kirov region
Т.I. Kutyavina, Т.Ya. Аshikhmina, L.V. Kondakova
Section: Methodology and research methods. Models and forecasts
The status of the four largest reservoirs of the Kirov region was assessed using a set of methods for physicochemical, bioindicative and microbiological analyzes. The combinatorial index of water pollution (CIWP), the specific combinatorial index of water pollution (SCIWP), and water quality classes are defined. It has been established that in terms of chemical indices CIWP decreases in the series: Bol’shoye Kirsinskoye → Omutninskoye → Chernokholunitskoye → Belokholunitskoye reservoirs. It has been shown that ammonium nitrogen and organic substances make the largest contribution to the pollution of reservoirs. The maximum permissible concentrations for reservoirs of cultural and domestic use (MPCc-d.) for total iron (from 2 to 9.5 MPCc-d.) are exceeded in all objects of study, in the Bol’shoye Kirsinskoye reservoir – on bichromate oxidation (COD) (1.6–1.7 MPCc-d.). In the Omutninsky reservoir, indicator plants for the presence of organic pollution were found – Typha latifolia L. and Рotamogeton natans L., which is consistent with the COD value (53 mgO/dm3). It is established the positive reaction of Lemna minor L., L. trisulca L., Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid. to the increased content of ammonium nitrogen in the place of sewage discharge into the Omutninsky reservoir, where the ammonium content was 2.1 times higher compared to other parts of the reservoir.
Based on the microbiological analysis of the water of the Omutninsky reservoir, the mesosaprobic zone of the reservoir (central and dam sections) was detected, as evidenced by the ratio of biological oxygen consumption during 5 days to permanganate oxidation (an average of 27%).
Keywords: reservoir, water pollution index, saprobity, eutrophication, phytoindication
Section: Methodology and research methods. Models and forecasts
The possibilities of using multispectral data of remote sensing of the Earth and field research to highlight plant communities
using the example of the Pizhemsky State Nature Reserve (SNR) of the Kirov region are shown. The Pizhemsky
SNR is defined as a complex (landscape) reserve. It is especially valuable for maintaining the integrity, protection and
restoration of aquatic biogeocenoses, preserving in the natural state of the unique natural objects of the region.
Selection of plant communities in the Pizhemsky reserve with the use of remote sensing data was carried out
in several stages: pre-field cameral, field expeditionary and office generalizing. The pre-field cameral stage included
the selection of satellite images from the Landsat 7 and Sentinel 2 satellites and their interpretation to isolate areas
of vegetation that are homogeneous in interpretation. At this stage, several areas that were homogeneous in terms of
certain features (color, microtexture of the pattern, phototones, etc.) were identified, caused by various natural objects
and plant communities of the region. In the field expeditionary stage, work was carried out to identify vegetation types
on the ground. The characteristic of plant communities was carried out according to generally accepted geobotanical
The peculiarities of the coenotic composition of forests in the reserve were studied. The composition of the plant
communities of the Pizhemsky SNR reflects the characteristic zonal features of the vegetation of the studied region and
is associated with certain landscape elements. Based on the analysis of the available cartographic material and satellite
images, it has been established floodplain meadows occupy more than 60% of the study area, forests – about 20%. In
order to identify plant communities, the most characteristic and most accessible direct interpretation features (phototone,
shape, structure) were selected. In addition, we used the synthesis of standard combinations of “artificial colors”
channels from the Landsat 7 and Sentinel 2 satellites, which made it possible to identify grassy communities, deciduous
and coniferous forests. The completed classification with training provided important information on the distribution
of the majority of plant communities typical for the region. The NDVI vegetation index made it possible to isolate pine,
deciduous forests and meadow phytocenoses, as well as to recognize water bodies and open soils.
Article published in number 2 for 2019 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-2-039-043
Electrochemical obtaining of nickel hydroxide from nickel plating waste water for application in the alkali secondary cells
V.L. Kovalenko, V.A. Kotok, V.V. Malyshev
Section: Ecologization of industry
The rinsing and wastewater of the plating industry, containing the heavy metal cations, are the source of environmental pollution. Nickel cushions have a strong biological hazard. At the same time, up to 30% of nickel compounds spent on nickel plating are irretrievably lost to the rinsing water. Purification of the rinsing and wastewater from heavy metal cations is expansive. It’s economical effective to develop the methods of local treatment of plating rinsing water with the recovery of the heavy metals in the easy utilizing forms. The hydroxide is the most perspective for nickel, which, if it has high electrochemical activity, can be used for alkaline secondary cell production. The method of electrochemical synthesis of the nickel hydroxide in the slit diaphragm electrolyzer from the rinsing water of bright nickel plating has been proposed. The treatment of rinsing water of the bright nickel plating for surfactants recovery has been made. The samples of nickel hydroxide, obtained from treated and untreated rinsing water, have been studied by XRD, voltammogram and charge-discharge cycling in the secondary cell regime. The comparative analysis shows that even the nickel hydroxide sample, obtained from untreated rinsing water, can be used as an active substance of the positive electrode of alkaline secondary cells. This sample’s specific capacity is 142 mА•h/g with cost is 4 $/kg (in comparison with 182 mА•h/g and 18-22 $/kg for industrial sample). It was detected that the nickel hydroxide sample, obtained from the rinsing water of bright nickel plating after purification from surfactant by bubble-film extraction, has the highest parameters. In this case specific capacity is 194 mА•h/g compared 182 mА•h/g for the industrial sample produced «Boсhemiе» (Czechia).
