Statistical analysis of the relationship between heavy metal accumulation and plants biochemical responses in the urban area
A.S. Petukhov, T.A. Kremleva, N.A. Khritokhin, G.A. Petukhova
Section: Chemistry of natural environments and objects
This study is devoted to heavy metal accumulation (Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Co, Cr) in soils and coltsfoot leaves
from the industrial area of Tyumen impact on biochemical parameters of plants. Regression and factor analysis were
conducted using data of heavy metal concentration in coltsfoot, heavy metals mobile and acid-soluble fraction in soils,
and biochemical parameters (concentration of photosynthetic pigments, lipid peroxidation products, phenols, flavonoids,
activity of catalase and peroxidase). Samples were collected during 2017–2020 in Tyumen at areas with different pollution level (n = 28). Regression analysis established equations linking photosynthetic pigments content with Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn concentration in soils and coltsfoot. Phenolic antioxidants negatively correlate with Cu and Mn content in plants. Regression equations allow predicting Fe, Zn, and Cu concentration in coltsfoot by its content in the soil. Factor analysis revealed photosynthetic pigments to be the most important biochemical parameter in plants adaption to heavy
metal accumulation. Probably, this is due to plants’ elevated need in energy in polluted conditions. According to factor
analysis, Pb accumulation in plants contributes the most to the biochemical change. Cd and Pb concentration in soil
mostly conditions plants stress from heavy metal soil pollution.
Keywords: heavy metals, soils, plants, photosynthesis, antioxidants, urban area
Article published in number 1 for 2023 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-1-083-092
Developing a system of environmental indicators reflecting the water management aspects of an enterprise in the light of sustainable development
S.A. Dvinskikh, O.V. Larchenko, M.A. Oskina
Section: Ecologization of industry
The negative consequences of the enterprise production activities in the current conditions have a significant destructive effect on the state of the environment, including water resources. In recent decades, the shortage of fresh water is increasing everywhere and occurs in regions where it has not existed before. The reason is the expansion of water consumption by both the population and the growing economy. There are two reasons for water scarcity. First, the decrease in the amount of water resources due to the consumption of water by industry, agriculture and people; indirect water losses as a result of deforestation, drainage of reservoirs and swamps. Secondly, water pollution, which is equivalent to the loss of fresh water reserves; in terms of volume, water pollution can significantly exceed the volume of water directly used in production and everyday life. We have proposed a method for assessing the water deficit based on the calculation of the integral index of water resources. It allows us to draw a conclusion about the contribution of the enterprise under study to the formation (or the absence of formation) of the water deficit of the territory. The index is the geometric mean of the two indicators. The wastewater discharge indicator characterizes the quality of water resources, and the water use
indicator characterizes their quantity. The limit values of the indicators and the integral index are equal to one, its excess indicates the occurrence of water shortage. The proposed methodology was used in assessing the possible occurrence of a quantitative and qualitative shortage of water resources in the territory of influence of a large mining enterprise located in the northeast of the Perm Krai. It has been established that the region under study is characterized by the absence of a water deficit in terms of the number of water resources even in extremely dry years. Specific water supply per 1 inhabitant is characterized as “average”. Its value will not decrease even with the planned increase in water intake for the needs of the enterprise for the period up to 2030. However, there is a shortage in the quality of water bodies. We’ve identified the wastewater outlets, which are characterized by an excess of the discharge indicator for all elements during the period under review. This requires taking measures to reduce the concentrations of pollutants in the discharged waters. The proposed integral indicator can be used when planning the activities of an enterprise in the light of sustainable development.
