ISSN 1995-4301
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ISSN 2618-8406
(Online)

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1 issue of the journal in 2022

4 issue of the journal in 2021

3 issue of the journal in 2021

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Active carbons as an important factor in the sustainable development of the economy and the quality of life of the population

V.M. Mukhin, N.V. Korolev
Section: Social ecology
The article indicates the severity of the environmental threats and pollution of the biosphere. The main route of protection of the biosphere with the use of active carbons (AU) is justified. A modern definition of activated carbon is given as a material with a developed porous structure, having high absorption characteristics for impurities found in the media to be cleaned (air, gases, water and other liquids). A new approach to the evaluation of the adsorption properties of AU, justified by Academician M.M. Dubinin through the adsorption activity per unit volume of AU (mg/cm3 ), is proposed. The possibility of effective use of activated carbon in environmental technologies for the protection of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and man himself as the main object of the biosphere is shown. Special emphasis is placed on the coverage of the most important areas of application of AU that ensure the environmental safety of the Russian Federation, namely, detoxification of soils from pesticide residues, purification of drinking water and wastewater, treatment of waste gases from incinerators. It is shown that the introduction of AU in doses of 100–200 kg/ha into herbicide-contaminated soil allows not only to increase crop yields by 20–80%, but also to obtain environmentally friendly crop products. It is proved that active carbons of the DAS brand based on anthracite with a high volume microporosity (0.17 cm3 /cm3 ) significantly increase the efficiency of drinking water and wastewater treatment. Thus, the sorption capacity of DAS for phenol, as the most common pollutant of natural and waste water, is 2.5–3.5 times higher than that of the industrial sorbent KAD-I based on coal semi-coke. A number of problems of protection of the atmosphere with the use of AU are highlighted. The important role in the use of AU for detoxification of the human body is emphasized. New promising technologies of AU production are described. The need for AU for the Russian Federation in the amount of at least 70,000 tons/year is justified, which allows for the sustainable development of the economy and improving the quality of life of the population.
Keywords: environmental pollution, active carbons, sorbent, biosphere protection technologies, lithosphere, soil detoxification, hydrosphere, water treatment, atmosphere, incineration plants

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Article published in number 4 for 2021
DOI: 10.25750/1995-4301-2021-4-210-217
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