Modern problems of ensuring ecological safety of consumer products in the Russian Federation are considered, and also
measures for improvement of the mechanism of regulation of quality and ecological safety in the sphere of consumption are offered.
The methodological basis of the research is the analytical method, which allows to consider the practice of regulation of
the environmental safety of products, the formal legal method, which allows to reveal the systemic connections in legal regulation,
regulatory features of legal acts, law enforcement practice in Russia and abroad.
The directions of public administration in the field of environmental safety in terms of improving the legislation in the
field of environmental requirements for production are analyzed. The criteria for greener products are reviewed, the need to
raise awareness among consumers about the product’s properties is identified. Practical problems and directions of further
development of legislation on environmental safety of products are determined.
The problem in the regulation of quality and safety of products is the presence of a large number of evaluation concepts
that carry the initial risk in the regulation of relations between sellers and consumers. The social significance of food, its key
role in ensuring human activity causes an increased interest on the part of the state.
Product safety management is carried out by the state within the framework of technical regulation. Exceeding the
maximum permissible levels of product safety indicators makes it dangerous for consumption. The world food industry uses a
system of hazard analysis according to established criteria. Through the system of hazard analysis at critical points, a technology
for the safety of the products was created. In a free market, the legislature has significantly reduced the degree of public
danger for violations in the field of environmental safety of products.
The model of legal regulation of product safety issues is based on mandatory technical regulations as framework for regulatory
documents. According to the authors, the legislation should be developed in the direction of regulation of environmental
protection from the effects of hazardous products. For environmentally hazardous products, all production processes should
be regulated, including product operation, transportation, storage, disposal, i.e. at all stages of the life cycle. In solving this
problem, it is important to ensure the optimal combination
Article published in number 2 for 2019 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-2-131-136
Biosorption of heavy metals by micromycetes: specificity of the process, mechanisms, kinetics
Skugoreva S.G., Kantor G.Ya., Domracheva L.I.
Section: Theoretical problems of ecology
One of the ways to remove heavy metal (HM) compounds from the environment is biosorption. Most studies on
biosorption are carried out on microorganisms, among which micromycetes occupy leading positions. They have a high
degree of adaptation and resistance to the action of HM, are able to accumulate and transform HM compounds, show high sorption activity in relation to them. A feature of the cell wall of micromycetes is the predominance of polysaccharides
(in particular, chitin), and the presence of melanins. Fungi biomolecules have different functional groups in
their composition, the donor atoms of which (binding sites) cause binding to the HM ions. The nature of the binding
can be explained from the standpoint of the Pearson acid-base principle (concept of HSAB – hard and soft acids and
bases). The article provides an overview of the literature data on the sorption capacity of micromycetes of various classes,
genera and species to various HM.
Fundamental to understanding the process of biosorption is knowledge about the mechanism of the process. Based
on cell metabolism, biosorption mechanisms can be classified into metabolism-independent and metabolism-dependent.
Based on the location of biosorption, the following are distinguished: 1) intracellular accumulation; 2) extracellular
accumulation and sedimentation; 3) sorption and precipitation on the cell surface. The mechanisms belonging to the
first two groups are dependent on metabolism and are due to the processes of complex formation, precipitation, and ion
exchange; and the last group of mechanisms is also adsorption (physical and chemical sorption). The article discusses
the basics of the mechanisms, their causes, features and examples of micromycetes, in which this mechanism prevails.
One of the most important characteristics of the HM sorption by biological objects is the dependence of the sorption
rate on the process parameters, which is described by the kinetic sorption equation. The article discusses the most
common models for the description of bisorption: the pseudo-first and pseudo-second order model, the Elovich equation,
and the parabolic diffusion model.
Keywords: micromycetes, heavy metal ions, biosorption, mechanisms of biosorption, kinetics of biosorption
Article published in number 2 for 2019 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-2-014-031
Problems of state regulation of the organization of protection zones for hunting resources
Section: Social ecology
The subject of the research is the legislation regulating the organization of zones of protection of hunting resources.