Keywords: sustainable development, enterprise, water resources, indicator, index, water management balance, water supply, wastewater, scarcity, water quality
Article published in number 1 for 2023 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-1-140-147
Size-age and histomorphological indicators of the Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) of Putorana Nature Reserve
I.S. Nekrasov, A.G. Selyukov
Section: Population ecology
In waterbodies of high latitudes, ichthyofauna of the boreal foothill complex is highly sensitive to unfavorable factors. Poorly studied and extremely vulnerable freshwater ecosystems of the Subarctic require an especially close attention, considering conditions of global climate changes and increasing anthropogenic impact. An important method of their protection is creation of Specially Protected Natural Areas (SPNA) with purpose of preserving natural ecosystems in their intact state. However, territories that are not subjects of anthropogenic influence are extremely rare presently. While studying the Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) of the Irkinda River (the Putorana Plateau), flowing through the territory of Putorana Reserve, some histopathologies pointing on an unstable ecological situation in this region were revealed. The noted initial stages of pathological process in branchial apparatus, namely - hyperplasia, aneurysms, fusion of respiratory lamellae, and an increase of cells layers in intercalary epithelium - indicate suppression of respiratory function. The reproductive system is less affected, but abnormalities are also found in it. Resorption of vitellogenic oocytes was revealed in 83% of individuals. Moreover, all the males of the Arctic grayling took part in the past spawning, while the number of spawned females was not more than 67%.
Article published in number 1 for 2023 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-1-117-124
Integral classification of air quality in European cities
V.S. Tikunov, S.K. Belousov
Section: Monitoring of natural and anthropogenically disturbed areas
The article presents a method of integral assessment of air quality in European. The approaches to the integrated assessment of air quality in Russia and other countries have a number of significant differences in the set of used indicators and in the methodology for obtaining its integral characteristics. The air pollution index (IZA) used in Russia is cumulative and includes hazardous pollutants with low absolute concentrations, while the Air Quality Index (AQI) widely used in Europe and the United States shows the quality of atmospheric air by the largest pollutant without considering the hazard classes of substances. This leads to weak compatibility of assessments made in Russia and those made in other countries. In the study, the Air Quality Index and the Index of Atmospheric Pollution were calculated, as well as their comparison was carried out for European cities. The results obtained using two approaches to the assessment make it possible to reduce shortcomings of indices and give a more detailed characterization of the air quality in cities. The research shows that multiparameter classification made by one of air quality indices perform weak, but using both indices at the same time significantly improve results. It is possible to make a relevant cities air quality classification by the main pollutants using both AQI and IZA. Cities in air quality classes form clear-cut clusters that strongly correlate with current economical zoning in Europe.
Keywords: integral indices, air quality, air quality index, multiparameter pollutant classification
Article published in number 1 for 2023 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-1-047-055
To estimation of the probability of human primary incidence growth in the conditions of a natural biogeochemical province without endemic diseases
E.A. Malkova, E.V. Mikheeva, I.A. Kshnyasev
Section: Social ecology
The article is dedicated to the human population primary morbidity in the natural biogeochemical province with heavy metal abundance (nickel, cobalt, chromium). In the studied region the concentrations of chemical elements, which form province, do not reach the endemic diseases limits. To investigate a five-year period human morbidity, the retrospective method was used. To classify the studied diseases, the International Classification of Diseases of the tenth revision was applied.
The primary morbidity investigations were carried through three territories: nickel-cobalt-chromium natural
biogeochemical province, the Ekaterinburg megapolis, the biogeochemical background region, that are situated in the Sverdlovsk region of Russian Federation. The abnormal soil concentrations of heave metal are from natural ultrabasic rocks chemistry origin. For morbidity odds analysis the generalized linear model was used; and canonical correspondence analysis was used for the investigation of morbidity structure. Statistically significant differences in the structure of primary morbidity of three investigated territories were found. The maximum level of primary morbidity odds was found in the natural biogeochemical province.
The odds of the primary occurrence of the circulatory system diseases in the province are 3.44 times higher than in megapolis (Ekaterinburg) and 2.57 times higher than in a biogeochemical background with a similar age structure of the studied population. The respiratory diseases odds in the provinces are 1.49 and 1.85 times higher than in the Ekaterinburg and biogeochemical background respectively. The musculoskeletal system diseases risk in the biogeochemical province is 2.5 and 1.38 times higher than in the Ekaterinburg and biogeochemical background respectively.
The differences between the populations of the natural biogeochemical province, megapolis, and geochemical background territory are more significant than interannual primary morbidity fluctuations in the each studied population. This indicates a significant risk of non-endemic diseases caused by the natural geochemical factor.
