The development of poultry farming is accompanied by a significant increase in the volume of chicken manure produced and its concentration in storage areas, which leads to environmental pollution. The traditional form of manure disposal is its use as an organic fertilizer. The high content of organic matter and mineral nutrition elements in compost prepared on the basis of chicken manure improves the soil structure and promotes soil fertility. However, due to the widespread use of antibiotics in poultry farming, fertilizers based on bird droppings can affect the antibiotic resistance of the soil and, as a result, contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance among clinically significant microorganisms. In this regard, it is relevant to assess the effect of fresh and fermented chicken manure on the antibiotic resistance of the soil used in agricultural production. This paper presents the results of a comparative study of the spectra of resistance to a certain set of antibiotics and the frequency of occurrence of antibiotic–resistant strains among typical soil bacteria – actinomycetes. Actinomycete cultures were isolated from compost based on chicken manure and sod-podzolic soil: after fertilization with compost, during its storage (under the burt) and background, not in contact with bird droppings or compost. Groups of antibiotics have been identified, the resistance to which has increased statistically significantly as a result of using compost based on chicken manure – tetracyclines, rifampicins and quinolones.