Developing a system of environmental indicators reflecting the water management aspects of an enterprise in the light of sustainable development
S.A. Dvinskikh, O.V. Larchenko, M.A. Oskina
Section: Ecologization of industry
The negative consequences of the enterprise production activities in the current conditions have a significant destructive effect on the state of the environment, including water resources. In recent decades, the shortage of fresh water is increasing everywhere and occurs in regions where it has not existed before. The reason is the expansion of water consumption by both the population and the growing economy. There are two reasons for water scarcity. First, the decrease in the amount of water resources due to the consumption of water by industry, agriculture and people; indirect water losses as a result of deforestation, drainage of reservoirs and swamps. Secondly, water pollution, which is equivalent to the loss of fresh water reserves; in terms of volume, water pollution can significantly exceed the volume of water directly used in production and everyday life. We have proposed a method for assessing the water deficit based on the calculation of the integral index of water resources. It allows us to draw a conclusion about the contribution of the enterprise under study to the formation (or the absence of formation) of the water deficit of the territory. The index is the geometric mean of the two indicators. The wastewater discharge indicator characterizes the quality of water resources, and the water use
indicator characterizes their quantity. The limit values of the indicators and the integral index are equal to one, its excess indicates the occurrence of water shortage. The proposed methodology was used in assessing the possible occurrence of a quantitative and qualitative shortage of water resources in the territory of influence of a large mining enterprise located in the northeast of the Perm Krai. It has been established that the region under study is characterized by the absence of a water deficit in terms of the number of water resources even in extremely dry years. Specific water supply per 1 inhabitant is characterized as “average”. Its value will not decrease even with the planned increase in water intake for the needs of the enterprise for the period up to 2030. However, there is a shortage in the quality of water bodies. We’ve identified the wastewater outlets, which are characterized by an excess of the discharge indicator for all elements during the period under review. This requires taking measures to reduce the concentrations of pollutants in the discharged waters. The proposed integral indicator can be used when planning the activities of an enterprise in the light of sustainable development.
Keywords: sustainable development, enterprise, water resources, indicator, index, water management balance, water supply, wastewater, scarcity, water quality
Article published in number 1 for 2023 DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2023-1-140-147