Article published in number 1 for 2023 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-1-186-193
Microscopic fungi in the soils of forest ecosystems of the Voronezh State Natural Biosphere Reserve
N.N. Nazarenko, I.D. Svistova
Section: Population ecology
The species diversity is estimated and the composition of soil microscopic fungi (micromycetes) characteristic of forest ecosystems of the typical forest-steppe subzone is revealed. The study of mycobiota was carried out in various biotopes of mixed and broad-leaved forests located on the territory of the Voronezh State Natural Biosphere Reserve (Russia). 43
species of micromycetes from 20 genera belonging to 6 families and 3 classes were isolated and identified from forest soils.
The complex of typical soil micromycetes of the reserve includes 19 species. These are nontoxigenic, slow-growing oligotrophic, mesophilic, and psychrophilic species. The composition of the group included 24 species, mainly fast-growing saprotrophs, among which there are potentially phytopathogenic and toxigenic species. The state of the complex of micromycetes of the reserve’s soils is characterized by high indicators of biodiversity and equalization, and a low index of dominance. According to the gradation accepted in mycology, this corresponds to the adaptive zone of “homeostasis . The results obtained can be used to assess and predict the ecological state of the soils of forest ecosystems using mycoindication in this natural and climatic zone.
Article published in number 1 for 2023 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-1-133-139
Morphological variation in round goby, Neogobius melanostomus (Actinopterygii, Gobiidae) from the Black Sea
Section: Population ecology
The article is focused on the morphological variation in the round goby, Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814) from the western coast of the Crimean Peninsula (Black Sea). A total of thirty-five plastic and seven meristic characters were measured in similar-sized males of the round goby. On average, gobies from the eastern part of the Karkinitsky Bay (the water area of the Bakalskaya Spit and the Samarchik Bay) were larger than those from the other two areas (SLavr = 109.2±0.9 mm and SLavr = 111.0±1.9 mm, respectively), which probably indicates the best trophic conditions in these areas. Gobies from the
Donuzlav Lyman were smaller by the average values of the standard length (SLavr = 87.6±1.3 mm). The differences between average values of the quantitative characteristics of compared samples were statistically significant. It was found that the heterogeneity of the ecological conditions of the habitats made it possible to form various variations of characters in the round goby. It was revealed that at least three population groups of round goby were formed near the western coast of Crimea: one of them was formed by fish from the Donuzlav estuary, the second – by gobies from the Samarchik Bay, the third – by a group of fish from the water area of the Bakalskaya Spit and Yarylgachskaya Bay. As the analysis of the correlations between the plastic characters and the values of the coordinates of the two canonical variables has shown, practically all the studied measurements ensure the discrimination of the samples of the round goby, however, the best discrimination along the first canonical axis (correlation coefficients more than 0.5) is provided by measurements on the body associated with the location of the pectoral, pelvic and anal fins, as well as the parameters of the jaw (length of the upper and lower jaws, distance between the eye and the angle of the mouth, and the width of the mouth). Such differences in the structure of the species population are associated, among other things, with the transformations of the fish population in the eastern part of the Karkinitsky Bay and the Donuzlav Lyman, caused by human economic activity.
Keywords: Round goby, Black Sea, plastic and meristic characters, variability, population
Article published in number 1 for 2023 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-1-125-132
The use of fertilizer mixtures based on sewage sludge and zeolite in oilseed agrocenoses
D.V. Vinogradov, M.P. Makarova, T.V. Zubkova
The article presents the results of research devoted to the study of the effect of fertilizer mixtures based on sewage sludge and zeolite in agrocenoses of oil crops (spring rapeseed variety Ratnik and sunflower variety Poseidon 625). The use of fertilizer mixtures based on sewage sludge and zeolite has intensified the development of the leaf apparatus and generative organs. In spring rape agrocenoses, the number of pods per plant increased from 16.9 to 22.4 and the number of seeds from 196 to 326. In variants with fertilizer mixtures, the productivity of agrocenoses of spring rapeseed was 1.31–1.49 t/ha (plus 17.1–41.9% of the control).When using fertilizer mixtures in sunflower agrocenoses,
1194–1247 seeds were obtained from one basket, which is 17.6–22.9% more than in the control. The yield of oilseeds was 2.37–2.68 t/ha. The highest productivity of oilseeds was noted in the variant with the introduction of sewage sludge and zeolite in a ratio of 1 : 0.75. An important agroecological technique that reduces the negative impact of heavy metals contained in sewage sludge is the use of zeolite, a natural sorbent with a high cation exchange capacity. The use of fertilizer mixtures based on sewage sludge and zeolite led to a decrease in the accumulation of heavy metals in plant products. The total pollution factor decreased by 0.11–0.41 units in variants with spring rape, by 0.10–0.47 units in variants with sunflower. As a result of the studies, conclusions were drawn about the possibility of using fertilizer mixtures consisting of sewage sludge and zeolite in agrocenoses of oilseeds (spring rapeseed and sunflower), provided that the obtained seeds are used for technical purposes.
