The dependence of the adsorption efficiency on the oil sorbent surface on the pH of the immobilization medium, Al3+ concentration and the duration of the suspension of cells and carrier contact, was investigated for oil-oxidizing actinobacteria Rhodococcus erythropolis F1 (ВКМ Ac-2271) by the full factorial experiment method. Tolerance of growth and hydrocarbon-oxidizing activity of rhodococci to selected experimental factors in the used ranges of values was experimentally proved. The obtained optimized conditions of immobilization provide the increasing of R. erythropolis F1 immobilizing cells proportion from 34.0 to 69.7%. A similar increasing was also found for five different strains of genus Rhodococcus and Gordonia, significantly distinguishing in terms of cell surface hydrophobicity (hydrophobicity index vary from 10% in the case of Rhodococcus sp. J12 up to 88% in case of Rhodococcus sp. J8). Modeling of biodegradation of crude oil in sea and freshwater conditions using immobilized R. erythropolis F1 cells has shown greater hydrocarbon concentration reduction efficiency in comparison with free non-immobilised cells and empty carrier, applied separately.