On the basis of theoretical assumptions, analysis of normative-legal acts, the author identifies areas and proposes
concrete measures to improve legislation and law enforcement practice in the field of territorial protection of hunting
resources (wild animals being objects of hunting). Work was carried out on the basis of a systematic approach using
formal-logical and comparative legal research methods. The author comes to the conclusion about the absence of Federal
legislation defining zones of protection of hunting resources, their inventory, and regulatory uncertainty of their legal
status. Therefore, at the level of constituent entities of the Russian Federation there is a wide practice of organization of
natural-territorial complexes as zones of protection of hunting resources, self-determination of the regions of their legal
regime that does not always meet the requirements of Federal law and is based on a single evidence-based paradigm.
The study identified a conflict of norms of the Federal faunistic legislation, the effect of having a different understanding
of the order of creation of such territories. In particular, it is shown on concrete examples that the zone of protection of
hunting resources can be established by decisions of the Supreme officials of constituent entities of the Russian Federation,
higher Executive bodies of state power of subjects of the Russian Federation, competent Executive authorities of
special competence of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, long-term hunting users (business entities,
which hunting resources made available for a period of 20 to 49 years). Based on the analysis of legal acts in the field of
protection and use of objects of the animal world, it is concluded that only decisions on the organization of these territories
accepted by the Federal executive bodies or the highest executive bodies of subjects of the Russian Federation are valid.
Defects of legal matter do not contribute to ensuring the sustainability and rational use of hunting resources, which is
a violation of public environmental interests in order to improve legal regulation in this field. It is offered to define the list of protection zones of hunting resources in the branch normative-legal acts, their legal status, fix the organization
of zones of protection of hunting resources as suggested in the articl
Keywords: zone of protection of hunting resources, biotechnical measures, hunting, biological diversity
Article published in number 1 for 2019 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-1-122-128
“Smart” state regulation in the sphere of environmental protection and nature management
M.A. Kostenko, O.V. Popova, M. Lutovac
Section: Social ecology
The main purpose of spreading the concept of “smart” state regulation to the environment area is natural protection
for future generations. A special place in the solution of problems of environmental sustainability, environmental protection
and nature management belongs to legal means, and norm-setting in this area should be outstripping in nature.
Important legal acts have already been adopted to address environmental problems, the central one being the development
of the list of “best available technologies”, and their implementation will make a significant step in achieving sanitary
standards of harmful environmental impact indicators. At the same time, the change of Russia’s main environmental indexes
show an increase in the negative impact on the environment and this growth will continue in parallel with the development
of the economy, which requires the development of new measures of influence based on the ideas of the concept of “smart”
The concept of “smart” state regulation in the sphere of environmental protection and nature management is aimed at
the introduction of integrated assessment procedures of decisions and allows purposeful influencing the economic activities
of legal entities and individual entrepreneurs, to build as a matter of fact the individual trajectory of legal regulation of their
activities in this area. Authors are encouraged to use the Assessment of the Negative Environmental Impact (ANEI) and
the Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) in preparing regulatory and law enforcement decisions. This allows “flexibly” to
influence environmental decisions, more rational use of legal means and synchronize legal regulation with tasks in the field
of environmental protection and nature management. It also helps to form an eco-consciousness in the business community.
Keywords: policy of “smart” state regulation, legislation, best available techniques, assessment of the negative environmental impact, regulatory impact assessment, eco-consciousness
Article published in number 1 for 2019 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-1-116-121
Ethnoecology of the Slavic World: application significance on the Eurasian space
I.Yu. Trushkova, T.Ya. Ashikhmina, L.V. Kondakova
Section: Social ecology
Ecology is a science dealing with relations of living organisms with the environment and the ways of sustaining the
harmonious balance in the world. Ecological approach determines the attitude of the people to the environment, it is the
basis of their worldview, their behavior and culture. Ecologically oriented economy management and human behavior
mean tendency of the mankind to nature preserving and keeping their environment healthy. Using ethnocultural experience
helps to save financial, human, and natural resources, contributes to ecologization of industry and agriculture, and
to spread ecological culture among the population. It was stated that ethnocultural inheritance of the Slavs contains a
whole set of economic and everyday-life domestic rules of dealing with the environment, with the nature. “Ecological
inclusion” of people in the natural environment helped to avoid stress, strain, conflicts in the society and conflicts of the
society with the nature. Ecological experience of the Slavs is to be used in the process of ecologization of agricultural
production and everyday life, as well as in development of ecological education and enlightening.
Keywords: ethnoculture of the Slavs, sustainable nature management, ecology of the living space, ecology of clothing, art-therapy, ethnoecological education
Article published in number 1 for 2019 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2019-1-111-115