Keywords: spring rapeseed, sunflower, sewage sludge, zeolite
Article published in number 1 for 2023 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-1-093-100
Phytoremediation potential of willow herb and reed canary grass under conditions of polyelemental pollution
L.M. Shaposhnikova, O.V. Raskosha, N.G. Rachkova
Section: Remediation and rehabilitation
We investigated elemental composition of alluvial-sod soil, which was polluted by spilling radium enriched highly mineralized ground waters (Komi Republic) in 1930–1950s. It was revealed that content of more than 20 chemical elements, including U and 226Ra, some essential and potentially toxic elements, was higher compared to uncontaminated background. Accumulation of these elements in canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) and willow herb (Chamaenerion angustifolium (L.) Scop.) was estimated by bioconcentration factor (BCF) equal to the ratio of the concentrations of chemical elements in the aboveground parts of plants and soils, as well as root barrier factor (RBF), equal to the ratio of the concentration of elements in the underground and aboveground parts of plants. The highest BCFs were more than 11 for potassium in both species and 3.7 and 10.5 for phosphorus in canary grass and willow herb, respectively. BCF for copper in both cases were close to 1. BCFs for Mg, Ca, Zn, Na, Mn and Sr ranged from 0.06 to 0.37. The minimal BCFs (< 0.03) were observed in the case of 226Ra for canary grass and U, Fe, Ba, V, Al, and Pb for both plant species. Transfer from roots to aboveground parts of plants was highest for essential elements K, P, Mg, and Ca (RBF < 1). RBFs of Zn and Cu were < 1 in case of willow herb and > 1 for canary grass. Roots of both plant species accumulated U, 226Ra, Pb, V, As, Al, Fe, Na, Ba, and Sr in higher concentrations than aboveground parts. The obtained data suggests that both plants contribute to decrease in bioavailability of pollutants due to root barrier that reduces the migration of potentially toxic elements from soil to plants and can be potential phytostabilizers for these pollutants. In the case of canary grass, root barrier function observed to greater extent.
The paper describes the possibility of using land spectrometry data and high-resolution satellite images of the PlanetScope grouping to assess weediness of cereal crops. The objects of monitoring were on the territory of the Krasnoyarsk Agricultural Research Institute of Federal Research Center “Krasnoyarsk Science Center of SB RAS” (Middle Siberia, Krasnoyarsk region). For interpretation satellite images, the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) vegetation index was used. Biological assessment of the degree of crops weediness was determined on a four-level scale.
As the result of monitoring wheat crops the influence of weed vegetation on the value of NDVI of agricultural crops was revealed. The average NDVI for wheat planting with a low degree of weediness is higher than the NDVI of wheat plantings with a high degree of weediness. As the result of the analysis of the spectra of cultural and weed vegetation on July 09, 2019, a difference in the value of the spectral brightness coefficient in the near-infrared region was noted, which is mainly connected with different structure of plants. For wheat planting with a strong degree of weediness (3 level) in the near-infrared region, the spectral brightness coefficient reaches 50%, while with a weak degree of weediness (1 level) below 40%. The NDVI analysis of wheat plantings with different levels of weediness during the whole vegetation period showed the same dynamics. However, for fields with a low degree of weediness, the NDVI value reaches 0.5 in the middle of the growing season, while for fields with a high degree of weediness, the NDVI value reaches only 0.35. According to the satellite data, spatial distribution maps of NDVI were constructed in different time of growing season (July 09, 2019 and August 02, 2019). The areas of wheat plantings with different degrees of weediness are reliably revealed on them.